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  • 1
    Publication Date: 2008-03-14
    Description: The Sir2 deacetylase regulates chromatin silencing and lifespan in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. In mice, deficiency for the Sir2 family member SIRT6 leads to a shortened lifespan and a premature ageing-like phenotype. However, the molecular mechanisms of SIRT6 function are unclear. SIRT6 is a chromatin-associated protein, but no enzymatic activity of SIRT6 at chromatin has yet been detected, and the identity of physiological SIRT6 substrates is unknown. Here we show that the human SIRT6 protein is an NAD+-dependent, histone H3 lysine 9 (H3K9) deacetylase that modulates telomeric chromatin. SIRT6 associates specifically with telomeres, and SIRT6 depletion leads to telomere dysfunction with end-to-end chromosomal fusions and premature cellular senescence. Moreover, SIRT6-depleted cells exhibit abnormal telomere structures that resemble defects observed in Werner syndrome, a premature ageing disorder. At telomeric chromatin, SIRT6 deacetylates H3K9 and is required for the stable association of WRN, the factor that is mutated in Werner syndrome. We propose that SIRT6 contributes to the propagation of a specialized chromatin state at mammalian telomeres, which in turn is required for proper telomere metabolism and function. Our findings constitute the first identification of a physiological enzymatic activity of SIRT6, and link chromatin regulation by SIRT6 to telomere maintenance and a human premature ageing syndrome.〈br /〉〈br /〉〈a href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC2646112/" target="_blank"〉〈img src="https://static.pubmed.gov/portal/portal3rc.fcgi/4089621/img/3977009" border="0"〉〈/a〉   〈a href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC2646112/" target="_blank"〉This paper as free author manuscript - peer-reviewed and accepted for publication〈/a〉〈br /〉〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Notes: 〈/span〉Michishita, Eriko -- McCord, Ronald A -- Berber, Elisabeth -- Kioi, Mitomu -- Padilla-Nash, Hesed -- Damian, Mara -- Cheung, Peggie -- Kusumoto, Rika -- Kawahara, Tiara L A -- Barrett, J Carl -- Chang, Howard Y -- Bohr, Vilhelm A -- Ried, Thomas -- Gozani, Or -- Chua, Katrin F -- K08 AG028961/AG/NIA NIH HHS/ -- K08 AG028961-03/AG/NIA NIH HHS/ -- R01 AG028867/AG/NIA NIH HHS/ -- R01 AG028867-03/AG/NIA NIH HHS/ -- R01 GM079641/GM/NIGMS NIH HHS/ -- R01 GM079641-02/GM/NIGMS NIH HHS/ -- England -- Nature. 2008 Mar 27;452(7186):492-6. doi: 10.1038/nature06736. Epub 2008 Mar 12.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Author address: 〈/span〉Department of Medicine, Division of Endocrinology, Gerontology and Metabolism, School of Medicine, Stanford University, Stanford, California 94305, USA.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Record origin:〈/span〉 〈a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/18337721" target="_blank"〉PubMed〈/a〉
    Keywords: Acetylation ; Cell Aging/genetics ; Cell Line ; Chromatin/genetics/*metabolism ; DNA Replication ; Exodeoxyribonucleases/metabolism ; Fibroblasts ; Histone Deacetylases/deficiency/genetics/*metabolism ; Histones/chemistry/metabolism ; Humans ; Lysine/metabolism ; Phenotype ; Protein Binding ; RecQ Helicases/metabolism ; Sirtuins/deficiency/genetics/*metabolism ; Telomerase/genetics/metabolism ; Telomere/genetics/*metabolism ; Werner Syndrome/genetics
    Print ISSN: 0028-0836
    Electronic ISSN: 1476-4687
    Topics: Biology , Chemistry and Pharmacology , Medicine , Natural Sciences in General , Physics
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  • 2
    Publication Date: 2010-04-03
    Description: Copy number variants (CNVs) account for a major proportion of human genetic polymorphism and have been predicted to have an important role in genetic susceptibility to common disease. To address this we undertook a large, direct genome-wide study of association between CNVs and eight common human diseases. Using a purpose-designed array we typed approximately 19,000 individuals into distinct copy-number classes at 3,432 polymorphic CNVs, including an estimated approximately 50% of all common CNVs larger than 500 base pairs. We identified several biological artefacts that lead to false-positive associations, including systematic CNV differences between DNAs derived from blood and cell lines. Association testing and follow-up replication analyses confirmed three loci where CNVs were associated with disease-IRGM for Crohn's disease, HLA for Crohn's disease, rheumatoid arthritis and type 1 diabetes, and TSPAN8 for type 2 diabetes-although in each case the locus had previously been identified in single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP)-based studies, reflecting our observation that most common CNVs that are well-typed on our array are well tagged by SNPs and so have been indirectly explored through SNP studies. We conclude that common CNVs that can be typed on existing platforms are unlikely to contribute greatly to the genetic basis of common human diseases.〈br /〉〈br /〉〈a href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC2892339/" target="_blank"〉〈img src="https://static.pubmed.gov/portal/portal3rc.fcgi/4089621/img/3977009" border="0"〉〈/a〉   〈a href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC2892339/" target="_blank"〉This paper as free author manuscript - peer-reviewed and accepted for publication〈/a〉〈br /〉〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Notes: 〈/span〉Wellcome Trust Case Control Consortium -- Craddock, Nick -- Hurles, Matthew E -- Cardin, Niall -- Pearson, Richard D -- Plagnol, Vincent -- Robson, Samuel -- Vukcevic, Damjan -- Barnes, Chris -- Conrad, Donald F -- Giannoulatou, Eleni -- Holmes, Chris -- Marchini, Jonathan L -- Stirrups, Kathy -- Tobin, Martin D -- Wain, Louise V -- Yau, Chris -- Aerts, Jan -- Ahmad, Tariq -- Andrews, T Daniel -- Arbury, Hazel -- Attwood, Anthony -- Auton, Adam -- Ball, Stephen G -- Balmforth, Anthony J -- Barrett, Jeffrey C -- Barroso, Ines -- Barton, Anne -- Bennett, Amanda J -- Bhaskar, Sanjeev -- Blaszczyk, Katarzyna -- Bowes, John -- Brand, Oliver J -- Braund, Peter S -- Bredin, Francesca -- Breen, Gerome -- Brown, Morris J -- Bruce, Ian N -- Bull, Jaswinder -- Burren, Oliver S -- Burton, John -- Byrnes, Jake -- Caesar, Sian -- Clee, Chris M -- Coffey, Alison J -- Connell, John M C -- Cooper, Jason D -- Dominiczak, Anna F -- Downes, Kate -- Drummond, Hazel E -- Dudakia, Darshna -- Dunham, Andrew -- Ebbs, Bernadette -- Eccles, Diana -- Edkins, Sarah -- Edwards, Cathryn -- Elliot, Anna -- Emery, Paul -- Evans, David M -- Evans, Gareth -- Eyre, Steve -- Farmer, Anne -- Ferrier, I Nicol -- Feuk, Lars -- Fitzgerald, Tomas -- Flynn, Edward -- Forbes, Alistair -- Forty, Liz -- Franklyn, Jayne A -- Freathy, Rachel M -- Gibbs, Polly -- Gilbert, Paul -- Gokumen, Omer -- Gordon-Smith, Katherine -- Gray, Emma -- Green, Elaine -- Groves, Chris J -- Grozeva, Detelina -- Gwilliam, Rhian -- Hall, Anita -- Hammond, Naomi -- Hardy, Matt -- Harrison, Pile -- Hassanali, Neelam -- Hebaishi, Husam -- Hines, Sarah -- Hinks, Anne -- Hitman, Graham A -- Hocking, Lynne -- Howard, Eleanor -- Howard, Philip -- Howson, Joanna M M -- Hughes, Debbie -- Hunt, Sarah -- Isaacs, John D -- Jain, Mahim -- Jewell, Derek P -- Johnson, Toby -- Jolley, Jennifer D -- Jones, Ian R -- Jones, Lisa A -- Kirov, George -- Langford, Cordelia F -- Lango-Allen, Hana -- Lathrop, G Mark -- Lee, James -- Lee, Kate L -- Lees, Charlie -- Lewis, Kevin -- Lindgren, Cecilia M -- Maisuria-Armer, Meeta -- Maller, Julian -- Mansfield, John -- Martin, Paul -- Massey, Dunecan C O -- McArdle, Wendy L -- McGuffin, Peter -- McLay, Kirsten E -- Mentzer, Alex -- Mimmack, Michael L -- Morgan, Ann E -- Morris, Andrew P -- Mowat, Craig -- Myers, Simon -- Newman, William -- Nimmo, Elaine R -- O'Donovan, Michael C -- Onipinla, Abiodun -- Onyiah, Ifejinelo -- Ovington, Nigel R -- Owen, Michael J -- Palin, Kimmo -- Parnell, Kirstie -- Pernet, David -- Perry, John R B -- Phillips, Anne -- Pinto, Dalila -- Prescott, Natalie J -- Prokopenko, Inga -- Quail, Michael A -- Rafelt, Suzanne -- Rayner, Nigel W -- Redon, Richard -- Reid, David M -- Renwick -- Ring, Susan M -- Robertson, Neil -- Russell, Ellie -- St Clair, David -- Sambrook, Jennifer G -- Sanderson, Jeremy D -- Schuilenburg, Helen -- Scott, Carol E -- Scott, Richard -- Seal, Sheila -- Shaw-Hawkins, Sue -- Shields, Beverley M -- Simmonds, Matthew J -- Smyth, Debbie J -- Somaskantharajah, Elilan -- Spanova, Katarina -- Steer, Sophia -- Stephens, Jonathan -- Stevens, Helen E -- Stone, Millicent A -- Su, Zhan -- Symmons, Deborah P M -- Thompson, John R -- Thomson, Wendy -- Travers, Mary E -- Turnbull, Clare -- Valsesia, Armand -- Walker, Mark -- Walker, Neil M -- Wallace, Chris -- Warren-Perry, Margaret -- Watkins, Nicholas A -- Webster, John -- Weedon, Michael N -- Wilson, Anthony G -- Woodburn, Matthew -- Wordsworth, B Paul -- Young, Allan H -- Zeggini, Eleftheria -- Carter, Nigel P -- Frayling, Timothy M -- Lee, Charles -- McVean, Gil -- Munroe, Patricia B -- Palotie, Aarno -- Sawcer, Stephen J -- Scherer, Stephen W -- Strachan, David P -- Tyler-Smith, Chris -- Brown, Matthew A -- Burton, Paul R -- Caulfield, Mark J -- Compston, Alastair -- Farrall, Martin -- Gough, Stephen C L -- Hall, Alistair S -- Hattersley, Andrew T -- Hill, Adrian V S -- Mathew, Christopher G -- Pembrey, Marcus -- Satsangi, Jack -- Stratton, Michael R -- Worthington, Jane -- Deloukas, Panos -- Duncanson, Audrey -- Kwiatkowski, Dominic P -- McCarthy, Mark I -- Ouwehand, Willem -- Parkes, Miles -- Rahman, Nazneen -- Todd, John A -- Samani, Nilesh J -- Donnelly, Peter -- 061858/Wellcome Trust/United Kingdom -- 083948/Wellcome Trust/United Kingdom -- 089989/Wellcome Trust/United Kingdom -- 090532/Wellcome Trust/United Kingdom -- 17552/Arthritis Research UK/United Kingdom -- CZB/4/540/Chief Scientist Office/United Kingdom -- ETM/137/Chief Scientist Office/United Kingdom -- ETM/75/Chief Scientist Office/United Kingdom -- G0000934/Medical Research Council/United Kingdom -- G0400874/Medical Research Council/United Kingdom -- G0500115/Medical Research Council/United Kingdom -- G0501942/Medical Research Council/United Kingdom -- G0600329/Medical Research Council/United Kingdom -- G0600705/Medical Research Council/United Kingdom -- G0700491/Medical Research Council/United Kingdom -- G0701003/Medical Research Council/United Kingdom -- G0701420/Medical Research Council/United Kingdom -- G0701810/Medical Research Council/United Kingdom -- G0701810(85517)/Medical Research Council/United Kingdom -- G0800383/Medical Research Council/United Kingdom -- G0800509/Medical Research Council/United Kingdom -- G0800759/Medical Research Council/United Kingdom -- G19/9/Medical Research Council/United Kingdom -- G90/106/Medical Research Council/United Kingdom -- G9521010/Medical Research Council/United Kingdom -- MC_UP_A390_1107/Medical Research Council/United Kingdom -- RG/09/012/28096/British Heart Foundation/United Kingdom -- Wellcome Trust/United Kingdom -- England -- Nature. 2010 Apr 1;464(7289):713-20. doi: 10.1038/nature08979.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Record origin:〈/span〉 〈a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/20360734" target="_blank"〉PubMed〈/a〉
    Keywords: Arthritis, Rheumatoid/genetics ; Case-Control Studies ; Crohn Disease/genetics ; DNA Copy Number Variations/*genetics ; Diabetes Mellitus/genetics ; *Disease ; Gene Frequency/genetics ; Genetic Predisposition to Disease/*genetics ; *Genome-Wide Association Study ; Humans ; Nucleic Acid Hybridization ; Oligonucleotide Array Sequence Analysis ; Pilot Projects ; Polymorphism, Single Nucleotide/genetics ; Quality Control
    Print ISSN: 0028-0836
    Electronic ISSN: 1476-4687
    Topics: Biology , Chemistry and Pharmacology , Medicine , Natural Sciences in General , Physics
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  • 3
    Publication Date: 2007-04-28
    Description: The molecular mechanisms involved in the development of type 2 diabetes are poorly understood. Starting from genome-wide genotype data for 1924 diabetic cases and 2938 population controls generated by the Wellcome Trust Case Control Consortium, we set out to detect replicated diabetes association signals through analysis of 3757 additional cases and 5346 controls and by integration of our findings with equivalent data from other international consortia. We detected diabetes susceptibility loci in and around the genes CDKAL1, CDKN2A/CDKN2B, and IGF2BP2 and confirmed the recently described associations at HHEX/IDE and SLC30A8. Our findings provide insight into the genetic architecture of type 2 diabetes, emphasizing the contribution of multiple variants of modest effect. The regions identified underscore the importance of pathways influencing pancreatic beta cell development and function in the etiology of type 2 diabetes.〈br /〉〈br /〉〈a href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3772310/" target="_blank"〉〈img src="https://static.pubmed.gov/portal/portal3rc.fcgi/4089621/img/3977009" border="0"〉〈/a〉   〈a href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3772310/" target="_blank"〉This paper as free author manuscript - peer-reviewed and accepted for publication〈/a〉〈br /〉〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Notes: 〈/span〉Zeggini, Eleftheria -- Weedon, Michael N -- Lindgren, Cecilia M -- Frayling, Timothy M -- Elliott, Katherine S -- Lango, Hana -- Timpson, Nicholas J -- Perry, John R B -- Rayner, Nigel W -- Freathy, Rachel M -- Barrett, Jeffrey C -- Shields, Beverley -- Morris, Andrew P -- Ellard, Sian -- Groves, Christopher J -- Harries, Lorna W -- Marchini, Jonathan L -- Owen, Katharine R -- Knight, Beatrice -- Cardon, Lon R -- Walker, Mark -- Hitman, Graham A -- Morris, Andrew D -- Doney, Alex S F -- Wellcome Trust Case Control Consortium (WTCCC) -- McCarthy, Mark I -- Hattersley, Andrew T -- 083948/Wellcome Trust/United Kingdom -- 090532/Wellcome Trust/United Kingdom -- G0000934/Medical Research Council/United Kingdom -- G0500070/Medical Research Council/United Kingdom -- Wellcome Trust/United Kingdom -- New York, N.Y. -- Science. 2007 Jun 1;316(5829):1336-41. Epub 2007 Apr 26.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Author address: 〈/span〉Oxford Centre for Diabetes, Endocrinology and Metabolism, University of Oxford, Churchill Hospital, Oxford, OX3 7LJ, UK.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Record origin:〈/span〉 〈a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/17463249" target="_blank"〉PubMed〈/a〉
    Keywords: Adult ; Aged ; Case-Control Studies ; Chromosome Mapping ; Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2/*genetics ; Female ; Genes, p16 ; *Genetic Predisposition to Disease ; *Genome, Human ; Great Britain ; Homeodomain Proteins/genetics ; Humans ; Insulin-Like Growth Factor Binding Proteins/genetics ; Introns ; Male ; Meta-Analysis as Topic ; Middle Aged ; Oligonucleotide Array Sequence Analysis ; *Polymorphism, Single Nucleotide ; Transcription Factors/genetics
    Print ISSN: 0036-8075
    Electronic ISSN: 1095-9203
    Topics: Biology , Chemistry and Pharmacology , Computer Science , Medicine , Natural Sciences in General , Physics
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  • 4
    Publication Date: 2007-04-17
    Description: Obesity is a serious international health problem that increases the risk of several common diseases. The genetic factors predisposing to obesity are poorly understood. A genome-wide search for type 2 diabetes-susceptibility genes identified a common variant in the FTO (fat mass and obesity associated) gene that predisposes to diabetes through an effect on body mass index (BMI). An additive association of the variant with BMI was replicated in 13 cohorts with 38,759 participants. The 16% of adults who are homozygous for the risk allele weighed about 3 kilograms more and had 1.67-fold increased odds of obesity when compared with those not inheriting a risk allele. This association was observed from age 7 years upward and reflects a specific increase in fat mass.〈br /〉〈br /〉〈a href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC2646098/" target="_blank"〉〈img src="https://static.pubmed.gov/portal/portal3rc.fcgi/4089621/img/3977009" border="0"〉〈/a〉   〈a href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC2646098/" target="_blank"〉This paper as free author manuscript - peer-reviewed and accepted for publication〈/a〉〈br /〉〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Notes: 〈/span〉Frayling, Timothy M -- Timpson, Nicholas J -- Weedon, Michael N -- Zeggini, Eleftheria -- Freathy, Rachel M -- Lindgren, Cecilia M -- Perry, John R B -- Elliott, Katherine S -- Lango, Hana -- Rayner, Nigel W -- Shields, Beverley -- Harries, Lorna W -- Barrett, Jeffrey C -- Ellard, Sian -- Groves, Christopher J -- Knight, Bridget -- Patch, Ann-Marie -- Ness, Andrew R -- Ebrahim, Shah -- Lawlor, Debbie A -- Ring, Susan M -- Ben-Shlomo, Yoav -- Jarvelin, Marjo-Riitta -- Sovio, Ulla -- Bennett, Amanda J -- Melzer, David -- Ferrucci, Luigi -- Loos, Ruth J F -- Barroso, Ines -- Wareham, Nicholas J -- Karpe, Fredrik -- Owen, Katharine R -- Cardon, Lon R -- Walker, Mark -- Hitman, Graham A -- Palmer, Colin N A -- Doney, Alex S F -- Morris, Andrew D -- Smith, George Davey -- Hattersley, Andrew T -- McCarthy, Mark I -- 079557/Wellcome Trust/United Kingdom -- 090532/Wellcome Trust/United Kingdom -- G0000934/Medical Research Council/United Kingdom -- G0500070/Medical Research Council/United Kingdom -- G0600705/Medical Research Council/United Kingdom -- G9815508/Medical Research Council/United Kingdom -- MC_U106179471/Medical Research Council/United Kingdom -- MC_U106188470/Medical Research Council/United Kingdom -- Z99 AG999999/Intramural NIH HHS/ -- Wellcome Trust/United Kingdom -- New York, N.Y. -- Science. 2007 May 11;316(5826):889-94. Epub 2007 Apr 12.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Author address: 〈/span〉Genetics of Complex Traits, Institute of Biomedical and Clinical Science, Peninsula Medical School, Magdalen Road, Exeter, UK.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Record origin:〈/span〉 〈a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/17434869" target="_blank"〉PubMed〈/a〉
    Keywords: Adipose Tissue ; Adolescent ; Adult ; Aged ; Alleles ; Birth Weight ; *Body Mass Index ; Case-Control Studies ; Child ; Cohort Studies ; Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2/*genetics ; Female ; *Genetic Predisposition to Disease ; Great Britain ; Homozygote ; Humans ; Infant, Newborn ; Male ; Middle Aged ; Obesity/*genetics ; Overweight/genetics ; *Polymorphism, Single Nucleotide
    Print ISSN: 0036-8075
    Electronic ISSN: 1095-9203
    Topics: Biology , Chemistry and Pharmacology , Computer Science , Medicine , Natural Sciences in General , Physics
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  • 5
    Publication Date: 2012-02-22
    Description: Genome-sequencing studies indicate that all humans carry many genetic variants predicted to cause loss of function (LoF) of protein-coding genes, suggesting unexpected redundancy in the human genome. Here we apply stringent filters to 2951 putative LoF variants obtained from 185 human genomes to determine their true prevalence and properties. We estimate that human genomes typically contain ~100 genuine LoF variants with ~20 genes completely inactivated. We identify rare and likely deleterious LoF alleles, including 26 known and 21 predicted severe disease-causing variants, as well as common LoF variants in nonessential genes. We describe functional and evolutionary differences between LoF-tolerant and recessive disease genes and a method for using these differences to prioritize candidate genes found in clinical sequencing studies.〈br /〉〈br /〉〈a href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3299548/" target="_blank"〉〈img src="https://static.pubmed.gov/portal/portal3rc.fcgi/4089621/img/3977009" border="0"〉〈/a〉   〈a href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3299548/" target="_blank"〉This paper as free author manuscript - peer-reviewed and accepted for publication〈/a〉〈br /〉〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Notes: 〈/span〉MacArthur, Daniel G -- Balasubramanian, Suganthi -- Frankish, Adam -- Huang, Ni -- Morris, James -- Walter, Klaudia -- Jostins, Luke -- Habegger, Lukas -- Pickrell, Joseph K -- Montgomery, Stephen B -- Albers, Cornelis A -- Zhang, Zhengdong D -- Conrad, Donald F -- Lunter, Gerton -- Zheng, Hancheng -- Ayub, Qasim -- DePristo, Mark A -- Banks, Eric -- Hu, Min -- Handsaker, Robert E -- Rosenfeld, Jeffrey A -- Fromer, Menachem -- Jin, Mike -- Mu, Xinmeng Jasmine -- Khurana, Ekta -- Ye, Kai -- Kay, Mike -- Saunders, Gary Ian -- Suner, Marie-Marthe -- Hunt, Toby -- Barnes, If H A -- Amid, Clara -- Carvalho-Silva, Denise R -- Bignell, Alexandra H -- Snow, Catherine -- Yngvadottir, Bryndis -- Bumpstead, Suzannah -- Cooper, David N -- Xue, Yali -- Romero, Irene Gallego -- 1000 Genomes Project Consortium -- Wang, Jun -- Li, Yingrui -- Gibbs, Richard A -- McCarroll, Steven A -- Dermitzakis, Emmanouil T -- Pritchard, Jonathan K -- Barrett, Jeffrey C -- Harrow, Jennifer -- Hurles, Matthew E -- Gerstein, Mark B -- Tyler-Smith, Chris -- 085532/Wellcome Trust/United Kingdom -- 090532/Wellcome Trust/United Kingdom -- 090532/Z/09/Z/Wellcome Trust/United Kingdom -- 098051/Wellcome Trust/United Kingdom -- BB/I02593X/1/Biotechnology and Biological Sciences Research Council/United Kingdom -- RG/09/012/28096/British Heart Foundation/United Kingdom -- U54 HG003273/HG/NHGRI NIH HHS/ -- New York, N.Y. -- Science. 2012 Feb 17;335(6070):823-8. doi: 10.1126/science.1215040.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Author address: 〈/span〉Wellcome Trust Sanger Institute, Hinxton, UK. macarthur@atgu.mgh.harvard.edu〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Record origin:〈/span〉 〈a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22344438" target="_blank"〉PubMed〈/a〉
    Keywords: Disease/genetics ; Gene Expression ; Gene Frequency ; *Genetic Variation ; *Genome, Human ; Humans ; Phenotype ; Polymorphism, Single Nucleotide ; Proteins/*genetics ; Selection, Genetic
    Print ISSN: 0036-8075
    Electronic ISSN: 1095-9203
    Topics: Biology , Chemistry and Pharmacology , Computer Science , Medicine , Natural Sciences in General , Physics
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  • 6
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    Unknown
    American Association for the Advancement of Science (AAAS)
    Publication Date: 1988-07-01
    Description: Arsenic is a well-established carcinogen in humans, but there is little evidence for its carcinogenicity in animals and it is inactive as an initiator or tumor promoter in two-stage models of carcinogenicity in mice. Two arsenic salts (sodium arsenite and sodium arsenate) induced a high frequency of methotrexate-resistant 3T6 cells, which were shown to have amplified copies of the dihydrofolate reductase gene. The ability of arsenic to induce gene amplification may relate to its carcinogenic effects in humans since amplification of oncogenes is observed in many human tumors. The inability of arsenic to induce gene mutations may relate to the negative results of arsenic in long-term animal studies and suggests that these experiments may not detect some environmental agents that act late in the carcinogenic process in humans.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Notes: 〈/span〉Lee, T C -- Tanaka, N -- Lamb, P W -- Gilmer, T M -- Barrett, J C -- New York, N.Y. -- Science. 1988 Jul 1;241(4861):79-81.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Author address: 〈/span〉Laboratory of Molecular Carcinogenesis, National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences, Research Triangle Park, North Carolina 27709.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Record origin:〈/span〉 〈a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/3388020" target="_blank"〉PubMed〈/a〉
    Keywords: Animals ; Arsenates/*pharmacology ; Arsenic/*pharmacology ; *Arsenites ; Cell Line ; DNA/genetics ; Drug Resistance ; Gene Amplification/*drug effects ; Humans ; Methotrexate ; Mice ; Neoplasms, Experimental/chemically induced/genetics ; Nucleic Acid Hybridization ; Oncogenes ; *Sodium Compounds ; Tetrahydrofolate Dehydrogenase/*genetics
    Print ISSN: 0036-8075
    Electronic ISSN: 1095-9203
    Topics: Biology , Chemistry and Pharmacology , Computer Science , Medicine , Natural Sciences in General , Physics
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  • 7
    Publication Date: 1990-02-09
    Description: The control of cellular senescence by specific human chromosomes was examined in interspecies cell hybrids between diploid human fibroblasts and an immortal, Syrian hamster cell line. Most such hybrids exhibited a limited life span comparable to that of the human fibroblasts, indicating that cellular senescence is dominant in these hybrids. Karyotypic analyses of the hybrid clones that did not senesce revealed that all these clones had lost both copies of human chromosome 1, whereas all other human chromosomes were observed in at least some of the immortal hybrids. The application of selective pressure for retention of human chromosome 1 to the cell hybrids resulted in an increased percentage of hybrids that senesced. Further, the introduction of a single copy of human chromosome 1 to the hamster cells by microcell fusion caused typical signs of cellular senescence. Transfer of chromosome 11 had no effect on the growth of the cells. These findings indicate that human chromosome 1 may participate in the control of cellular senescence and further support a genetic basis for cellular senescence.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Notes: 〈/span〉Sugawara, O -- Oshimura, M -- Koi, M -- Annab, L A -- Barrett, J C -- New York, N.Y. -- Science. 1990 Feb 9;247(4943):707-10.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Author address: 〈/span〉National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences, National Institutes of Health, Research Triangle Park, NC 27709.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Record origin:〈/span〉 〈a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/2300822" target="_blank"〉PubMed〈/a〉
    Keywords: Animals ; Cell Line ; Cell Survival/*genetics ; Chromosome Mapping ; *Chromosomes, Human, Pair 1 ; Clone Cells ; Cricetinae ; Diploidy ; Fibroblasts/*cytology ; Humans ; Hybrid Cells/*cytology ; Hypoxanthine Phosphoribosyltransferase/genetics ; Karyotyping ; Mice ; Ploidies ; Transfection ; Translocation, Genetic ; X Chromosome
    Print ISSN: 0036-8075
    Electronic ISSN: 1095-9203
    Topics: Biology , Chemistry and Pharmacology , Computer Science , Medicine , Natural Sciences in General , Physics
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  • 8
    Publication Date: 1991-02-15
    Description: Transfer of a normal Chinese hamster X chromosome (carried in a mouse A9 donor cell line) to a nickel-transformed Chinese hamster cell line with an Xq chromosome deletion resulted in senescense of these previously immortal cells. At early passages of the A9/CX donor cells, the hamster X chromosome was highly active, inducing senescence in 100% of the colonies obtained after its transfer into the nickel-transformed cells. However, senescence was reduced to 50% when Chinese hamster X chromosomes were transferred from later passage A9 cells. Full senescing activity of the intact hamster X chromosome was restored by treatment of the donor mouse cells with 5-azacytidine, which induced demethylation of DNA. These results suggest that a senescence gene or genes, which may be located on the Chinese hamster X chromosome, can be regulated by DNA methylation, and that escape from senescence and possibly loss of tumor suppressor gene activity can occur by epigenetic mechanisms.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Notes: 〈/span〉Klein, C B -- Conway, K -- Wang, X W -- Bhamra, R K -- Lin, X H -- Cohen, M D -- Annab, L -- Barrett, J C -- Costa, M -- ES 04715/ES/NIEHS NIH HHS/ -- ES 04895/ES/NIEHS NIH HHS/ -- ES 05512/ES/NIEHS NIH HHS/ -- New York, N.Y. -- Science. 1991 Feb 15;251(4995):796-9.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Author address: 〈/span〉Institute of Environmental Medicine, New York University Medical Center, NY 10016.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Record origin:〈/span〉 〈a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/1990442" target="_blank"〉PubMed〈/a〉
    Keywords: Animals ; Cell Fusion ; Cell Line, Transformed ; Cell Survival/*genetics ; Cell Transformation, Neoplastic/chemically induced/*genetics ; Chromosome Deletion ; Cricetinae ; Cricetulus ; Hypoxanthine Phosphoribosyltransferase/genetics ; Mice ; Nickel/*pharmacology ; X Chromosome/*drug effects
    Print ISSN: 0036-8075
    Electronic ISSN: 1095-9203
    Topics: Biology , Chemistry and Pharmacology , Computer Science , Medicine , Natural Sciences in General , Physics
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  • 9
    Publication Date: 1995-05-12
    Description: A gene from human chromosome 11p11.2 was isolated and was shown to suppress metastasis when introduced into rat AT6.1 prostate cancer cells. Expression of this gene, designated KAI1, was reduced in human cell lines derived from metastatic prostate tumors. KAI1 specifies a protein of 267 amino acids, with four hydrophobic and presumably transmembrane domains and one large extracellular hydrophilic domain with three potential N-glycosylation sites. KAI1 is evolutionarily conserved, is expressed in many human tissues, and encodes a member of a structurally distinct family of leukocyte surface glycoproteins. Decreased expression of this gene may be involved in the malignant progression of prostate and other cancers.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Notes: 〈/span〉Dong, J T -- Lamb, P W -- Rinker-Schaeffer, C W -- Vukanovic, J -- Ichikawa, T -- Isaacs, J T -- Barrett, J C -- CA 58236/CA/NCI NIH HHS/ -- New York, N.Y. -- Science. 1995 May 12;268(5212):884-6.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Author address: 〈/span〉Laboratory of Molecular Carcinogenesis, National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences, National Institute of Health, Research Triangle Park, NC 27709, USA.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Record origin:〈/span〉 〈a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/7754374" target="_blank"〉PubMed〈/a〉
    Keywords: Amino Acid Sequence ; Animals ; Antigens, CD/chemistry/*genetics/physiology ; Antigens, CD82 ; Base Sequence ; Biological Evolution ; *Chromosomes, Human, Pair 11 ; Gene Expression ; *Genes, Tumor Suppressor ; Humans ; Male ; Membrane Glycoproteins/chemistry/*genetics/physiology ; Mice ; Mice, SCID ; Molecular Sequence Data ; Neoplasm Metastasis/*genetics ; Prostatic Neoplasms/*genetics/pathology ; *Proto-Oncogene Proteins ; Rats ; Transfection ; Tumor Cells, Cultured
    Print ISSN: 0036-8075
    Electronic ISSN: 1095-9203
    Topics: Biology , Chemistry and Pharmacology , Computer Science , Medicine , Natural Sciences in General , Physics
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  • 10
    Publication Date: 2012-11-07
    Description: Crohn's disease and ulcerative colitis, the two common forms of inflammatory bowel disease (IBD), affect over 2.5 million people of European ancestry, with rising prevalence in other populations. Genome-wide association studies and subsequent meta-analyses of these two diseases as separate phenotypes have implicated previously unsuspected mechanisms, such as autophagy, in their pathogenesis and showed that some IBD loci are shared with other inflammatory diseases. Here we expand on the knowledge of relevant pathways by undertaking a meta-analysis of Crohn's disease and ulcerative colitis genome-wide association scans, followed by extensive validation of significant findings, with a combined total of more than 75,000 cases and controls. We identify 71 new associations, for a total of 163 IBD loci, that meet genome-wide significance thresholds. Most loci contribute to both phenotypes, and both directional (consistently favouring one allele over the course of human history) and balancing (favouring the retention of both alleles within populations) selection effects are evident. Many IBD loci are also implicated in other immune-mediated disorders, most notably with ankylosing spondylitis and psoriasis. We also observe considerable overlap between susceptibility loci for IBD and mycobacterial infection. Gene co-expression network analysis emphasizes this relationship, with pathways shared between host responses to mycobacteria and those predisposing to IBD.〈br /〉〈br /〉〈a href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3491803/" target="_blank"〉〈img src="https://static.pubmed.gov/portal/portal3rc.fcgi/4089621/img/3977009" border="0"〉〈/a〉   〈a href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3491803/" target="_blank"〉This paper as free author manuscript - peer-reviewed and accepted for publication〈/a〉〈br /〉〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Notes: 〈/span〉Jostins, Luke -- Ripke, Stephan -- Weersma, Rinse K -- Duerr, Richard H -- McGovern, Dermot P -- Hui, Ken Y -- Lee, James C -- Schumm, L Philip -- Sharma, Yashoda -- Anderson, Carl A -- Essers, Jonah -- Mitrovic, Mitja -- Ning, Kaida -- Cleynen, Isabelle -- Theatre, Emilie -- Spain, Sarah L -- Raychaudhuri, Soumya -- Goyette, Philippe -- Wei, Zhi -- Abraham, Clara -- Achkar, Jean-Paul -- Ahmad, Tariq -- Amininejad, Leila -- Ananthakrishnan, Ashwin N -- Andersen, Vibeke -- Andrews, Jane M -- Baidoo, Leonard -- Balschun, Tobias -- Bampton, Peter A -- Bitton, Alain -- Boucher, Gabrielle -- Brand, Stephan -- Buning, Carsten -- Cohain, Ariella -- Cichon, Sven -- D'Amato, Mauro -- De Jong, Dirk -- Devaney, Kathy L -- Dubinsky, Marla -- Edwards, Cathryn -- Ellinghaus, David -- Ferguson, Lynnette R -- Franchimont, Denis -- Fransen, Karin -- Gearry, Richard -- Georges, Michel -- Gieger, Christian -- Glas, Jurgen -- Haritunians, Talin -- Hart, Ailsa -- Hawkey, Chris -- Hedl, Matija -- Hu, Xinli -- Karlsen, Tom H -- Kupcinskas, Limas -- Kugathasan, Subra -- Latiano, Anna -- Laukens, Debby -- Lawrance, Ian C -- Lees, Charlie W -- Louis, Edouard -- Mahy, Gillian -- Mansfield, John -- Morgan, Angharad R -- Mowat, Craig -- Newman, William -- Palmieri, Orazio -- Ponsioen, Cyriel Y -- Potocnik, Uros -- Prescott, Natalie J -- Regueiro, Miguel -- Rotter, Jerome I -- Russell, Richard K -- Sanderson, Jeremy D -- Sans, Miquel -- Satsangi, Jack -- Schreiber, Stefan -- Simms, Lisa A -- Sventoraityte, Jurgita -- Targan, Stephan R -- Taylor, Kent D -- Tremelling, Mark -- Verspaget, Hein W -- De Vos, Martine -- Wijmenga, Cisca -- Wilson, David C -- Winkelmann, Juliane -- Xavier, Ramnik J -- Zeissig, Sebastian -- Zhang, Bin -- Zhang, Clarence K -- Zhao, Hongyu -- International IBD Genetics Consortium (IIBDGC) -- Silverberg, Mark S -- Annese, Vito -- Hakonarson, Hakon -- Brant, Steven R -- Radford-Smith, Graham -- Mathew, Christopher G -- Rioux, John D -- Schadt, Eric E -- Daly, Mark J -- Franke, Andre -- Parkes, Miles -- Vermeire, Severine -- Barrett, Jeffrey C -- Cho, Judy H -- 068545/Z/02/Wellcome Trust/United Kingdom -- 083948/Z/07/Z/Wellcome Trust/United Kingdom -- 085475/B/08/Z/Wellcome Trust/United Kingdom -- 085475/Z/08/Z/Wellcome Trust/United Kingdom -- 089120/Wellcome Trust/United Kingdom -- 090532/Wellcome Trust/United Kingdom -- 098051/Wellcome Trust/United Kingdom -- AI062773/AI/NIAID NIH HHS/ -- CA141743/CA/NCI NIH HHS/ -- CZB/4/540/Chief Scientist Office/United Kingdom -- DK043351/DK/NIDDK NIH HHS/ -- DK062413/DK/NIDDK NIH HHS/ -- DK062420/DK/NIDDK NIH HHS/ -- DK062422/DK/NIDDK NIH HHS/ -- DK062423/DK/NIDDK NIH HHS/ -- DK062429/DK/NIDDK NIH HHS/ -- DK062429-S1/DK/NIDDK NIH HHS/ -- DK062431/DK/NIDDK NIH HHS/ -- DK062432/DK/NIDDK NIH HHS/ -- DK063491/DK/NIDDK NIH HHS/ -- DK076984/DK/NIDDK NIH HHS/ -- DK084554/DK/NIDDK NIH HHS/ -- DK83756/DK/NIDDK NIH HHS/ -- ETM/137/Chief Scientist Office/United Kingdom -- ETM/75/Chief Scientist Office/United Kingdom -- G0000934/British Heart Foundation/United Kingdom -- G0600329/Medical Research Council/United Kingdom -- G0800675/Medical Research Council/United Kingdom -- G0800759/Medical Research Council/United Kingdom -- G1002033/Medical Research Council/United Kingdom -- K23 DK097142/DK/NIDDK NIH HHS/ -- M01-RR00425/RR/NCRR NIH HHS/ -- P01 DK046763/DK/NIDDK NIH HHS/ -- P01DK046763/DK/NIDDK NIH HHS/ -- P30 DK043351/DK/NIDDK NIH HHS/ -- R01 CA141743/CA/NCI NIH HHS/ -- R01 DK055731/DK/NIDDK NIH HHS/ -- T32 GM007205/GM/NIGMS NIH HHS/ -- T32GM07205/GM/NIGMS NIH HHS/ -- U01 DK062418/DK/NIDDK NIH HHS/ -- U01 DK062420/DK/NIDDK NIH HHS/ -- U01 DK062422/DK/NIDDK NIH HHS/ -- U01 DK062429/DK/NIDDK NIH HHS/ -- U01 DK062431/DK/NIDDK NIH HHS/ -- U01 DK062432/DK/NIDDK NIH HHS/ -- UL1 TR000005/TR/NCATS NIH HHS/ -- UL1 TR000124/TR/NCATS NIH HHS/ -- UL1 TR000124-01/TR/NCATS NIH HHS/ -- Medical Research Council/United Kingdom -- England -- Nature. 2012 Nov 1;491(7422):119-24. doi: 10.1038/nature11582.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Author address: 〈/span〉Wellcome Trust Sanger Institute, Wellcome Trust Genome Campus, Hinxton, Cambridge CB10 1HH, UK.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Record origin:〈/span〉 〈a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23128233" target="_blank"〉PubMed〈/a〉
    Keywords: Colitis, Ulcerative/genetics/immunology/microbiology/physiopathology ; Crohn Disease/genetics/immunology/microbiology/physiopathology ; Genetic Predisposition to Disease/*genetics ; Genome, Human/genetics ; *Genome-Wide Association Study ; Haplotypes/genetics ; *Host-Pathogen Interactions/genetics/immunology ; Humans ; Inflammatory Bowel Diseases/*genetics/immunology/*microbiology/physiopathology ; Mycobacterium/*immunology/pathogenicity ; Mycobacterium Infections/genetics/microbiology ; Mycobacterium tuberculosis/immunology/pathogenicity ; Phenotype ; Polymorphism, Single Nucleotide/genetics ; Reproducibility of Results
    Print ISSN: 0028-0836
    Electronic ISSN: 1476-4687
    Topics: Biology , Chemistry and Pharmacology , Medicine , Natural Sciences in General , Physics
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