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  • 1
    Publication Date: 2013-11-30
    Description: Hypercholesterolemia is a risk factor for estrogen receptor (ER)-positive breast cancers and is associated with a decreased response of tumors to endocrine therapies. Here, we show that 27-hydroxycholesterol (27HC), a primary metabolite of cholesterol and an ER and liver X receptor (LXR) ligand, increases ER-dependent growth and LXR-dependent metastasis in mouse models of breast cancer. The effects of cholesterol on tumor pathology required its conversion to 27HC by the cytochrome P450 oxidase CYP27A1 and were attenuated by treatment with CYP27A1 inhibitors. In human breast cancer specimens, CYP27A1 expression levels correlated with tumor grade. In high-grade tumors, both tumor cells and tumor-associated macrophages exhibited high expression levels of the enzyme. Thus, lowering circulating cholesterol levels or interfering with its conversion to 27HC may be a useful strategy to prevent and/or treat breast cancer.〈br /〉〈br /〉〈a href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3899689/" target="_blank"〉〈img src="https://static.pubmed.gov/portal/portal3rc.fcgi/4089621/img/3977009" border="0"〉〈/a〉   〈a href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3899689/" target="_blank"〉This paper as free author manuscript - peer-reviewed and accepted for publication〈/a〉〈br /〉〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Notes: 〈/span〉Nelson, Erik R -- Wardell, Suzanne E -- Jasper, Jeff S -- Park, Sunghee -- Suchindran, Sunil -- Howe, Matthew K -- Carver, Nicole J -- Pillai, Ruchita V -- Sullivan, Patrick M -- Sondhi, Varun -- Umetani, Michihisa -- Geradts, Joseph -- McDonnell, Donald P -- K99CA172357/CA/NCI NIH HHS/ -- R37 DK048807/DK/NIDDK NIH HHS/ -- R37DK048807/DK/NIDDK NIH HHS/ -- T32 CA059365/CA/NCI NIH HHS/ -- New York, N.Y. -- Science. 2013 Nov 29;342(6162):1094-8. doi: 10.1126/science.1241908.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Author address: 〈/span〉Department of Pharmacology and Cancer Biology, Duke University School of Medicine, Durham, NC 27710, USA.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Record origin:〈/span〉 〈a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24288332" target="_blank"〉PubMed〈/a〉
    Keywords: Animals ; Breast Neoplasms/blood/*metabolism/*pathology ; Cell Line, Tumor ; Cholestanetriol 26-Monooxygenase/antagonists & inhibitors/metabolism ; Disease Models, Animal ; Female ; Humans ; Hydroxycholesterols/antagonists & inhibitors/blood/*metabolism ; Hypercholesterolemia/blood/*metabolism ; Lung Neoplasms/secondary ; Mice ; Tumor Cells, Cultured
    Print ISSN: 0036-8075
    Electronic ISSN: 1095-9203
    Topics: Biology , Chemistry and Pharmacology , Computer Science , Medicine , Natural Sciences in General , Physics
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  • 2
    Publication Date: 2015-11-18
    Description: In the past decade, characterization of the host targets of pathogen virulence factors took a center stage in the study of pathogenesis and disease susceptibility in plants and humans. However, the impressive knowledge of host targets has not been broadly exploited to inhibit pathogen infection. Here, we show that host...
    Print ISSN: 0027-8424
    Electronic ISSN: 1091-6490
    Topics: Biology , Medicine , Natural Sciences in General
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  • 3
    Publication Date: 2013-04-19
    Description: Zebrafish have become a popular organism for the study of vertebrate gene function. The virtually transparent embryos of this species, and the ability to accelerate genetic studies by gene knockdown or overexpression, have led to the widespread use of zebrafish in the detailed investigation of vertebrate gene function and increasingly, the study of human genetic disease. However, for effective modelling of human genetic disease it is important to understand the extent to which zebrafish genes and gene structures are related to orthologous human genes. To examine this, we generated a high-quality sequence assembly of the zebrafish genome, made up of an overlapping set of completely sequenced large-insert clones that were ordered and oriented using a high-resolution high-density meiotic map. Detailed automatic and manual annotation provides evidence of more than 26,000 protein-coding genes, the largest gene set of any vertebrate so far sequenced. Comparison to the human reference genome shows that approximately 70% of human genes have at least one obvious zebrafish orthologue. In addition, the high quality of this genome assembly provides a clearer understanding of key genomic features such as a unique repeat content, a scarcity of pseudogenes, an enrichment of zebrafish-specific genes on chromosome 4 and chromosomal regions that influence sex determination.〈br /〉〈br /〉〈a href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3703927/" target="_blank"〉〈img src="https://static.pubmed.gov/portal/portal3rc.fcgi/4089621/img/3977009" border="0"〉〈/a〉   〈a href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3703927/" target="_blank"〉This paper as free author manuscript - peer-reviewed and accepted for publication〈/a〉〈br /〉〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Notes: 〈/span〉Howe, Kerstin -- Clark, Matthew D -- Torroja, Carlos F -- Torrance, James -- Berthelot, Camille -- Muffato, Matthieu -- Collins, John E -- Humphray, Sean -- McLaren, Karen -- Matthews, Lucy -- McLaren, Stuart -- Sealy, Ian -- Caccamo, Mario -- Churcher, Carol -- Scott, Carol -- Barrett, Jeffrey C -- Koch, Romke -- Rauch, Gerd-Jorg -- White, Simon -- Chow, William -- Kilian, Britt -- Quintais, Leonor T -- Guerra-Assuncao, Jose A -- Zhou, Yi -- Gu, Yong -- Yen, Jennifer -- Vogel, Jan-Hinnerk -- Eyre, Tina -- Redmond, Seth -- Banerjee, Ruby -- Chi, Jianxiang -- Fu, Beiyuan -- Langley, Elizabeth -- Maguire, Sean F -- Laird, Gavin K -- Lloyd, David -- Kenyon, Emma -- Donaldson, Sarah -- Sehra, Harminder -- Almeida-King, Jeff -- Loveland, Jane -- Trevanion, Stephen -- Jones, Matt -- Quail, Mike -- Willey, Dave -- Hunt, Adrienne -- Burton, John -- Sims, Sarah -- McLay, Kirsten -- Plumb, Bob -- Davis, Joy -- Clee, Chris -- Oliver, Karen -- Clark, Richard -- Riddle, Clare -- Elliot, David -- Threadgold, Glen -- Harden, Glenn -- Ware, Darren -- Begum, Sharmin -- Mortimore, Beverley -- Kerry, Giselle -- Heath, Paul -- Phillimore, Benjamin -- Tracey, Alan -- Corby, Nicole -- Dunn, Matthew -- Johnson, Christopher -- Wood, Jonathan -- Clark, Susan -- Pelan, Sarah -- Griffiths, Guy -- Smith, Michelle -- Glithero, Rebecca -- Howden, Philip -- Barker, Nicholas -- Lloyd, Christine -- Stevens, Christopher -- Harley, Joanna -- Holt, Karen -- Panagiotidis, Georgios -- Lovell, Jamieson -- Beasley, Helen -- Henderson, Carl -- Gordon, Daria -- Auger, Katherine -- Wright, Deborah -- Collins, Joanna -- Raisen, Claire -- Dyer, Lauren -- Leung, Kenric -- Robertson, Lauren -- Ambridge, Kirsty -- Leongamornlert, Daniel -- McGuire, Sarah -- Gilderthorp, Ruth -- Griffiths, Coline -- Manthravadi, Deepa -- Nichol, Sarah -- Barker, Gary -- Whitehead, Siobhan -- Kay, Michael -- Brown, Jacqueline -- Murnane, Clare -- Gray, Emma -- Humphries, Matthew -- Sycamore, Neil -- Barker, Darren -- Saunders, David -- Wallis, Justene -- Babbage, Anne -- Hammond, Sian -- Mashreghi-Mohammadi, Maryam -- Barr, Lucy -- Martin, Sancha -- Wray, Paul -- Ellington, Andrew -- Matthews, Nicholas -- Ellwood, Matthew -- Woodmansey, Rebecca -- Clark, Graham -- Cooper, James D -- Tromans, Anthony -- Grafham, Darren -- Skuce, Carl -- Pandian, Richard -- Andrews, Robert -- Harrison, Elliot -- Kimberley, Andrew -- Garnett, Jane -- Fosker, Nigel -- Hall, Rebekah -- Garner, Patrick -- Kelly, Daniel -- Bird, Christine -- Palmer, Sophie -- Gehring, Ines -- Berger, Andrea -- Dooley, Christopher M -- Ersan-Urun, Zubeyde -- Eser, Cigdem -- Geiger, Horst -- Geisler, Maria -- Karotki, Lena -- Kirn, Anette -- Konantz, Judith -- Konantz, Martina -- Oberlander, Martina -- Rudolph-Geiger, Silke -- Teucke, Mathias -- Lanz, Christa -- Raddatz, Gunter -- Osoegawa, Kazutoyo -- Zhu, Baoli -- Rapp, Amanda -- Widaa, Sara -- Langford, Cordelia -- Yang, Fengtang -- Schuster, Stephan C -- Carter, Nigel P -- Harrow, Jennifer -- Ning, Zemin -- Herrero, Javier -- Searle, Steve M J -- Enright, Anton -- Geisler, Robert -- Plasterk, Ronald H A -- Lee, Charles -- Westerfield, Monte -- de Jong, Pieter J -- Zon, Leonard I -- Postlethwait, John H -- Nusslein-Volhard, Christiane -- Hubbard, Tim J P -- Roest Crollius, Hugues -- Rogers, Jane -- Stemple, Derek L -- 095908/Wellcome Trust/United Kingdom -- 098051/Wellcome Trust/United Kingdom -- 1 R01 DK55377-01A1/DK/NIDDK NIH HHS/ -- P01 HD022486/HD/NICHD NIH HHS/ -- P01 HD22486/HD/NICHD NIH HHS/ -- R01 GM085318/GM/NIGMS NIH HHS/ -- R01 OD011116/OD/NIH HHS/ -- R01 RR010715/RR/NCRR NIH HHS/ -- R01 RR020833/RR/NCRR NIH HHS/ -- England -- Nature. 2013 Apr 25;496(7446):498-503. doi: 10.1038/nature12111. Epub 2013 Apr 17.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Author address: 〈/span〉Wellcome Trust Sanger Institute, Wellcome Trust Genome Campus, Hinxton, Cambridge CB10 1SA, UK.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Record origin:〈/span〉 〈a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23594743" target="_blank"〉PubMed〈/a〉
    Keywords: Animals ; Chromosomes/genetics ; Conserved Sequence/*genetics ; Evolution, Molecular ; Female ; Genes/genetics ; Genome/*genetics ; Genome, Human/genetics ; Genomics ; Humans ; Male ; Meiosis/genetics ; Molecular Sequence Annotation ; Pseudogenes/genetics ; Reference Standards ; Sex Determination Processes/genetics ; Zebrafish/*genetics ; Zebrafish Proteins/genetics
    Print ISSN: 0028-0836
    Electronic ISSN: 1476-4687
    Topics: Biology , Chemistry and Pharmacology , Medicine , Natural Sciences in General , Physics
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  • 4
    Publication Date: 2012-02-17
    Description: Author(s): R. C. Cotta, K. T. K. Howe, J. L. Hewett, and T. G. Rizzo We explore the capability of the IceCube/DeepCore array to discover signal neutrinos resulting from the annihilations of supersymmetric weakly interacting massive particles that may be captured in the solar core. In this analysis, we use a previously generated set of ∼70  k model points in the 19-di... [Phys. Rev. D 85, 035017] Published Thu Feb 16, 2012
    Keywords: Beyond the standard model
    Print ISSN: 0556-2821
    Electronic ISSN: 1089-4918
    Topics: Physics
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  • 5
    Publication Date: 2012-12-19
    Description: Waxy mutants, in which endosperm starch contains ~100% amylopectin rather than the wild-type composition of ~70% amylopectin and ~30% amylose, occur in many domesticated cereals. The cultivation of waxy varieties is concentrated in east Asia, where there is a culinary preference for glutinous-textured foods that may have developed from ancient food processing traditions. The waxy phenotype results from mutations in the GBSSI gene, which catalyzes amylose synthesis. Broomcorn or proso millet ( Panicum miliaceum L.) is one of the world’s oldest cultivated cereals, which spread across Eurasia early in prehistory. Recent phylogeographic analysis has shown strong genetic structuring that likely reflects ancient expansion patterns. Broomcorn millet is highly unusual in being an allotetraploid cereal with fully waxy varieties. Previous work characterized two homeologous GBSSI loci, with multiple alleles at each, but could not determine whether both loci contributed to GBSSI function. We first tested the relative contribution of the two GBSSI loci to amylose synthesis and second tested the association between GBSSI alleles and phylogeographic structure inferred from simple sequence repeats (SSRs). We evaluated the phenotype of all known GBSSI genotypes in broomcorn millet by assaying starch composition and protein function. The results showed that the GBSSI- S locus is the major locus controlling endosperm amylose content, and the GBSSI- L locus has strongly reduced synthesis capacity. We genotyped 178 individuals from landraces from across Eurasia for the 2 GBSSI and 16 SSR loci and analyzed phylogeographic structuring and the geographic and phylogenetic distribution of GBSSI alleles. We found that GBSSI alleles have distinct spatial distributions and strong associations with particular genetic clusters defined by SSRs. The combination of alleles that results in a partially waxy phenotype does not exist in landrace populations. Our data suggest that broomcorn millet is a system in the process of becoming diploidized for the GBSSI locus responsible for grain amylose. Mutant alleles show some exchange between genetic groups, which was favored by selection for the waxy phenotype in particular regions. Partially waxy phenotypes were probably selected against—this unexpected finding shows that better understanding is needed of the human biology of this phenomenon that distinguishes cereal use in eastern and western cultures.
    Print ISSN: 0737-4038
    Electronic ISSN: 1537-1719
    Topics: Biology
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  • 6
    Publication Date: 2012-05-03
    Description: In areolar “loose” connective tissue, fibroblasts remodel their cytoskeleton within minutes in response to static stretch resulting in increased cell body cross-sectional area that relaxes the tissue to a lower state of resting tension. It remains unknown whether the loosely arranged collagen matrix, characteristic of areolar connective tissue, is required for this cytoskeletal response to occur. The purpose of this study was to evaluate cytoskeletal remodeling of fibroblasts in and dissociated from areolar and dense connective tissue in response to 2 hours of static stretch in both native tissue and collagen gels of varying crosslinking. Rheometric testing indicated that the areolar connective tissue had a lower dynamic modulus and was more viscous than the dense connective tissue. In response to stretch, cells within the more compliant areolar connective tissue adopted a large “sheet-like” morphology that was in contrast to the smaller dendritic morphology in the dense connective tissue. By adjusting the in vitro collagen crosslinking, and the resulting dynamic modulus, it was demonstrated that cells dissociated from dense connective tissue are capable of responding when seeded into a compliant matrix, while cells dissociated from areolar connective tissue can lose their ability to respond when their matrix becomes stiffer. This set of experiments indicated stretch-induced fibroblast expansion was dependent on the distinct matrix material properties of areolar connective tissues as opposed to the cells' tissue of origin. These results also suggest that disease and pathological processes with increased crosslinks, such as diabetes and fibrosis, could impair fibroblast responsiveness in connective tissues. J. Cell. Physiol. © 2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
    Electronic ISSN: 1097-4652
    Topics: Biology , Medicine
    Published by Wiley
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  • 7
    Publication Date: 2012-11-16
    Description: For 10,000 years pigs and humans have shared a close and complex relationship. From domestication to modern breeding practices, humans have shaped the genomes of domestic pigs. Here we present the assembly and analysis of the genome sequence of a female domestic Duroc pig (Sus scrofa) and a comparison with the genomes of wild and domestic pigs from Europe and Asia. Wild pigs emerged in South East Asia and subsequently spread across Eurasia. Our results reveal a deep phylogenetic split between European and Asian wild boars approximately 1 million years ago, and a selective sweep analysis indicates selection on genes involved in RNA processing and regulation. Genes associated with immune response and olfaction exhibit fast evolution. Pigs have the largest repertoire of functional olfactory receptor genes, reflecting the importance of smell in this scavenging animal. The pig genome sequence provides an important resource for further improvements of this important livestock species, and our identification of many putative disease-causing variants extends the potential of the pig as a biomedical model.〈br /〉〈br /〉〈a href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3566564/" target="_blank"〉〈img src="https://static.pubmed.gov/portal/portal3rc.fcgi/4089621/img/3977009" border="0"〉〈/a〉   〈a href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3566564/" target="_blank"〉This paper as free author manuscript - peer-reviewed and accepted for publication〈/a〉〈br /〉〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Notes: 〈/span〉Groenen, Martien A M -- Archibald, Alan L -- Uenishi, Hirohide -- Tuggle, Christopher K -- Takeuchi, Yasuhiro -- Rothschild, Max F -- Rogel-Gaillard, Claire -- Park, Chankyu -- Milan, Denis -- Megens, Hendrik-Jan -- Li, Shengting -- Larkin, Denis M -- Kim, Heebal -- Frantz, Laurent A F -- Caccamo, Mario -- Ahn, Hyeonju -- Aken, Bronwen L -- Anselmo, Anna -- Anthon, Christian -- Auvil, Loretta -- Badaoui, Bouabid -- Beattie, Craig W -- Bendixen, Christian -- Berman, Daniel -- Blecha, Frank -- Blomberg, Jonas -- Bolund, Lars -- Bosse, Mirte -- Botti, Sara -- Bujie, Zhan -- Bystrom, Megan -- Capitanu, Boris -- Carvalho-Silva, Denise -- Chardon, Patrick -- Chen, Celine -- Cheng, Ryan -- Choi, Sang-Haeng -- Chow, William -- Clark, Richard C -- Clee, Christopher -- Crooijmans, Richard P M A -- Dawson, Harry D -- Dehais, Patrice -- De Sapio, Fioravante -- Dibbits, Bert -- Drou, Nizar -- Du, Zhi-Qiang -- Eversole, Kellye -- Fadista, Joao -- Fairley, Susan -- Faraut, Thomas -- Faulkner, Geoffrey J -- Fowler, Katie E -- Fredholm, Merete -- Fritz, Eric -- Gilbert, James G R -- Giuffra, Elisabetta -- Gorodkin, Jan -- Griffin, Darren K -- Harrow, Jennifer L -- Hayward, Alexander -- Howe, Kerstin -- Hu, Zhi-Liang -- Humphray, Sean J -- Hunt, Toby -- Hornshoj, Henrik -- Jeon, Jin-Tae -- Jern, Patric -- Jones, Matthew -- Jurka, Jerzy -- Kanamori, Hiroyuki -- Kapetanovic, Ronan -- Kim, Jaebum -- Kim, Jae-Hwan -- Kim, Kyu-Won -- Kim, Tae-Hun -- Larson, Greger -- Lee, Kyooyeol -- Lee, Kyung-Tai -- Leggett, Richard -- Lewin, Harris A -- Li, Yingrui -- Liu, Wansheng -- Loveland, Jane E -- Lu, Yao -- Lunney, Joan K -- Ma, Jian -- Madsen, Ole -- Mann, Katherine -- Matthews, Lucy -- McLaren, Stuart -- Morozumi, Takeya -- Murtaugh, Michael P -- Narayan, Jitendra -- Nguyen, Dinh Truong -- Ni, Peixiang -- Oh, Song-Jung -- Onteru, Suneel -- Panitz, Frank -- Park, Eung-Woo -- Park, Hong-Seog -- Pascal, Geraldine -- Paudel, Yogesh -- Perez-Enciso, Miguel -- Ramirez-Gonzalez, Ricardo -- Reecy, James M -- Rodriguez-Zas, Sandra -- Rohrer, Gary A -- Rund, Lauretta -- Sang, Yongming -- Schachtschneider, Kyle -- Schraiber, Joshua G -- Schwartz, John -- Scobie, Linda -- Scott, Carol -- Searle, Stephen -- Servin, Bertrand -- Southey, Bruce R -- Sperber, Goran -- Stadler, Peter -- Sweedler, Jonathan V -- Tafer, Hakim -- Thomsen, Bo -- Wali, Rashmi -- Wang, Jian -- Wang, Jun -- White, Simon -- Xu, Xun -- Yerle, Martine -- Zhang, Guojie -- Zhang, Jianguo -- Zhang, Jie -- Zhao, Shuhong -- Rogers, Jane -- Churcher, Carol -- Schook, Lawrence B -- 095908/Wellcome Trust/United Kingdom -- 249894/European Research Council/International -- 5 P41 LM006252/LM/NLM NIH HHS/ -- 5 P41LM006252/LM/NLM NIH HHS/ -- BB/E010520/1/Biotechnology and Biological Sciences Research Council/United Kingdom -- BB/E010520/2/Biotechnology and Biological Sciences Research Council/United Kingdom -- BB/E010768/1/Biotechnology and Biological Sciences Research Council/United Kingdom -- BB/E011640/1/Biotechnology and Biological Sciences Research Council/United Kingdom -- BB/G004013/1/Biotechnology and Biological Sciences Research Council/United Kingdom -- BB/H005935/1/Biotechnology and Biological Sciences Research Council/United Kingdom -- BB/I025328/1/Biotechnology and Biological Sciences Research Council/United Kingdom -- G0900950/Medical Research Council/United Kingdom -- P20-RR017686/RR/NCRR NIH HHS/ -- P30 DA018310/DA/NIDA NIH HHS/ -- R13 RR020283A/RR/NCRR NIH HHS/ -- R13 RR032267A/RR/NCRR NIH HHS/ -- R21 DA027548/DA/NIDA NIH HHS/ -- R21 HG006464/HG/NHGRI NIH HHS/ -- T32 AI083196/AI/NIAID NIH HHS/ -- England -- Nature. 2012 Nov 15;491(7424):393-8. doi: 10.1038/nature11622.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Author address: 〈/span〉Animal Breeding and Genomics Centre, Wageningen University, De Elst 1, 6708 WD, Wageningen, The Netherlands. martien.groenen@wur.nl〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Record origin:〈/span〉 〈a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23151582" target="_blank"〉PubMed〈/a〉
    Keywords: Animals ; Demography ; Genome/*genetics ; Models, Animal ; Molecular Sequence Data ; *Phylogeny ; Population Dynamics ; Sus scrofa/*classification/*genetics
    Print ISSN: 0028-0836
    Electronic ISSN: 1476-4687
    Topics: Biology , Chemistry and Pharmacology , Medicine , Natural Sciences in General , Physics
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  • 8
    Publication Date: 2016-07-09
    Description: Non-canonical transforming growth factor β (TGFβ) signaling through protein kinase B (Akt2) induces phosphorylation of heterogeneous nuclear ribonucleoprotein E1 (hnRNP E1) at serine-43 (p-hnRNP E1). This post-translational modification (PTM) of hnRNP E1 promotes its dissociation from a 3' untranslated region (UTR) nucleic acid regulatory motif, driving epithelial to mesenchymal transition (EMT) and metastasis. We have identified an hnRNP E1 consensus-binding motif and genomically resolved a subset of genes in which it is contained. This study characterizes the binding kinetics of the consensus-binding motif and hnRNP E1, its various K-homology (KH) domains and p-hnRNP E1. Levels of p-hnRNP E1 are highly upregulated in metastatic cancer cells and low in normal epithelial tissue. We show a correlation between this PTM and levels of Akt2 and its activated form, phosphorylated serine-474 (p-Akt2). Using cellular progression models of metastasis, we observed a signature high level of Akt2, p-Akt2 and p-hnRNP E1 protein expression, coupled to a significantly reduced level of total hnRNP E1 in metastatic cells. Genes that are translationally silenced by hnRNP E1 and expressed by its dissociation are highly implicated in the progression of EMT and metastasis. This study provides insight into a non-canonical TGFβ signaling cascade that is responsible for inducing EMT by aberrant expression of hnRNP E1 silenced targets. The relevance of this system in metastatic progression is clearly shown in cellular models by the high abundance of p-hnRNP E1 and low levels of hnRNP E1. New insights provided by the resolution of this molecular mechanism provide targets for therapeutic intervention and give further insight into the role of the TGFβ microenvironment.
    Print ISSN: 0305-1048
    Electronic ISSN: 1362-4962
    Topics: Biology
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  • 9
    Publication Date: 2016-09-07
    Description: The evolution of animal mitochondrial (mt) genomes has resulted in a highly conserved structure: a single compact circular chromosome approximately 14 to 20 kb long. Within the last two decades exceptions to t...
    Electronic ISSN: 1471-2164
    Topics: Biology
    Published by BioMed Central
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  • 10
    Publication Date: 2018-06-29
    Description: Neuromodulatory systems exert profound influences on brain function. Understanding how these systems modify the operating mode of target circuits requires spatiotemporally precise measurement of neuromodulator release. We developed dLight1, an intensity-based genetically encoded dopamine indicator, to enable optical recording of dopamine dynamics with high spatiotemporal resolution in behaving mice. We demonstrated the utility of dLight1 by imaging dopamine dynamics simultaneously with pharmacological manipulation, electrophysiological or optogenetic stimulation, and calcium imaging of local neuronal activity. dLight1 enabled chronic tracking of learning-induced changes in millisecond dopamine transients in mouse striatum. Further, we used dLight1 to image spatially distinct, functionally heterogeneous dopamine transients relevant to learning and motor control in mouse cortex. We also validated our sensor design platform for developing norepinephrine, serotonin, melatonin, and opioid neuropeptide indicators.
    Keywords: Neuroscience, Online Only
    Print ISSN: 0036-8075
    Electronic ISSN: 1095-9203
    Topics: Biology , Chemistry and Pharmacology , Geosciences , Computer Science , Medicine , Natural Sciences in General , Physics
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