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  • 1
    Publication Date: 2019
    Description: This study builds upon a framework to develop a climate data record of temperature and humidity profiles from high-resolution infrared radiation sounder (HIRS) clear-sky measurements. The resultant time series is a unique, long-term dataset (1978–2017). To validate this long-term dataset, evaluation of the stability of the intersatellite time series is coupled with intercomparisons with independent observation platforms as available in more recent years. Eleven pairs of satellites carrying the HIRS instrument with time periods that overlap are examined. Correlation coefficients were calculated for the retrieval of each atmospheric pressure level and for each satellite pair. More than 90% of the cases examining both temperature and humidity have correlation coefficients greater than 0.7. Very high correlation is demonstrated at the surface and two meter levels for both temperature (〉0.99) and specific humidity (〉0.93). For the period of 2006–2017, intercomparisons are performed with four independent observations platforms: radiosonde (RS92), constellation observing system for meteorology ionosphere and climate (COSMIC), global climate observing system (GCOS) reference upper-air network (GRUAN), and infrared atmospheric sounding interferometer (IASI). Very close matching of surface and two meter temperatures over a wide domain of values is depicted in all presented intercomparisons: intersatellite matches of HIRS retrievals, HIRS vs. GRUAN, and HIRS vs. IASI.
    Electronic ISSN: 2072-4292
    Topics: Architecture, Civil Engineering, Surveying , Geography
    Published by MDPI
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  • 2
    Publication Date: 1987-10-23
    Description: An x-ray hologram was made by means of an x-ray laser and a laser-quality near normal incidence x-ray mirror. The high brightness and large coherence lengths of x-ray lasers now offer the potential for in vitro three-dimensional high-resolution holographic images of dynamically varying biological microstructures.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Notes: 〈/span〉Trebes, J E -- Brown, S B -- Campbell, E M -- Matthews, D L -- Nilson, D G -- Stone, G F -- Whelan, D A -- New York, N.Y. -- Science. 1987 Oct 23;238(4826):517-9.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Record origin:〈/span〉 〈a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/17809616" target="_blank"〉PubMed〈/a〉
    Print ISSN: 0036-8075
    Electronic ISSN: 1095-9203
    Topics: Biology , Chemistry and Pharmacology , Computer Science , Medicine , Natural Sciences in General , Physics
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  • 3
    Publication Date: 2017-05-14
    Description: Journal of the American Chemical Society DOI: 10.1021/jacs.7b02985
    Print ISSN: 0002-7863
    Electronic ISSN: 1520-5126
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology
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  • 4
    Publication Date: 2017-12-13
    Description: The relationship between corals and dinoflagellates of the genus Symbiodinium is fundamental to the functioning of coral ecosystems. It has been suggested that reef corals may adapt to climate change by changing their dominant symbiont type to a more thermally tolerant one, although the capacity for such a shift is...
    Print ISSN: 0027-8424
    Electronic ISSN: 1091-6490
    Topics: Biology , Medicine , Natural Sciences in General
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  • 5
    Publication Date: 2015-11-11
    Description: Analytical Chemistry DOI: 10.1021/acs.analchem.5b03384
    Print ISSN: 0003-2700
    Electronic ISSN: 1520-6882
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology
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  • 6
    Publication Date: 2015-09-09
    Description: The drivers of regional parasite distributions are poorly understood, especially in comparison with those of free-living species. For vector-transmitted parasites, in particular, distributions might be influenced by host-switching and by parasite dispersal with primary hosts and vectors. We surveyed haemosporidian blood parasites (Plasmodium and Haemoproteus) of small land birds in...
    Print ISSN: 0027-8424
    Electronic ISSN: 1091-6490
    Topics: Biology , Medicine , Natural Sciences in General
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  • 7
    Publication Date: 2015-09-05
    Description: Agricultural environments allow study of evolutionary change in plants. An example of evolution within agroecological systems is the selection for resistance to the herbicide glyphosate within the weed, Conyza canadensis . Changes in survivorship and reproduction associated with the development of glyphosate resistance (GR) may impact fitness and influence the frequency of occurrence of the GR trait. We hypothesized that site characteristics and history would affect the occurrence of GR C. canadensis in field margins. We surveyed GR occurrence in field margins and asked whether there were correlations between GR occurrence and location, crop rotation, GR crop trait rotation, crop type, use of tillage, and the diversity of herbicides used. In a field experiment, we hypothesized that there would be no difference in fitness between GR and glyphosate-susceptible (GS) plants. We asked whether there were differences in survivorship, phenology, reproduction, and herbivory between 2 GR and 2 GS populations of C. canadensis in agrestal and ruderal habitats. We found that geographic location was an important factor in the occurrence of GR C. canadensis in field margins. Although not consistently associated with either glyphosate resistance or glyphosate susceptibility, there were differences in phenology, survivorship, and herbivory among biotypes of C. canadensis . We found equal or greater fitness in GR biotypes, compared to GS biotypes, and GR plants were present in field margins. Field margins or ruderal habitats may provide refugia for GR C. canadensis , allowing reproduction and further selection to occur as seeds recolonize the agrestal habitat. Agricultural practices may select for ecological changes that feed back into the evolution of plants in ruderal habitats. An example of evolution within agroecological systems is the selection for resistance to the herbicide glyphosate within the weed, Conyza canadensis . We found that differences in occurrence of the herbicide-resistant trait in ruderal field margins were associated with geography and aspects of field management history, and that resistant biotypes had equal or greater fitness when compared to susceptible biotypes. Field margins may provide refugia for selected traits.
    Electronic ISSN: 2045-7758
    Topics: Biology
    Published by Wiley
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  • 8
    Publication Date: 2016-10-02
    Description: Journal of the American Chemical Society DOI: 10.1021/jacs.6b07830
    Print ISSN: 0002-7863
    Electronic ISSN: 1520-5126
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology
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  • 9
    Publication Date: 2013-07-23
    Description: Mononuclear non-haem iron (NHFe) enzymes catalyse a broad range of oxidative reactions, including halogenation, hydroxylation, ring closure, desaturation and aromatic ring cleavage reactions. They are involved in a number of biological processes, including phenylalanine metabolism, the production of neurotransmitters, the hypoxic response and the biosynthesis of secondary metabolites. The reactive intermediate in the catalytic cycles of these enzymes is a high-spin S = 2 Fe(IV)=O species, which has been trapped for a number of NHFe enzymes, including the halogenase SyrB2 (syringomycin biosynthesis enzyme 2). Computational studies aimed at understanding the reactivity of this Fe(IV)=O intermediate are limited in applicability owing to the paucity of experimental knowledge about its geometric and electronic structure. Synchrotron-based nuclear resonance vibrational spectroscopy (NRVS) is a sensitive and effective method that defines the dependence of the vibrational modes involving Fe on the nature of the Fe(IV)=O active site. Here we present NRVS structural characterization of the reactive Fe(IV)=O intermediate of a NHFe enzyme, namely the halogenase SyrB2 from the bacterium Pseudomonas syringae pv. syringae. This intermediate reacts via an initial hydrogen-atom abstraction step, performing subsequent halogenation of the native substrate or hydroxylation of non-native substrates. A correlation of the experimental NRVS data to electronic structure calculations indicates that the substrate directs the orientation of the Fe(IV)=O intermediate, presenting specific frontier molecular orbitals that can activate either selective halogenation or hydroxylation.〈br /〉〈br /〉〈a href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4123442/" target="_blank"〉〈img src="https://static.pubmed.gov/portal/portal3rc.fcgi/4089621/img/3977009" border="0"〉〈/a〉   〈a href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4123442/" target="_blank"〉This paper as free author manuscript - peer-reviewed and accepted for publication〈/a〉〈br /〉〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Notes: 〈/span〉Wong, Shaun D -- Srnec, Martin -- Matthews, Megan L -- Liu, Lei V -- Kwak, Yeonju -- Park, Kiyoung -- Bell, Caleb B 3rd -- Alp, E Ercan -- Zhao, Jiyong -- Yoda, Yoshitaka -- Kitao, Shinji -- Seto, Makoto -- Krebs, Carsten -- Bollinger, J Martin Jr -- Solomon, Edward I -- GM-40392/GM/NIGMS NIH HHS/ -- GM-69657/GM/NIGMS NIH HHS/ -- R01 GM040392/GM/NIGMS NIH HHS/ -- R01 GM069657/GM/NIGMS NIH HHS/ -- England -- Nature. 2013 Jul 18;499(7458):320-3. doi: 10.1038/nature12304.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Author address: 〈/span〉Department of Chemistry, Stanford University, Stanford, California 94305, USA.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Record origin:〈/span〉 〈a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23868262" target="_blank"〉PubMed〈/a〉
    Keywords: Biocatalysis ; Halogenation ; Hydroxylation ; Iron/*chemistry ; Oxidoreductases/*chemistry/metabolism ; Pseudomonas syringae/enzymology
    Print ISSN: 0028-0836
    Electronic ISSN: 1476-4687
    Topics: Biology , Chemistry and Pharmacology , Medicine , Natural Sciences in General , Physics
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  • 10
    Publication Date: 2011-11-18
    Description: Legumes (Fabaceae or Leguminosae) are unique among cultivated plants for their ability to carry out endosymbiotic nitrogen fixation with rhizobial bacteria, a process that takes place in a specialized structure known as the nodule. Legumes belong to one of the two main groups of eurosids, the Fabidae, which includes most species capable of endosymbiotic nitrogen fixation. Legumes comprise several evolutionary lineages derived from a common ancestor 60 million years ago (Myr ago). Papilionoids are the largest clade, dating nearly to the origin of legumes and containing most cultivated species. Medicago truncatula is a long-established model for the study of legume biology. Here we describe the draft sequence of the M. truncatula euchromatin based on a recently completed BAC assembly supplemented with Illumina shotgun sequence, together capturing approximately 94% of all M. truncatula genes. A whole-genome duplication (WGD) approximately 58 Myr ago had a major role in shaping the M. truncatula genome and thereby contributed to the evolution of endosymbiotic nitrogen fixation. Subsequent to the WGD, the M. truncatula genome experienced higher levels of rearrangement than two other sequenced legumes, Glycine max and Lotus japonicus. M. truncatula is a close relative of alfalfa (Medicago sativa), a widely cultivated crop with limited genomics tools and complex autotetraploid genetics. As such, the M. truncatula genome sequence provides significant opportunities to expand alfalfa's genomic toolbox.〈br /〉〈br /〉〈a href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3272368/" target="_blank"〉〈img src="https://static.pubmed.gov/portal/portal3rc.fcgi/4089621/img/3977009" border="0"〉〈/a〉   〈a href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3272368/" target="_blank"〉This paper as free author manuscript - peer-reviewed and accepted for publication〈/a〉〈br /〉〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Notes: 〈/span〉Young, Nevin D -- Debelle, Frederic -- Oldroyd, Giles E D -- Geurts, Rene -- Cannon, Steven B -- Udvardi, Michael K -- Benedito, Vagner A -- Mayer, Klaus F X -- Gouzy, Jerome -- Schoof, Heiko -- Van de Peer, Yves -- Proost, Sebastian -- Cook, Douglas R -- Meyers, Blake C -- Spannagl, Manuel -- Cheung, Foo -- De Mita, Stephane -- Krishnakumar, Vivek -- Gundlach, Heidrun -- Zhou, Shiguo -- Mudge, Joann -- Bharti, Arvind K -- Murray, Jeremy D -- Naoumkina, Marina A -- Rosen, Benjamin -- Silverstein, Kevin A T -- Tang, Haibao -- Rombauts, Stephane -- Zhao, Patrick X -- Zhou, Peng -- Barbe, Valerie -- Bardou, Philippe -- Bechner, Michael -- Bellec, Arnaud -- Berger, Anne -- Berges, Helene -- Bidwell, Shelby -- Bisseling, Ton -- Choisne, Nathalie -- Couloux, Arnaud -- Denny, Roxanne -- Deshpande, Shweta -- Dai, Xinbin -- Doyle, Jeff J -- Dudez, Anne-Marie -- Farmer, Andrew D -- Fouteau, Stephanie -- Franken, Carolien -- Gibelin, Chrystel -- Gish, John -- Goldstein, Steven -- Gonzalez, Alvaro J -- Green, Pamela J -- Hallab, Asis -- Hartog, Marijke -- Hua, Axin -- Humphray, Sean J -- Jeong, Dong-Hoon -- Jing, Yi -- Jocker, Anika -- Kenton, Steve M -- Kim, Dong-Jin -- Klee, Kathrin -- Lai, Hongshing -- Lang, Chunting -- Lin, Shaoping -- Macmil, Simone L -- Magdelenat, Ghislaine -- Matthews, Lucy -- McCorrison, Jamison -- Monaghan, Erin L -- Mun, Jeong-Hwan -- Najar, Fares Z -- Nicholson, Christine -- Noirot, Celine -- O'Bleness, Majesta -- Paule, Charles R -- Poulain, Julie -- Prion, Florent -- Qin, Baifang -- Qu, Chunmei -- Retzel, Ernest F -- Riddle, Claire -- Sallet, Erika -- Samain, Sylvie -- Samson, Nicolas -- Sanders, Iryna -- Saurat, Olivier -- Scarpelli, Claude -- Schiex, Thomas -- Segurens, Beatrice -- Severin, Andrew J -- Sherrier, D Janine -- Shi, Ruihua -- Sims, Sarah -- Singer, Susan R -- Sinharoy, Senjuti -- Sterck, Lieven -- Viollet, Agnes -- Wang, Bing-Bing -- Wang, Keqin -- Wang, Mingyi -- Wang, Xiaohong -- Warfsmann, Jens -- Weissenbach, Jean -- White, Doug D -- White, Jim D -- Wiley, Graham B -- Wincker, Patrick -- Xing, Yanbo -- Yang, Limei -- Yao, Ziyun -- Ying, Fu -- Zhai, Jixian -- Zhou, Liping -- Zuber, Antoine -- Denarie, Jean -- Dixon, Richard A -- May, Gregory D -- Schwartz, David C -- Rogers, Jane -- Quetier, Francis -- Town, Christopher D -- Roe, Bruce A -- BB/G023832/1/Biotechnology and Biological Sciences Research Council/United Kingdom -- BBS/B/11524/Biotechnology and Biological Sciences Research Council/United Kingdom -- England -- Nature. 2011 Nov 16;480(7378):520-4. doi: 10.1038/nature10625.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Author address: 〈/span〉Department of Plant Pathology, University of Minnesota, St Paul, Minnesota 55108, USA. neviny@umn.edu〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Record origin:〈/span〉 〈a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22089132" target="_blank"〉PubMed〈/a〉
    Keywords: *Biological Evolution ; *Genome, Plant ; Medicago truncatula/*genetics/*microbiology ; Molecular Sequence Data ; Nitrogen Fixation/genetics ; Rhizobium/*physiology ; Soybeans/genetics ; *Symbiosis ; Synteny ; Vitis/genetics
    Print ISSN: 0028-0836
    Electronic ISSN: 1476-4687
    Topics: Biology , Chemistry and Pharmacology , Medicine , Natural Sciences in General , Physics
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