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  • 1
    Publication Date: 2011-08-13
    Description: Multiple sclerosis is a common disease of the central nervous system in which the interplay between inflammatory and neurodegenerative processes typically results in intermittent neurological disturbance followed by progressive accumulation of disability. Epidemiological studies have shown that genetic factors are primarily responsible for the substantially increased frequency of the disease seen in the relatives of affected individuals, and systematic attempts to identify linkage in multiplex families have confirmed that variation within the major histocompatibility complex (MHC) exerts the greatest individual effect on risk. Modestly powered genome-wide association studies (GWAS) have enabled more than 20 additional risk loci to be identified and have shown that multiple variants exerting modest individual effects have a key role in disease susceptibility. Most of the genetic architecture underlying susceptibility to the disease remains to be defined and is anticipated to require the analysis of sample sizes that are beyond the numbers currently available to individual research groups. In a collaborative GWAS involving 9,772 cases of European descent collected by 23 research groups working in 15 different countries, we have replicated almost all of the previously suggested associations and identified at least a further 29 novel susceptibility loci. Within the MHC we have refined the identity of the HLA-DRB1 risk alleles and confirmed that variation in the HLA-A gene underlies the independent protective effect attributable to the class I region. Immunologically relevant genes are significantly overrepresented among those mapping close to the identified loci and particularly implicate T-helper-cell differentiation in the pathogenesis of multiple sclerosis.〈br /〉〈br /〉〈a href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3182531/" target="_blank"〉〈img src="https://static.pubmed.gov/portal/portal3rc.fcgi/4089621/img/3977009" border="0"〉〈/a〉   〈a href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3182531/" target="_blank"〉This paper as free author manuscript - peer-reviewed and accepted for publication〈/a〉〈br /〉〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Notes: 〈/span〉International Multiple Sclerosis Genetics Consortium -- Wellcome Trust Case Control Consortium 2 -- Sawcer, Stephen -- Hellenthal, Garrett -- Pirinen, Matti -- Spencer, Chris C A -- Patsopoulos, Nikolaos A -- Moutsianas, Loukas -- Dilthey, Alexander -- Su, Zhan -- Freeman, Colin -- Hunt, Sarah E -- Edkins, Sarah -- Gray, Emma -- Booth, David R -- Potter, Simon C -- Goris, An -- Band, Gavin -- Oturai, Annette Bang -- Strange, Amy -- Saarela, Janna -- Bellenguez, Celine -- Fontaine, Bertrand -- Gillman, Matthew -- Hemmer, Bernhard -- Gwilliam, Rhian -- Zipp, Frauke -- Jayakumar, Alagurevathi -- Martin, Roland -- Leslie, Stephen -- Hawkins, Stanley -- Giannoulatou, Eleni -- D'alfonso, Sandra -- Blackburn, Hannah -- Martinelli Boneschi, Filippo -- Liddle, Jennifer -- Harbo, Hanne F -- Perez, Marc L -- Spurkland, Anne -- Waller, Matthew J -- Mycko, Marcin P -- Ricketts, Michelle -- Comabella, Manuel -- Hammond, Naomi -- Kockum, Ingrid -- McCann, Owen T -- Ban, Maria -- Whittaker, Pamela -- Kemppinen, Anu -- Weston, Paul -- Hawkins, Clive -- Widaa, Sara -- Zajicek, John -- Dronov, Serge -- Robertson, Neil -- Bumpstead, Suzannah J -- Barcellos, Lisa F -- Ravindrarajah, Rathi -- Abraham, Roby -- Alfredsson, Lars -- Ardlie, Kristin -- Aubin, Cristin -- Baker, Amie -- Baker, Katharine -- Baranzini, Sergio E -- Bergamaschi, Laura -- Bergamaschi, Roberto -- Bernstein, Allan -- Berthele, Achim -- Boggild, Mike -- Bradfield, Jonathan P -- Brassat, David -- Broadley, Simon A -- Buck, Dorothea -- Butzkueven, Helmut -- Capra, Ruggero -- Carroll, William M -- Cavalla, Paola -- Celius, Elisabeth G -- Cepok, Sabine -- Chiavacci, Rosetta -- Clerget-Darpoux, Francoise -- Clysters, Katleen -- Comi, Giancarlo -- Cossburn, Mark -- Cournu-Rebeix, Isabelle -- Cox, Mathew B -- Cozen, Wendy -- Cree, Bruce A C -- Cross, Anne H -- Cusi, Daniele -- Daly, Mark J -- Davis, Emma -- de Bakker, Paul I W -- Debouverie, Marc -- D'hooghe, Marie Beatrice -- Dixon, Katherine -- Dobosi, Rita -- Dubois, Benedicte -- Ellinghaus, David -- Elovaara, Irina -- Esposito, Federica -- Fontenille, Claire -- Foote, Simon -- Franke, Andre -- Galimberti, Daniela -- Ghezzi, Angelo -- Glessner, Joseph -- Gomez, Refujia -- Gout, Olivier -- Graham, Colin -- Grant, Struan F A -- Guerini, Franca Rosa -- Hakonarson, Hakon -- Hall, Per -- Hamsten, Anders -- Hartung, Hans-Peter -- Heard, Rob N -- Heath, Simon -- Hobart, Jeremy -- Hoshi, Muna -- Infante-Duarte, Carmen -- Ingram, Gillian -- Ingram, Wendy -- Islam, Talat -- Jagodic, Maja -- Kabesch, Michael -- Kermode, Allan G -- Kilpatrick, Trevor J -- Kim, Cecilia -- Klopp, Norman -- Koivisto, Keijo -- Larsson, Malin -- Lathrop, Mark -- Lechner-Scott, Jeannette S -- Leone, Maurizio A -- Leppa, Virpi -- Liljedahl, Ulrika -- Bomfim, Izaura Lima -- Lincoln, Robin R -- Link, Jenny -- Liu, Jianjun -- Lorentzen, Aslaug R -- Lupoli, Sara -- Macciardi, Fabio -- Mack, Thomas -- Marriott, Mark -- Martinelli, Vittorio -- Mason, Deborah -- McCauley, Jacob L -- Mentch, Frank -- Mero, Inger-Lise -- Mihalova, Tania -- Montalban, Xavier -- Mottershead, John -- Myhr, Kjell-Morten -- Naldi, Paola -- Ollier, William -- Page, Alison -- Palotie, Aarno -- Pelletier, Jean -- Piccio, Laura -- Pickersgill, Trevor -- Piehl, Fredrik -- Pobywajlo, Susan -- Quach, Hong L -- Ramsay, Patricia P -- Reunanen, Mauri -- Reynolds, Richard -- Rioux, John D -- Rodegher, Mariaemma -- Roesner, Sabine -- Rubio, Justin P -- Ruckert, Ina-Maria -- Salvetti, Marco -- Salvi, Erika -- Santaniello, Adam -- Schaefer, Catherine A -- Schreiber, Stefan -- Schulze, Christian -- Scott, Rodney J -- Sellebjerg, Finn -- Selmaj, Krzysztof W -- Sexton, David -- Shen, Ling -- Simms-Acuna, Brigid -- Skidmore, Sheila -- Sleiman, Patrick M A -- Smestad, Cathrine -- Sorensen, Per Soelberg -- Sondergaard, Helle Bach -- Stankovich, Jim -- Strange, Richard C -- Sulonen, Anna-Maija -- Sundqvist, Emilie -- Syvanen, Ann-Christine -- Taddeo, Francesca -- Taylor, Bruce -- Blackwell, Jenefer M -- Tienari, Pentti -- Bramon, Elvira -- Tourbah, Ayman -- Brown, Matthew A -- Tronczynska, Ewa -- Casas, Juan P -- Tubridy, Niall -- Corvin, Aiden -- Vickery, Jane -- Jankowski, Janusz -- Villoslada, Pablo -- Markus, Hugh S -- Wang, Kai -- Mathew, Christopher G -- Wason, James -- Palmer, Colin N A -- Wichmann, H-Erich -- Plomin, Robert -- Willoughby, Ernest -- Rautanen, Anna -- Winkelmann, Juliane -- Wittig, Michael -- Trembath, Richard C -- Yaouanq, Jacqueline -- Viswanathan, Ananth C -- Zhang, Haitao -- Wood, Nicholas W -- Zuvich, Rebecca -- Deloukas, Panos -- Langford, Cordelia -- Duncanson, Audrey -- Oksenberg, Jorge R -- Pericak-Vance, Margaret A -- Haines, Jonathan L -- Olsson, Tomas -- Hillert, Jan -- Ivinson, Adrian J -- De Jager, Philip L -- Peltonen, Leena -- Stewart, Graeme J -- Hafler, David A -- Hauser, Stephen L -- McVean, Gil -- Donnelly, Peter -- Compston, Alastair -- 068545/Z/02/Wellcome Trust/United Kingdom -- 075491/Z/04/Z/Wellcome Trust/United Kingdom -- 084702/Wellcome Trust/United Kingdom -- 085475/Wellcome Trust/United Kingdom -- 085475/B/08/Z/Wellcome Trust/United Kingdom -- 085475/Z/08/Z/Wellcome Trust/United Kingdom -- 090532/Wellcome Trust/United Kingdom -- 898/Multiple Sclerosis Society/United Kingdom -- AI076544/AI/NIAID NIH HHS/ -- CA104021/CA/NCI NIH HHS/ -- G0100594/Medical Research Council/United Kingdom -- G0400017/Medical Research Council/United Kingdom -- G0700061/Medical Research Council/United Kingdom -- G0901310/Medical Research Council/United Kingdom -- G0901461/Medical Research Council/United Kingdom -- G19/2/Medical Research Council/United Kingdom -- K23N/S048869/PHS HHS/ -- NS032830/NS/NINDS NIH HHS/ -- NS049477/NS/NINDS NIH HHS/ -- NS049510/NS/NINDS NIH HHS/ -- NS067305/NS/NINDS NIH HHS/ -- NS19142/NS/NINDS NIH HHS/ -- NS26799/NS/NINDS NIH HHS/ -- NS43559/NS/NINDS NIH HHS/ -- PDA/02/06/016/Department of Health/United Kingdom -- R01 NS026799/NS/NINDS NIH HHS/ -- R01 NS049477/NS/NINDS NIH HHS/ -- R01 NS049477-06A1/NS/NINDS NIH HHS/ -- RR020092/RR/NCRR NIH HHS/ -- RR024992/RR/NCRR NIH HHS/ -- UL1 TR000448/TR/NCATS NIH HHS/ -- Medical Research Council/United Kingdom -- England -- Nature. 2011 Aug 10;476(7359):214-9. doi: 10.1038/nature10251.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Record origin:〈/span〉 〈a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21833088" target="_blank"〉PubMed〈/a〉
    Keywords: Alleles ; Cell Differentiation/immunology ; Europe/ethnology ; Genetic Predisposition to Disease/*genetics ; Genome, Human/genetics ; Genome-Wide Association Study ; HLA-A Antigens/genetics ; HLA-DR Antigens/genetics ; HLA-DRB1 Chains ; Humans ; Immunity, Cellular/genetics/*immunology ; Major Histocompatibility Complex/genetics ; Multiple Sclerosis/*genetics/*immunology ; Polymorphism, Single Nucleotide/genetics ; Sample Size ; T-Lymphocytes, Helper-Inducer/cytology/immunology
    Print ISSN: 0028-0836
    Electronic ISSN: 1476-4687
    Topics: Biology , Chemistry and Pharmacology , Medicine , Natural Sciences in General , Physics
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  • 2
    Publication Date: 2010-04-03
    Description: Copy number variants (CNVs) account for a major proportion of human genetic polymorphism and have been predicted to have an important role in genetic susceptibility to common disease. To address this we undertook a large, direct genome-wide study of association between CNVs and eight common human diseases. Using a purpose-designed array we typed approximately 19,000 individuals into distinct copy-number classes at 3,432 polymorphic CNVs, including an estimated approximately 50% of all common CNVs larger than 500 base pairs. We identified several biological artefacts that lead to false-positive associations, including systematic CNV differences between DNAs derived from blood and cell lines. Association testing and follow-up replication analyses confirmed three loci where CNVs were associated with disease-IRGM for Crohn's disease, HLA for Crohn's disease, rheumatoid arthritis and type 1 diabetes, and TSPAN8 for type 2 diabetes-although in each case the locus had previously been identified in single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP)-based studies, reflecting our observation that most common CNVs that are well-typed on our array are well tagged by SNPs and so have been indirectly explored through SNP studies. We conclude that common CNVs that can be typed on existing platforms are unlikely to contribute greatly to the genetic basis of common human diseases.〈br /〉〈br /〉〈a href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC2892339/" target="_blank"〉〈img src="https://static.pubmed.gov/portal/portal3rc.fcgi/4089621/img/3977009" border="0"〉〈/a〉   〈a href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC2892339/" target="_blank"〉This paper as free author manuscript - peer-reviewed and accepted for publication〈/a〉〈br /〉〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Notes: 〈/span〉Wellcome Trust Case Control Consortium -- Craddock, Nick -- Hurles, Matthew E -- Cardin, Niall -- Pearson, Richard D -- Plagnol, Vincent -- Robson, Samuel -- Vukcevic, Damjan -- Barnes, Chris -- Conrad, Donald F -- Giannoulatou, Eleni -- Holmes, Chris -- Marchini, Jonathan L -- Stirrups, Kathy -- Tobin, Martin D -- Wain, Louise V -- Yau, Chris -- Aerts, Jan -- Ahmad, Tariq -- Andrews, T Daniel -- Arbury, Hazel -- Attwood, Anthony -- Auton, Adam -- Ball, Stephen G -- Balmforth, Anthony J -- Barrett, Jeffrey C -- Barroso, Ines -- Barton, Anne -- Bennett, Amanda J -- Bhaskar, Sanjeev -- Blaszczyk, Katarzyna -- Bowes, John -- Brand, Oliver J -- Braund, Peter S -- Bredin, Francesca -- Breen, Gerome -- Brown, Morris J -- Bruce, Ian N -- Bull, Jaswinder -- Burren, Oliver S -- Burton, John -- Byrnes, Jake -- Caesar, Sian -- Clee, Chris M -- Coffey, Alison J -- Connell, John M C -- Cooper, Jason D -- Dominiczak, Anna F -- Downes, Kate -- Drummond, Hazel E -- Dudakia, Darshna -- Dunham, Andrew -- Ebbs, Bernadette -- Eccles, Diana -- Edkins, Sarah -- Edwards, Cathryn -- Elliot, Anna -- Emery, Paul -- Evans, David M -- Evans, Gareth -- Eyre, Steve -- Farmer, Anne -- Ferrier, I Nicol -- Feuk, Lars -- Fitzgerald, Tomas -- Flynn, Edward -- Forbes, Alistair -- Forty, Liz -- Franklyn, Jayne A -- Freathy, Rachel M -- Gibbs, Polly -- Gilbert, Paul -- Gokumen, Omer -- Gordon-Smith, Katherine -- Gray, Emma -- Green, Elaine -- Groves, Chris J -- Grozeva, Detelina -- Gwilliam, Rhian -- Hall, Anita -- Hammond, Naomi -- Hardy, Matt -- Harrison, Pile -- Hassanali, Neelam -- Hebaishi, Husam -- Hines, Sarah -- Hinks, Anne -- Hitman, Graham A -- Hocking, Lynne -- Howard, Eleanor -- Howard, Philip -- Howson, Joanna M M -- Hughes, Debbie -- Hunt, Sarah -- Isaacs, John D -- Jain, Mahim -- Jewell, Derek P -- Johnson, Toby -- Jolley, Jennifer D -- Jones, Ian R -- Jones, Lisa A -- Kirov, George -- Langford, Cordelia F -- Lango-Allen, Hana -- Lathrop, G Mark -- Lee, James -- Lee, Kate L -- Lees, Charlie -- Lewis, Kevin -- Lindgren, Cecilia M -- Maisuria-Armer, Meeta -- Maller, Julian -- Mansfield, John -- Martin, Paul -- Massey, Dunecan C O -- McArdle, Wendy L -- McGuffin, Peter -- McLay, Kirsten E -- Mentzer, Alex -- Mimmack, Michael L -- Morgan, Ann E -- Morris, Andrew P -- Mowat, Craig -- Myers, Simon -- Newman, William -- Nimmo, Elaine R -- O'Donovan, Michael C -- Onipinla, Abiodun -- Onyiah, Ifejinelo -- Ovington, Nigel R -- Owen, Michael J -- Palin, Kimmo -- Parnell, Kirstie -- Pernet, David -- Perry, John R B -- Phillips, Anne -- Pinto, Dalila -- Prescott, Natalie J -- Prokopenko, Inga -- Quail, Michael A -- Rafelt, Suzanne -- Rayner, Nigel W -- Redon, Richard -- Reid, David M -- Renwick -- Ring, Susan M -- Robertson, Neil -- Russell, Ellie -- St Clair, David -- Sambrook, Jennifer G -- Sanderson, Jeremy D -- Schuilenburg, Helen -- Scott, Carol E -- Scott, Richard -- Seal, Sheila -- Shaw-Hawkins, Sue -- Shields, Beverley M -- Simmonds, Matthew J -- Smyth, Debbie J -- Somaskantharajah, Elilan -- Spanova, Katarina -- Steer, Sophia -- Stephens, Jonathan -- Stevens, Helen E -- Stone, Millicent A -- Su, Zhan -- Symmons, Deborah P M -- Thompson, John R -- Thomson, Wendy -- Travers, Mary E -- Turnbull, Clare -- Valsesia, Armand -- Walker, Mark -- Walker, Neil M -- Wallace, Chris -- Warren-Perry, Margaret -- Watkins, Nicholas A -- Webster, John -- Weedon, Michael N -- Wilson, Anthony G -- Woodburn, Matthew -- Wordsworth, B Paul -- Young, Allan H -- Zeggini, Eleftheria -- Carter, Nigel P -- Frayling, Timothy M -- Lee, Charles -- McVean, Gil -- Munroe, Patricia B -- Palotie, Aarno -- Sawcer, Stephen J -- Scherer, Stephen W -- Strachan, David P -- Tyler-Smith, Chris -- Brown, Matthew A -- Burton, Paul R -- Caulfield, Mark J -- Compston, Alastair -- Farrall, Martin -- Gough, Stephen C L -- Hall, Alistair S -- Hattersley, Andrew T -- Hill, Adrian V S -- Mathew, Christopher G -- Pembrey, Marcus -- Satsangi, Jack -- Stratton, Michael R -- Worthington, Jane -- Deloukas, Panos -- Duncanson, Audrey -- Kwiatkowski, Dominic P -- McCarthy, Mark I -- Ouwehand, Willem -- Parkes, Miles -- Rahman, Nazneen -- Todd, John A -- Samani, Nilesh J -- Donnelly, Peter -- 061858/Wellcome Trust/United Kingdom -- 083948/Wellcome Trust/United Kingdom -- 089989/Wellcome Trust/United Kingdom -- 090532/Wellcome Trust/United Kingdom -- 17552/Arthritis Research UK/United Kingdom -- CZB/4/540/Chief Scientist Office/United Kingdom -- ETM/137/Chief Scientist Office/United Kingdom -- ETM/75/Chief Scientist Office/United Kingdom -- G0000934/Medical Research Council/United Kingdom -- G0400874/Medical Research Council/United Kingdom -- G0500115/Medical Research Council/United Kingdom -- G0501942/Medical Research Council/United Kingdom -- G0600329/Medical Research Council/United Kingdom -- G0600705/Medical Research Council/United Kingdom -- G0700491/Medical Research Council/United Kingdom -- G0701003/Medical Research Council/United Kingdom -- G0701420/Medical Research Council/United Kingdom -- G0701810/Medical Research Council/United Kingdom -- G0701810(85517)/Medical Research Council/United Kingdom -- G0800383/Medical Research Council/United Kingdom -- G0800509/Medical Research Council/United Kingdom -- G0800759/Medical Research Council/United Kingdom -- G19/9/Medical Research Council/United Kingdom -- G90/106/Medical Research Council/United Kingdom -- G9521010/Medical Research Council/United Kingdom -- MC_UP_A390_1107/Medical Research Council/United Kingdom -- RG/09/012/28096/British Heart Foundation/United Kingdom -- Wellcome Trust/United Kingdom -- England -- Nature. 2010 Apr 1;464(7289):713-20. doi: 10.1038/nature08979.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Record origin:〈/span〉 〈a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/20360734" target="_blank"〉PubMed〈/a〉
    Keywords: Arthritis, Rheumatoid/genetics ; Case-Control Studies ; Crohn Disease/genetics ; DNA Copy Number Variations/*genetics ; Diabetes Mellitus/genetics ; *Disease ; Gene Frequency/genetics ; Genetic Predisposition to Disease/*genetics ; *Genome-Wide Association Study ; Humans ; Nucleic Acid Hybridization ; Oligonucleotide Array Sequence Analysis ; Pilot Projects ; Polymorphism, Single Nucleotide/genetics ; Quality Control
    Print ISSN: 0028-0836
    Electronic ISSN: 1476-4687
    Topics: Biology , Chemistry and Pharmacology , Medicine , Natural Sciences in General , Physics
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  • 3
    Publication Date: 2014-05-23
    Description: Identifying rare, highly penetrant risk mutations may be an important step in dissecting the molecular etiology of schizophrenia. We conducted a gene-based analysis of large (〉100 kb), rare copy-number variants (CNVs) in the Wellcome Trust Case Control Consortium 2 (WTCCC2) schizophrenia sample of 1564 cases and 1748 controls all from Ireland, and further extended the analysis to include an additional 5196 UK controls. We found association with duplications at chr20p12.2 ( P = 0.007) and evidence of replication in large independent European schizophrenia ( P = 0.052) and UK bipolar disorder case-control cohorts ( P = 0.047). A combined analysis of Irish/UK subjects including additional psychosis cases (schizophrenia and bipolar disorder) identified 22 carriers in 11 707 cases and 10 carriers in 21 204 controls [meta-analysis Cochran–Mantel–Haenszel P -value = 2 x 10 –4 ; odds ratio (OR) = 11.3, 95% CI = 3.7, ]. Nineteen of the 22 cases and 8 of the 10 controls carried duplications starting at 9.68 Mb with similar breakpoints across samples. By haplotype analysis and sequencing, we identified a tandem ~149 kb duplication overlapping the gene p21 Protein-Activated Kinase 7 ( PAK7 , also called PAK5 ) which was in linkage disequilibrium with local haplotypes ( P = 2.5 x 10 –21 ), indicative of a single ancestral duplication event. We confirmed the breakpoints in 8/8 carriers tested and found co-segregation of the duplication with illness in two additional family members of one of the affected probands. We demonstrate that PAK7 is developmentally co-expressed with another known psychosis risk gene ( DISC1 ) suggesting a potential molecular mechanism involving aberrant synapse development and plasticity.
    Print ISSN: 0964-6906
    Electronic ISSN: 1460-2083
    Topics: Biology , Medicine
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  • 4
    Publication Date: 2014-08-20
    Description: During HIV type-1 (HIV-1), hepatitis C virus (HCV), and hepatitis B virus (HBV) infections, altered iron balance correlates with morbidity. The liver-produced hormone hepcidin dictates systemic iron homeostasis. We measured hepcidin, iron parameters, cytokines, and inflammatory markers in three cohorts: plasma donors who developed acute HIV-1, HBV, or HCV viremia...
    Print ISSN: 0027-8424
    Electronic ISSN: 1091-6490
    Topics: Biology , Medicine , Natural Sciences in General
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  • 5
    Publication Date: 2013-12-11
    Description: The RAS proto-oncogene Harvey rat sarcoma viral oncogene homolog (HRAS) encodes a small GTPase that transduces signals from cell surface receptors to intracellular effectors to control cellular behavior. Although somatic HRAS mutations have been described in many cancers, germline mutations cause Costello syndrome (CS), a congenital disorder associated with predisposition...
    Print ISSN: 0027-8424
    Electronic ISSN: 1091-6490
    Topics: Biology , Medicine , Natural Sciences in General
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  • 6
    Publication Date: 2013-03-23
    Description: Craniofrontonasal syndrome (CFNS), an X-linked disorder caused by loss-of-function mutations of EFNB1 , exhibits a paradoxical sex reversal in phenotypic severity: females characteristically have frontonasal dysplasia, craniosynostosis and additional minor malformations, but males are usually more mildly affected with hypertelorism as the only feature. X-inactivation is proposed to explain the more severe outcome in heterozygous females, as this leads to functional mosaicism for cells with differing expression of EPHRIN-B1, generating abnormal tissue boundaries—a process that cannot occur in hemizygous males. Apparently challenging this model, males occasionally present with a more severe female-like CFNS phenotype. We hypothesized that such individuals might be mosaic for EFNB1 mutations and investigated this possibility in multiple tissue samples from six sporadically presenting males. Using denaturing high performance liquid chromatography, massively parallel sequencing and multiplex-ligation-dependent probe amplification (MLPA) to increase sensitivity above standard dideoxy sequencing, we identified mosaic mutations of EFNB1 in all cases, comprising three missense changes, two gene deletions and a novel point mutation within the 5' untranslated region (UTR). Quantification by Pyrosequencing and MLPA demonstrated levels of mutant cells between 15 and 69%. The 5' UTR variant mutates the stop codon of a small upstream open reading frame that, using a dual-luciferase reporter construct, was demonstrated to exacerbate interference with translation of the wild-type protein. These results demonstrate a more severe outcome in mosaic than in constitutionally deficient males in an X-linked dominant disorder and provide further support for the cellular interference mechanism, normally related to X-inactivation in females.
    Print ISSN: 0964-6906
    Electronic ISSN: 1460-2083
    Topics: Biology , Medicine
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  • 7
    Publication Date: 2016-03-02
    Description: De novo point mutations arise predominantly in the male germline and increase in frequency with age, but it has not previously been possible to locate specific, identifiable mutations directly within the seminiferous tubules of human testes. Using microdissection of tubules exhibiting altered expression of the spermatogonial markers MAGEA4, FGFR3, and...
    Print ISSN: 0027-8424
    Electronic ISSN: 1091-6490
    Topics: Biology , Medicine , Natural Sciences in General
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  • 8
    Publication Date: 2016-02-20
    Description: Mechanisms for transcription factor recognition of specific DNA base sequences are well characterized and recent studies demonstrate that the shape of these cognate binding sites is also important. Here, we uncover a new mechanism where the transcription factor GabR simultaneously recognizes two cognate binding sites and the shape of a 29 bp DNA sequence that bridges these sites. Small-angle X-ray scattering and multi-angle laser light scattering are consistent with a model where the DNA undergoes a conformational change to bend around GabR during binding. In silico predictions suggest that the bridging DNA sequence is likely to be bendable in one direction and kinetic analysis of mutant DNA sequences with biolayer interferometry, allowed the independent quantification of the relative contribution of DNA base and shape recognition in the GabR–DNA interaction. These indicate that the two cognate binding sites as well as the bendability of the DNA sequence in between these sites are required to form a stable complex. The mechanism of GabR–DNA interaction provides an example where the correct shape of DNA, at a clearly distinct location from the cognate binding site, is required for transcription factor binding and has implications for bioinformatics searches for novel binding sites.
    Print ISSN: 0305-1048
    Electronic ISSN: 1362-4962
    Topics: Biology
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