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  • 1
    Publication Date: 2013-04-19
    Description: Zebrafish have become a popular organism for the study of vertebrate gene function. The virtually transparent embryos of this species, and the ability to accelerate genetic studies by gene knockdown or overexpression, have led to the widespread use of zebrafish in the detailed investigation of vertebrate gene function and increasingly, the study of human genetic disease. However, for effective modelling of human genetic disease it is important to understand the extent to which zebrafish genes and gene structures are related to orthologous human genes. To examine this, we generated a high-quality sequence assembly of the zebrafish genome, made up of an overlapping set of completely sequenced large-insert clones that were ordered and oriented using a high-resolution high-density meiotic map. Detailed automatic and manual annotation provides evidence of more than 26,000 protein-coding genes, the largest gene set of any vertebrate so far sequenced. Comparison to the human reference genome shows that approximately 70% of human genes have at least one obvious zebrafish orthologue. In addition, the high quality of this genome assembly provides a clearer understanding of key genomic features such as a unique repeat content, a scarcity of pseudogenes, an enrichment of zebrafish-specific genes on chromosome 4 and chromosomal regions that influence sex determination.〈br /〉〈br /〉〈a href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3703927/" target="_blank"〉〈img src="https://static.pubmed.gov/portal/portal3rc.fcgi/4089621/img/3977009" border="0"〉〈/a〉   〈a href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3703927/" target="_blank"〉This paper as free author manuscript - peer-reviewed and accepted for publication〈/a〉〈br /〉〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Notes: 〈/span〉Howe, Kerstin -- Clark, Matthew D -- Torroja, Carlos F -- Torrance, James -- Berthelot, Camille -- Muffato, Matthieu -- Collins, John E -- Humphray, Sean -- McLaren, Karen -- Matthews, Lucy -- McLaren, Stuart -- Sealy, Ian -- Caccamo, Mario -- Churcher, Carol -- Scott, Carol -- Barrett, Jeffrey C -- Koch, Romke -- Rauch, Gerd-Jorg -- White, Simon -- Chow, William -- Kilian, Britt -- Quintais, Leonor T -- Guerra-Assuncao, Jose A -- Zhou, Yi -- Gu, Yong -- Yen, Jennifer -- Vogel, Jan-Hinnerk -- Eyre, Tina -- Redmond, Seth -- Banerjee, Ruby -- Chi, Jianxiang -- Fu, Beiyuan -- Langley, Elizabeth -- Maguire, Sean F -- Laird, Gavin K -- Lloyd, David -- Kenyon, Emma -- Donaldson, Sarah -- Sehra, Harminder -- Almeida-King, Jeff -- Loveland, Jane -- Trevanion, Stephen -- Jones, Matt -- Quail, Mike -- Willey, Dave -- Hunt, Adrienne -- Burton, John -- Sims, Sarah -- McLay, Kirsten -- Plumb, Bob -- Davis, Joy -- Clee, Chris -- Oliver, Karen -- Clark, Richard -- Riddle, Clare -- Elliot, David -- Threadgold, Glen -- Harden, Glenn -- Ware, Darren -- Begum, Sharmin -- Mortimore, Beverley -- Kerry, Giselle -- Heath, Paul -- Phillimore, Benjamin -- Tracey, Alan -- Corby, Nicole -- Dunn, Matthew -- Johnson, Christopher -- Wood, Jonathan -- Clark, Susan -- Pelan, Sarah -- Griffiths, Guy -- Smith, Michelle -- Glithero, Rebecca -- Howden, Philip -- Barker, Nicholas -- Lloyd, Christine -- Stevens, Christopher -- Harley, Joanna -- Holt, Karen -- Panagiotidis, Georgios -- Lovell, Jamieson -- Beasley, Helen -- Henderson, Carl -- Gordon, Daria -- Auger, Katherine -- Wright, Deborah -- Collins, Joanna -- Raisen, Claire -- Dyer, Lauren -- Leung, Kenric -- Robertson, Lauren -- Ambridge, Kirsty -- Leongamornlert, Daniel -- McGuire, Sarah -- Gilderthorp, Ruth -- Griffiths, Coline -- Manthravadi, Deepa -- Nichol, Sarah -- Barker, Gary -- Whitehead, Siobhan -- Kay, Michael -- Brown, Jacqueline -- Murnane, Clare -- Gray, Emma -- Humphries, Matthew -- Sycamore, Neil -- Barker, Darren -- Saunders, David -- Wallis, Justene -- Babbage, Anne -- Hammond, Sian -- Mashreghi-Mohammadi, Maryam -- Barr, Lucy -- Martin, Sancha -- Wray, Paul -- Ellington, Andrew -- Matthews, Nicholas -- Ellwood, Matthew -- Woodmansey, Rebecca -- Clark, Graham -- Cooper, James D -- Tromans, Anthony -- Grafham, Darren -- Skuce, Carl -- Pandian, Richard -- Andrews, Robert -- Harrison, Elliot -- Kimberley, Andrew -- Garnett, Jane -- Fosker, Nigel -- Hall, Rebekah -- Garner, Patrick -- Kelly, Daniel -- Bird, Christine -- Palmer, Sophie -- Gehring, Ines -- Berger, Andrea -- Dooley, Christopher M -- Ersan-Urun, Zubeyde -- Eser, Cigdem -- Geiger, Horst -- Geisler, Maria -- Karotki, Lena -- Kirn, Anette -- Konantz, Judith -- Konantz, Martina -- Oberlander, Martina -- Rudolph-Geiger, Silke -- Teucke, Mathias -- Lanz, Christa -- Raddatz, Gunter -- Osoegawa, Kazutoyo -- Zhu, Baoli -- Rapp, Amanda -- Widaa, Sara -- Langford, Cordelia -- Yang, Fengtang -- Schuster, Stephan C -- Carter, Nigel P -- Harrow, Jennifer -- Ning, Zemin -- Herrero, Javier -- Searle, Steve M J -- Enright, Anton -- Geisler, Robert -- Plasterk, Ronald H A -- Lee, Charles -- Westerfield, Monte -- de Jong, Pieter J -- Zon, Leonard I -- Postlethwait, John H -- Nusslein-Volhard, Christiane -- Hubbard, Tim J P -- Roest Crollius, Hugues -- Rogers, Jane -- Stemple, Derek L -- 095908/Wellcome Trust/United Kingdom -- 098051/Wellcome Trust/United Kingdom -- 1 R01 DK55377-01A1/DK/NIDDK NIH HHS/ -- P01 HD022486/HD/NICHD NIH HHS/ -- P01 HD22486/HD/NICHD NIH HHS/ -- R01 GM085318/GM/NIGMS NIH HHS/ -- R01 OD011116/OD/NIH HHS/ -- R01 RR010715/RR/NCRR NIH HHS/ -- R01 RR020833/RR/NCRR NIH HHS/ -- England -- Nature. 2013 Apr 25;496(7446):498-503. doi: 10.1038/nature12111. Epub 2013 Apr 17.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Author address: 〈/span〉Wellcome Trust Sanger Institute, Wellcome Trust Genome Campus, Hinxton, Cambridge CB10 1SA, UK.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Record origin:〈/span〉 〈a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23594743" target="_blank"〉PubMed〈/a〉
    Keywords: Animals ; Chromosomes/genetics ; Conserved Sequence/*genetics ; Evolution, Molecular ; Female ; Genes/genetics ; Genome/*genetics ; Genome, Human/genetics ; Genomics ; Humans ; Male ; Meiosis/genetics ; Molecular Sequence Annotation ; Pseudogenes/genetics ; Reference Standards ; Sex Determination Processes/genetics ; Zebrafish/*genetics ; Zebrafish Proteins/genetics
    Print ISSN: 0028-0836
    Electronic ISSN: 1476-4687
    Topics: Biology , Chemistry and Pharmacology , Medicine , Natural Sciences in General , Physics
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  • 2
    ISSN: 1573-5036
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Agriculture, Forestry, Horticulture, Fishery, Domestic Science, Nutrition
    Notes: Summary Root zone temperatures were imposed to study their effect along with those of the air on temperatures of the shoot apices in stalks of maize plants (Zea mays L.). Plants were grown to the 6- to 8-leaf stages in sand culture. Internal stalk temperatures were measured in 21 plants using a Wheatstone bridge with a bead thermistor for two general cases — one with aerial temperatures (T a ) greater than root zone temperatures (T s ) and the other withT s greater thanT a . Temperature gradients longitudinally within the stalks were found to be primarily a function of the difference betweenT a andT s although the heat of respiration within the stalk apparently had some effect. The effect of both aerial and root zone temperatures in regulating temperatures of the shoot apices of young maize plants was evident from the experimental data. An attempt was made to compare the temperature gradient within a young maize plant stalk to a mathematical model consisting of an isotropic rod with one end immersed in an infinite heat source or sink. The comparison was not good apparently because of the morphology and complex physical nature of the stalk. Linear equations were developed from the experimental data for both cases (T a 〈T s andT a 〉T s ) which may be used to estimate the internal stalk temperature at positions in the lower 5 cm portion of the stalk given only the aerial and root zone temperatures.
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  • 3
    ISSN: 1573-2673
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Mechanical Engineering, Materials Science, Production Engineering, Mining and Metallurgy, Traffic Engineering, Precision Mechanics
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 4
    ISSN: 1520-5126
    Source: ACS Legacy Archives
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology
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  • 5
    ISSN: 1089-7550
    Source: AIP Digital Archive
    Topics: Physics
    Notes: Recent progress in preparing organic solids with ferromagnetic interactions between spins is reviewed. The three principal models are discussed together with relevant materials that have been prepared in Japan, at Columbia University, in Moscow, and at IBM, Almaden. These are compared with the molecular ferromagnets recently developed by Miller and Epstein, which are not strictly organic.
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  • 6
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    Chichester [u.a.] : Wiley-Blackwell
    Journal of Raman Spectroscopy 18 (1987), S. 281-287 
    ISSN: 0377-0486
    Keywords: Chemistry ; Analytical Chemistry and Spectroscopy
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology , Physics
    Notes: A fully computer-controlled Raman optical activity spectrometer equipped with an intensified diode array detector is described. Despite using a conventional single-lens light collection system for simplicity, both polarized and depolarized Raman optical activity spectra can be obtained rapidly and routinely. A novel double grating spectrograph design permits good spectra to be obtained down to 50 cm-1 in liquids. Natural spectra of the chiral samples (-)-α-pinene and (+)-methylcyclohexanone and magnetic spectra of iridium (IV) hexachloride are presented.
    Additional Material: 7 Ill.
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  • 7
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    Chichester [u.a.] : Wiley-Blackwell
    Journal of Raman Spectroscopy 13 (1982), S. 171-177 
    ISSN: 0377-0486
    Keywords: Chemistry ; Analytical Chemistry and Spectroscopy
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology , Physics
    Notes: The contribution of carbonyl deformation co-ordinates to normal modes is discussed in the context of the Raman optical activity of chiral molecules containing a carbonyl group attached to a cyclic system. A comparison of the Raman optical activity spectra of 3-methylcyclohexanone and 3-methyl methylenecyclohexane provides convincing evidence for the dominant role of carbonyl deformations in the generation of the large couplet at about 500 cm-1 in 3-methyl cyclohexanone. The spectra of nopinone, β-pinene and 5-methylcyclohex-2-ene-1-one are also discussed. Finally, a model bond polarizability theory of Raman optical activity in carbonyl deformations is presented.
    Additional Material: 6 Ill.
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  • 8
    ISSN: 1089-7690
    Source: AIP Digital Archive
    Topics: Physics , Chemistry and Pharmacology
    Notes: Ab initio cluster model wave functions of increasing complexity have been obtained for alkaline-earth oxides MgO to BaO. Using a wave function corresponding to the superposition of the electronic densities of the cations and anions obtained in a Madelung field, an ab initio version of the ionic model is obtained. This simple ionic model is improved with self-consistent field (SCF) and large multireference configuration interaction (CI) wave functions. Analysis of these different types of wave functions shows that the ground state of these oxides is strongly ionic with the ideally ionic configuration having a weight of ≈95% in the total CI wave function. With all the criteria that we have used, the degree of charge transfer from O2− to M2+ is always very small. Furthermore, the instantaneous electron–electron interactions (correlation effects) treated in the CI wave function have been found to be mainly intra-atomic and especially important for the 2p electrons of O2−. Point charges were used to represent the contribution to the Madelung field made by the atoms not explicitly included in the cluster; they were chosen to reproduce the Madelung field arising when a fully ionic crystal is assumed. Sets of scaled point charges which correspond to a smaller Madelung field were also used. The cluster model results were not significantly changed when the point charges were reduced by as much as a factor of 2 from the values for the fully ionic crystal. This is strong evidence that the ionicity of the crystals results from chemical forces and is not due to the use of an assumed Madelung field external to the cluster.
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  • 9
    ISSN: 0014-4827
    Source: Elsevier Journal Backfiles on ScienceDirect 1907 - 2002
    Topics: Biology , Medicine
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  • 10
    ISSN: 1476-4687
    Source: Nature Archives 1869 - 2009
    Topics: Biology , Chemistry and Pharmacology , Medicine , Natural Sciences in General , Physics
    Notes: [Auszug] We synthesized the materials by solid-state reaction. For the bismuth-based 2222 compounds, Bi2Sr2(Ln1_xCex)2Cu2O10+〉., we ground a mixture of stoichiometric amounts of Bi2O3, SrCO3, Ln2O3 (Ln = Sm, Eu or Gd), CeO2 and CuO and fired it at 900 á°C for 10 h; we then reground it and refired ...
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