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  • 1
    Publication Date: 2021-01-08
    Description: Abstract
    Description: This data set is the part 8 of a series reporting chemical data for accessory minerals from felsic igneous rocks. Compositional data were acquired by electron-probe microanalysis (EPMA) between about 1995 and 2005 on surface rocks and borehole samples. This data set assembles the results of EPMA of fluorapatite from felsic rocks representing three groups of granites in the Erzgebirge−Vogtland metallogenic province of Germany emplaced in the late Carboniferous: F-poor biotite granites, F-poor two-mica granites, and P-F-rich Li-mica granite. In these rocks, fluorapatite is typically omnipresent. It has to be noted that apatite has not yet been in the focus of mineralogical studies of the granites in this province and a comprehensive survey of its compositional signature and variability in space and time is still pending. However, the data listed in this data set provide a valuable glimpse into the similarities and differences in apatite chemistry between geochemically distinct felsic rocks, and into the evolution in composition from early to late crystallizing apatite populations. The data underpin that apatite is a sensitive monitor of the compositional properties of the media (melts and fluids) from which it was deposited or with which it interacted. Apatite from the studied rocks is basically fluorapatite with little or no Cl and OH detected respectively inferred. Elemental variations are observed at various scales, i.e., between granite groups, subsequently crystallized sub-intrusion within composite massifs, grains present in a single thin section, or between the center and the rim of a particular grain. These variations in particular refer to the following elements: Mn, Fe, Na, and the rare-earth elements (REE). For example, measured Mn concentrations range from 0.15 to 8.8 wt% MnO. The data set contains the complete pile of electron-microprobe analyses for fluorapatite (APAT-ERZ-2020). The data are presented as Excel (xlsx) and tab-delimited text (txt) formats. The content of the tables and further information on the granites and regional geology are provided in the data description file.
    Keywords: mineral composition ; magma differentiation ; electron-probe microanalysis ; Erzgebirge-Vogtland ; Variscan orogen ; Saxothuringian Zone ; felsic igneous rock ; granite ; fluorapatite ; EARTH SCIENCE 〉 SOLID EARTH 〉 ROCKS/MINERALS/CRYSTALS 〉 ELEMENTS ; EARTH SCIENCE 〉 SOLID EARTH 〉 ROCKS/MINERALS/CRYSTALS 〉 IGNEOUS ROCKS ; EARTH SCIENCE 〉 SOLID EARTH 〉 ROCKS/MINERALS/CRYSTALS 〉 MINERALS
    Type: Dataset , Dataset
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  • 2
    Publication Date: 2021-01-14
    Description: Abstract
    Description: The European-Mediterranean Seismological Centre (EMSC) is a non-profit scientific organization aiming at establishing and operating a rapid earthquake detection system globally and in particular in the European and Mediterranean regions as well as facilitating exchange between seismological institutes. The EMSC has been a pioneer in citizen seismology by collecting in-situ information on the earthquake impact directly from the witnesses. The EMSC has been collecting citizen intensity felt reports at a global scale for many years via two channels: its websites and its “LastQuake” smartphone application. These felt reports are collected through a set of 12 cartoons representing the 12 levels of the European Macroseismic Scale (Grünthal, 1998). They provide rapid information on how the earthquake’s impact is felt by the local population. The EMSC felt reports were shown to be consistent with the USGS Did You Feel It? (Wald et al., 2011) responses and with manually derived macroseismic datasets (Bossu et al., 2017). Such felt reports are provided for a set of 36 earthquakes, each tagged with a unique ID number. They are only considered for intensity values of up to 10, since higher values are unrealistic. Additionally, an interactive map of the aftershocks distribution is provided for each earthquake. These aftershocks are selected from the EMSC catalogue in the 14 days after the event and within 500km of the epicentre location. On each map, the beachball representing the two nodal planes as given by the Global Centroid Moment Tensor catalogue (Dziewonski et al., 1981; Ekstrom et al., 2012) is displayed at the epicentre location. For each event (identified by unique id number), the first line indicates catalogue information on the earthquake (event_id, region, origin_time (UTC), latitude, longitude, depth, magnitude, strike angle from GCMT) Each following line is a felt report gathered by the EMSC including, the longitude, latitude, reported intensity and report time.
    Keywords: felt reports ; rapid loss estimates ; crowd-sourced data ; citizen science ; finite-fault model ; EMSC ; European Mediterranean Seismological Centre ; EARTH SCIENCE 〉 SOLID EARTH 〉 TECTONICS 〉 EARTHQUAKES 〉 EARTHQUAKE MAGNITUDE/INTENSITY
    Type: Dataset , Dataset
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  • 3
    Publication Date: 2021-01-13
    Description: Abstract
    Description: This package provides a set of tools to read, manipulate and convert seismic waveforms generated by DAS systems. In particular, the ones saved in TDMs format: - dasconv: This utility lets you convert and manipulate seismic waveforms in TDMs format and export them into MiniSEED. - tdmsws (experimental) - a stand-alone implementation of the FDSN Dataselect web service, which is able to serve miniSEED data extracted from a folder with TDMS files.
    Description: Other
    Description: GNU General Public License, Version 3, 29 June 2007 Copyright (C) 2021 Helmholtz Centre Potsdam GFZ German Research Centre for Geosciences, Potsdam, Germany dastools is free software: you can redistribute it and/or modify it under the terms of the GNU General Public License as published by the Free Software Foundation, either version 3 of the License, or (at your option) any later version. dastools is distributed in the hope that it will be useful, but WITHOUT ANY WARRANTY; without even the implied warranty of MERCHANTABILITY or FITNESS FOR A PARTICULAR PURPOSE. See the GNU General Public License for more details. You should have received a copy of the GNU General Public License along with this program. If not, see https://www.gnu.org/licenses/.
    Keywords: Geofon ; EOSC Pillar ; RISE ; EARTH SCIENCE 〉 SOLID EARTH 〉 TECTONICS 〉 EARTHQUAKES ; EARTH SCIENCE SERVICES 〉 DATA ANALYSIS AND VISUALIZATION
    Type: Software , Software
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  • 4
    Publication Date: 2021-01-19
    Description: Abstract
    Description: The goal of MAGPIE is to improve estimates of present-day ice melting rates in Greenland by accurately correcting observed uplift rates for glacial isostatic adjustment (GIA) from past deglaciation. A key parameter required for constraining uplift rates for GIA is mantle viscosity, which can best be calculated from combined seismic and MT measurements. The data in this repository represent the first year of MAGPIE data collection. This data publication (10.5880/GIPP-MT.201913.1) encompasses a detailed report in pdf format with a description of the project, information on the experimental setup, data collection, instrumentation used, recording configuration and data quality. The folder structure and content of the data repository are described in detail in Ritter et al. (2019). Time-series data are provided in EMERALD format (Ritter et al., 2015).
    Description: Other
    Description: The Geophysical Instrument Pool Potsdam (GIPP) provides field instruments for (temporary) seismological studies (both controlled source and earthquake seismology) and for magnetotelluric (electromagnetic) experiments. The GIPP is operated by the GFZ German Research Centre for Geosciences. The instrument facility is open for academic use. Instrument applications are evaluated and ranked by an external steering board. See Haberland and Ritter (2016) and https://www.gfz-potsdam.de/gipp for more information.
    Keywords: Mantle ; Glacial isostatic adjustment ; Earth Remote Sensing Instruments 〉 Passive Remote Sensing 〉 Magnetic Field/Electric Field Instruments 〉 Probes ; EARTH SCIENCE 〉 SOLID EARTH 〉 GEOMAGNETISM 〉 MAGNETIC FIELD 〉 GEOMAGNETIC INDUCTION ; Solar/Space Observing Instruments 〉 Magnetic Field/Electric Field Instruments
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  • 5
    Publication Date: 2021-01-21
    Description: Abstract
    Description: The HUST-Grace2020 model is the latest GRACE-only gravity field solution developed at Huazhong University of Science and Technology. The model includes a set of spherical harmonic coefficients with different maximum degrees (60 and 90), and they are all unconstrained solutions. During retrieving our model, the reprocessed GRACE L1b RL03 data is used, and the newly de-aliasing product AOD1B RL06 is applied. Further details are presented in Zhou et al. (2018, 2019). This work is supported by the National Natural Science Foundation of China (No. 42074018, 41704012, 41931074, 42061134007) and National Key Research and Development Program of China (No. 2018YFC1503503, 2018YFC1503504).
    Description: Other
    Description: Parameters: product_type: gravity_field modelname: HUST-Grace2020-nLL-YYYYMM generating institute: HuaZhong University of Science and Technology earth_gravity_constant: 3.9860044150E+14 radius: 6.3781363000E+06 max_degree: LL errors: formal norm: fully_normalized tide_system: zero_tide
    Keywords: GRACE ; monthly gravity field model ; ICGEM ; geodesy ; Earth Observation Satellites 〉 NASA Earth System Science Pathfinder 〉 GRACE ; EARTH SCIENCE 〉 SOLID EARTH 〉 GEODETICS 〉 GEOID CHARACTERISTICS ; EARTH SCIENCE 〉 SOLID EARTH 〉 GRAVITY/GRAVITATIONAL FIELD
    Type: Dataset , Dataset
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  • 6
    Publication Date: 2021-01-25
    Description: TableOfContents
    Description: This dataset comprises results of ion concentration (ICP-OES) and isotopic analyses (d17O,d18O, d2H, 17O-excess, d-excess) of water samples from ponds and lakes taken at the Salar del Huasco between 09/2017 and 03/2019, as well as isotopic data of pan evaporation experiments carried out on-site.
    Keywords: Stable Isotope Geochemistry ; Paleoclimate Proxies ; Wind ; environment
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  • 7
    Publication Date: 2021-01-26
    Description: Abstract
    Description: The International Geodynamics and Earth Tide Service (IGETS) was established in 2015 by the International Association of Geodesy (IAG). IGETS continues the activities of the Global Geodynamics Project (GGP, 1997-2015) to provide support to geodetic and geophysical research activities using superconducting gravimeter (SG) data within the context of an international network. The Membach station is located near the river Vesdre. It consists of a 130 m long gallery excavated in the side of the valley that rises to the Hautes Fagnes plateau. At the end of the gallery, there are two rooms, located at ~45 m below the ground surface. Room 1 is dedicated to absolute gravity and seismic measurements; room 2 houses the superconducting gravimeter. The structure of the gallery and the rooms is in reinforced concrete. It was built in the early 1970s to monitor the seismic activity in the vicinity of the Gileppe and Eupen water reservoirs. Works were performed contemporeanously with the raising of the Gileppe dam. The gallery has been excavated in low-porosity argillaceous sandstone with quartzitic beds. As a function of rainfall and seasonal effects, gravity variations up to 40 nms-2 have been observed, and are mostly due to groundwater changes in the vadose zone above the underground laboratory (Van Camp et al., 2006). Strong rainfall induces rapid gravity decreases (Meurers et al 2007; Delobbe et al., 2019). At the surface, a beech forest. Absolute gravity measurements have been performed on average every month since 1996, using the FG5#202 gravimeter and the station is also the reference point for the Belgian gravity network. The SG GWR#C021 has been operating continuously since 1995 August so that, since 2017 September 18, it holds both records for the longest continuous time spent measuring gravity variations in the same place and for the longest superconducting levitation of an artefact (Van Camp et al., 2017). For high precision works like Earth tides analysis on long time series, data should not be used before 1998 June 12, when the original "TIDE" card in the SG electronics was replaced by the "GGP" one. Filters are different, and so are the transfer functions. Moreover, in this early period, the SG suffered from numerous technical issues, causing several changes in the amplitude and phase calibrations and making it difficult to ensure that the data are as reliable as after 1998 June.
    Keywords: Superconducting gravimetry ; Earth's free oscillations ; Hydrogeology ; Time-varying gravity ; Vadose zone ; Superconducting gravimetry ; Earth tides ; Geodynamics ; EARTH SCIENCE 〉 SOLID EARTH 〉 GRAVITY/GRAVITATIONAL FIELD 〉 GRAVITY ; geodesy ; geophysics ; hydrology
    Type: Dataset , Dataset
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  • 8
    Publication Date: 2021-01-26
    Description: Abstract
    Description: This data publication includes standard rock magnetic data related to concentration, coercivity and magneto-mineralogy versus depth from twelve sediment cores recovered from the Arkhangelsky Ridge in the Southeastern Black Sea, German RV Maria S. Merian expedition MSM33 in 2013: MSM33-51-3, MSM33-52-1, MSM33-53-1, MSM33-54-3, MSM33-55-1, MSM33-56-1, MSM33-57-1, MSM33-60-1, MSM33-61-1, MSM33-62-2, MSM33-63-1, MSM33-64-1. The data are related to publications by Liu et al. (2018, 2019, 2020), Liu (2019) and Nowaczyk et al. (2012, 2013, 2018, 2021a, b). Sediment cores were recovered using gravitiy and piston corers. For paleo- and rock magnetic analyses clear plastic boxes of 20×20×15 mm were pressed into the split halves of the generally 1 m long sections of the sediment cores. Data are provided as 12 ASCII files (.dat, one for each core) with metadata header and are decribed in the associated data description file (pdf).
    Keywords: sediment magnetization ; Black Sea ; Palaeomagnetism ; Magnetic properties ; Palaeointensity ; Magnetic fabrics and anisotropy ; EPOS ; multi-scale laboratories ; paleomagnetic and magnetic data ; paleomagnetic data ; Core ; EARTH SCIENCE 〉 SOLID EARTH 〉 GEOMAGNETISM 〉 MAGNETIC FIELD 〉 MAGNETIC DECLINATION ; EARTH SCIENCE 〉 SOLID EARTH 〉 GEOMAGNETISM 〉 MAGNETIC FIELD 〉 MAGNETIC INCLINATION ; EARTH SCIENCE 〉 SOLID EARTH 〉 GEOMAGNETISM 〉 MAGNETIC FIELD 〉 MAGNETIC INTENSITY ; EARTH SCIENCE 〉 SOLID EARTH 〉 GEOMAGNETISM 〉 PALEOMAGNETISM ; remanent magnetisation 〉 demagnetisation type AF ; Sedimentary
    Type: Dataset , Dataset
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  • 9
    Publication Date: 2021-01-26
    Description: Abstract
    Description: The International Geodynamics and Earth Tide Service (IGETS) was established in 2015 by the International Association of Geodesy (IAG). IGETS continues the activities of the Global Geodynamics Project (GGP, 1997-2015) to provide support to geodetic and geophysical research activities using superconducting gravimeter (SG) data within the context of an international network. In 2014 December the Royal Observatory of Belgium installed the iGrav #019 at the surface site of the Rochefort "Lorette" cave laboratory. The Lorette cave is one of several cavities that belong to the Wamme–Lomme karst system, a 10 km long karst area. At the surface of the site, a small and solid building, located at the border of a large sinkhole, hosts the gravity laboratory, which is thermally stabilized at ~25°C by a heater, excepted during a few days each summer when the temperature may increase above that level. The iGrav #019 is installed directly on the bedrock (limestone) in a 1 m deep shaft. Two meters away from the iGrav there is a pillar of cement (60% sand, 40% cement, no iron nor stones) founded 1 meter deep on the bedrock and on which absolute gravity measurements are performed 10 times or more per year with the FG5#202 absolute gravimeter. See description in Fig A7 in Van Camp et al., 2017. As this instrument was installed among others to investigate flash floods in the caves, it regularly monitors sudden changes in gravity reaching 50-100 nm/s², especially during the winter (Watlet et al., 2020). This should be considered when performing e.g. tidal analyses.
    Keywords: Superconducting gravimetry ; Karst ; Hydrogeology ; Time-varying gravity ; Vadoze zone ; Saturated zone ; Superconducting gravimetry ; Earth tides ; Geodynamics ; EARTH SCIENCE 〉 SOLID EARTH 〉 GRAVITY/GRAVITATIONAL FIELD 〉 GRAVITY ; geodesy ; geophysics ; hydrology
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  • 10
    Publication Date: 2021-01-26
    Description: Abstract
    Description: This data publication includes standard rock magnetic data related to concentration, coercivity and magneto-mineralogy versus depth from six sediment cores (M72/5-22GC3, M72-5-22GC4, M72-5-22GC6, M72-5-22GC8, M72-5-24GC3, M72-5-25GC1), collected at the Arkhangelsky Ridge in the Southeastern Black Sea during the marine expedition M72/5 of the German research vessel RV METEOR (in May 2007). The data are related to publications by Liu et al. (2018, 2019, 2020), Liu (2019) and Nowaczyk et al. (2012, 2013, 2018, 2021a, b). Sediment cores were recovered using gravity corers. For paleo- and rock magnetic analyses clear plastic boxes of 20×20×15 mm were pressed into the split halves of the generally 1 m long sections of the sediment cores. Data are provided as six ASCII files (.dat, one for each core) with metadata header, followed by 12 data columns and are decribed in the associated data description file (pdf).
    Keywords: sediment magnetization ; Black Sea ; Palaeomagnetism ; Magnetic properties ; Palaeointensity ; Magnetic fabrics and anisotropy ; EPOS ; multi-scale laboratories ; paleomagnetic and magnetic data ; paleomagnetic data ; Core ; EARTH SCIENCE 〉 SOLID EARTH 〉 GEOMAGNETISM 〉 MAGNETIC FIELD 〉 MAGNETIC DECLINATION ; EARTH SCIENCE 〉 SOLID EARTH 〉 GEOMAGNETISM 〉 MAGNETIC FIELD 〉 MAGNETIC INCLINATION ; EARTH SCIENCE 〉 SOLID EARTH 〉 GEOMAGNETISM 〉 MAGNETIC FIELD 〉 MAGNETIC INTENSITY ; EARTH SCIENCE 〉 SOLID EARTH 〉 GEOMAGNETISM 〉 PALEOMAGNETISM ; remanent magnetisation 〉 demagnetisation type AF ; Sedimentary
    Type: Dataset , Dataset
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  • 11
    Publication Date: 2021-01-26
    Description: Abstract
    Description: This data publication includes stacked paleomagnetic data, inclinations, declinations, and relative paleointensities, for the time interval 120 to 180 ka, comprising data from twelve sediment cores recovered from the Arkhangelsky Ridge in the Southeastern Black Sea; German RV Meteor expedition M72/5 in 2007: M72/5-22GC6, M72/5-22GC8; German RV Maria S. Merian expedition MSM33 in 2013: MSM33-51-3, MSM33-52-1, MSM33-54-3, MSM33-56-1, MSM33-57-1, MSM33-60-1, MSM33-61-1, MSM33-62-2, MSM33-63-1, MSM33-64-1. The data are also described in Nowaczyk et al. (2021). Sediment cores were recovered using gravitiy and piston corers. For paleo- and mineral-magnetic analyses clear plastic boxes of 20×20×15 mm were pressed into the split halves of the generally 1 m long sections of the sediment cores. Data are provided as six ASCII files (.dat, one for each core) with metadata header, followed by 12 data columns and are decribed in the associated data description file (pdf).
    Keywords: sediment magnetization ; Black Sea ; Palaeomagnetism ; Magnetic properties ; Palaeointensity ; Magnetic fabrics and anisotropy ; EPOS ; multi-scale laboratories ; paleomagnetic and magnetic data ; paleomagnetic data ; Core ; EARTH SCIENCE 〉 SOLID EARTH 〉 GEOMAGNETISM 〉 MAGNETIC FIELD 〉 MAGNETIC DECLINATION ; EARTH SCIENCE 〉 SOLID EARTH 〉 GEOMAGNETISM 〉 MAGNETIC FIELD 〉 MAGNETIC INCLINATION ; EARTH SCIENCE 〉 SOLID EARTH 〉 GEOMAGNETISM 〉 MAGNETIC FIELD 〉 MAGNETIC INTENSITY ; EARTH SCIENCE 〉 SOLID EARTH 〉 GEOMAGNETISM 〉 PALEOMAGNETISM ; remanent magnetisation 〉 demagnetisation type AF ; Sedimentary
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  • 12
    Publication Date: 2021-01-27
    Description: Abstract
    Description: The data set comprises new thermochronologic data along the TRANSALP geophysical transect in the Eastern Alps, i.e. (i) apatite and (ii) zircon (U-Th)/He measurements (Tables S1, S2 and S3), and (iii) HeFTy inverse thermal time-temperature-path models ('HeFTy_Models.zip') including a table of parameters used (Table S4). Individual model files can be opened using the HeFTy software (Ketcham et al., 2007).
    Description: Methods
    Description: Sampling method Bedrock samples were taken along the TRANSALP geophysical transect (e.g., Lüschen et al., 2004; 2006) with the main purpose of relating new (and existing) thermochronological data to previously identified mantle geometries and to gain orogen-scale insights into the evolution of the eastern European Alps since initialization of collision in the Eocene/Oligocene. Apatite and zircon (U-Th)/He analyses were the method of choice for two reasons: (i) these systems are considered most suitable to detect periods and locations of increased exhumation that are related to the Neogene evolution of the European Alps including changes in mantle geometries, and (ii) these systems systematically complement existing thermochronology data along the transect, which are predominantly comprised of fission-track data. Detailed analytical procedure is described in the dateset description file ("2020-48_Eizenhöfer-et-al_Data Description.pdf").
    Keywords: European Alps ; Thermochronology ; TRANSALP ; 4DMB ; Mountain Building Processes in 4D ; EARTH SCIENCE 〉 SOLID EARTH 〉 TECTONICS ; tectonics ; thermochronology
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  • 13
    Publication Date: 2019-12-20
    Description: Abstract
    Description: This data set includes the results of digital image correlation of ten brittle-viscous experiments on crustal extension and four benchmark experiments performed at the Tectonic Modelling Lab of the University of Bern (UB). The experiments demonstrate the differences in rift development in orthogonal versus rotation extension. Detailed descriptions of the experiments and monitoring techniques can be found in Zwaan et al. (2019) to which this data set is supplementary. Additional background information concerning the general modelling approach are available in Zwaan et al. (2016).. The data presented here consist of movies displaying digital image correlation (DIC) derived surface and internal displacement fields as well as profiles of the lateral cumulative surface displacements.Digital photographs of the experimental surface and digital image cross section of the computed CT-scans were analyzed with DIC (Adam et al., 2005, 2013) techniques to quantify displacements in the image plane at high precision (〈0.1 mm). DIC was undertaken with the software DaVis 8.0 (LaVision) applying 2D-DIC (FFT-legacy) multipass processing with a final interrogation window size of 32x32 (CT: 12x12) pixels and 50% (CT: 25%) overlap.
    Keywords: analogue models of geologic processes ; EPOS ; Multi-scale laboratories ; analogue modelling results ; EARTH SCIENCE SERVICES 〉 DATA ANALYSIS AND VISUALIZATION ; EARTH SCIENCE 〉 SOLID EARTH ; tectonic setting 〉 extended terrane setting 〉 continental rift setting ; tectonic process 〉 continental_breakup 〉 rifting ; rift valley ; depression ; Silicon/Silly putty/PDMS ; Sand 〉 Quartz Sand ; Sand 〉 Corundum Sand ; Extension box ; Digital Image Correlation (DIC) / Particle Image Velocimetry (PIV) 〉 StrainMaster (La Vision GmbH) ; X-ray computed tomographic scanner (CT-scan) ; SLR camera ; Surface image
    Language: English
    Type: Dataset , Dataset
    Format: 3 Files
    Format: application/octet-stream
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  • 14
    Publication Date: 2020-01-16
    Description: Abstract
    Description: During the 2018 “Mackenzie Delta Permafrost Field Campaign” (mCan2018), a test campaign within the “Modular Observation solutions for Earth Systems” (MOSES) program, ambient seismic noise recordings at the sea bottom were acquired along two 300 m long transects from the shoreline to shallow marine area close to Tuktoyaktuk Island (Canada). In total, 21 measurements were taken. Raw data is provided in proprietary “Cube” format and standard mseed format.
    Description: Other
    Description: The Geophysical Instrument Pool Potsdam (GIPP) provides field instruments for (temporary) seismological studies (both controlled source and earthquake seismology) and for magnetotelluric (electromagnetic) experiments. The GIPP is operated by the GFZ German Research Centre for Geosciences. The instrument facility is open for academic use. Instrument applications are evaluated and ranked by an external steering board. See Haberland and Ritter (2016) and https://www.gfz-potsdam.de/gipp for more information.
    Keywords: MOSES ; Modular Observation solutions for Earth Systems ; submarine permafrost ; ambient seismic noise ; H/V measurements ; Mackenzie Delta ; EARTH SCIENCE 〉 CRYOSPHERE 〉 FROZEN GROUND 〉 PERMAFROST ; EARTH SCIENCE 〉 OCEANS 〉 MARINE GEOPHYSICS ; EARTH SCIENCE 〉 SOLID EARTH ; In Situ Land-based Platforms 〉 GEOPHYSICAL STATIONS/NETWORKS 〉 SEISMOLOGICAL STATIONS ; 201899 ; Modular Observation solutions for Earth Systems (MOSES)
    Language: English
    Type: Dataset , temporary seismological network
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  • 15
    Publication Date: 2020-02-07
    Description: Abstract
    Description: In September 2017 three crustal-scale seismic profiles were acquired in southern Iran covering the subaerial accretionary wedge of the western part of the Makran Subduction zone. Each of the roughly north-south trending profiles was approximately 200 km long, and on each profile 9 to 10 artificial shots with charges between 400 and 800 kg of explosives were fired. The seismic signals were observed by 300 autonomous digital recorders with geophones on each profile. This dataset consists of the raw (continuous) data of the recorders (in proprietary cube format and MSEED-format) and the shot records in SEGY-format (standard exchange formats).
    Description: Other
    Description: The Geophysical Instrument Pool Potsdam (GIPP) provides field instruments for (temporary) seismological studies (both controlled source and earthquake seismology) and for magnetotelluric (electromagnetic) experiments. The GIPP is operated by the GFZ German Research Centre for Geosciences. The instrument facility is open for academic use. Instrument applications are evaluated and ranked by an external steering board. See Haberland and Ritter (2016) and https://www.gfz-potsdam.de/gipp for more information.
    Keywords: subduction zone ; accretionary wedge ; Makran ; deep seismic sounding ; crustal structure ; In Situ/Laboratory Instruments 〉 Profilers/Sounders 〉 SEISMIC REFLECTION PROFILERS ; EARTH SCIENCE 〉 SOLID EARTH ; 201718 ; MAKRAN
    Language: English
    Type: Dataset , controlled source data
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  • 16
    Publication Date: 2020-02-20
    Description: TechnicalInfo
    Description: The here provided data are part of a broader analysis of past and present stimulation projects, revealing that the temporal evolution and growth of maximum observed moment magnitudes may be linked directly to the injected fluid volume and hydraulic energy. Analyzed projects include the most prominent European Enhanced Geothermal System (EGS) projects in Basel, Switzerland (BAS) and Soultz-sous-Forêts (STZ), France. In Soultz, three different stimulations over the course of 10 years were performed in different wells and different depths. Therefore, we differentiate between the injections in 1993 (STZ93), 2000 (STZ00), and in 2003 (STZ03). We also included the deepest EGS Project to date (St1), located in Helsinki, Finland. Furthermore, we included the fluid-injection experiment from the German super deep scientific drilling hole (KTB), two Australian EGS projects, located at Paralana (Para) and the 2003 Cooper Basin (CBN) injection, as well as the EGS project near Pohang, South Korea. Finally, we also considered a single well injection period at the Berlín geothermal field (BGF), El Salvador, representing the only hydrothermal site considered here.For each project the cumulative volume injected is provided along with the applied hydraulic energy, maximum observed seismic moment, cumulative seismic moment, and injection efficiency as tab separated ASCII files with the .csv extension. All stimulation files are combined into a single .zip archive. More details on processing steps and references herein can be found in the accompanying data description.
    Keywords: induced seismicity ; enhanced geothermal systems ; EARTH SCIENCE 〉 SOLID EARTH 〉 TECTONICS 〉 EARTHQUAKES 〉 EARTHQUAKE PREDICTIONS ; EARTH SCIENCE 〉 SOLID EARTH 〉 TECTONICS 〉 EARTHQUAKES 〉 EARTHQUAKE MAGNITUDE/INTENSITY
    Type: Dataset
    Format: 2 Files
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  • 17
    Publication Date: 2020-02-27
    Description: Abstract
    Description: The 2017 Surtsey Underwater volcanic System for Thermophiles, Alteration processes and INnovative concretes (SUSTAIN) drilling project at Surtsey volcano, sponsored in part by the International Continental Scientific Drilling Program (ICDP), provides precise observations of the hydrothermal, geochemical, geomagnetic, and microbiological changes that have occurred in basaltic tephra and minor intrusions since explosive and effusive eruptions produced the oceanic island in 1963–1967. Two vertically cored boreholes, to 152 and 192 m below the surface, were drilled using filtered, UV-sterilized seawater circulating fluid to minimize microbial contamination. These cores parallel a 181 m core drilled in 1979.This data publication includes the operational data obtained during the drilling. All datasets consist of metadata and data. The metadata part provides basic specifications for each data column of the corresponding data table. Additional to that some explanatory remarks about general naming conventions, data model and formats, value lists and acronyms are shown in Jackson et al. (2019).
    Keywords: basalt ; europe ; iceland ; surtsey ; sustain ; tuff ; hydrothermal alteration ; microbial life ; rift zone ; volcanism ; EARTH SCIENCE 〉 OCEANS 〉 MARINE VOLCANISM 〉 MID-OCEAN RIDGES
    Language: English
    Type: Text , Dataset
    Format: 6 Files
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  • 18
    Publication Date: 2020-02-26
    Description: Abstract
    Description: In this dataset we report exemplary, representative mineral chemistry data of two metapelite samples (PG61 and PG89) from the Modereck Nappe in the central Tauern Window. The dataset is supplemental to the publication by Groß et al. (2020). For further details on the sample mineralogy and microstructure not provided in the data description file, we refer to this publication. The data was initially collected for a thermobarometry study of the region in the framework of the priority programme SPP 4DMB, funded by the German Research Association (DFG).Sample description:Sample PG61 is an example of a chloritoid-micaschist from the Piffkar Formation. Sample coordinates are UTM Zone 33N: 337044 E, 5216460 N (WGS84, 12.85326 E, 47.081526 N). It contains quartz, phengite, chloritoid, some chlorite, ilmenite (mix of ilmenite, geikielite, Fe-oxide) and relicts of sceletal garnet (as palisades along quartz grain boundaries) and accessory allanite. Rutile occurs as inclusions in quartz and no lawsonite, kyanite or carpholite were found.Sample PG89 is an example of a garnet-micaschist from the Brennkogel Formation. Sample coordinates are UTM Zone 33N: 341888 E, 5207230 N. (WGS 84, 12.920259 E, 46.999701 N) It contains quartz, phengite, garnet, chlorite, albite, tourmaline and rutile (often with ilmenite margins). No lawsonite, paragonite, glaucophane or omphacite was found.Analytical procedure:The compositions of rock forming minerals (white mica, garnet, chloritoid and chlorite) were aquired on a JEOL JXA 8200 SuperProbe at Freie Universität Berlin, Institut für Geologische Wissenschaften. Measurement conditions for spot analyses were 15 kV acceleration voltage, 20 nA beam current and 〈1 μm beam diameter. We used natural and synthetic reference materials for instrument calibration.
    Keywords: exhumation ; high-pressure metamorphism ; Alps ; channel extrusion ; orogenic wedge ; sheath fold ; 4DMB ; 4D Mountain Building ; EARTH SCIENCE 〉 SOLID EARTH 〉 ROCKS/MINERALS/CRYSTALS 〉 METAMORPHIC ROCKS 〉 METAMORPHIC ROCK FORMATION ; EARTH SCIENCE 〉 SOLID EARTH 〉 TECTONICS 〉 PLATE TECTONICS 〉 FAULT MOVEMENT ; EARTH SCIENCE 〉 SOLID EARTH 〉 TECTONICS 〉 PLATE TECTONICS 〉 FOLDS ; geodynamics ; geology ; tectonics
    Language: English
    Type: Dataset , Dataset
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  • 19
    Publication Date: 2020-02-26
    Description: Other
    Description: In the data set we provide both mantle velocity and maximum principal stress orientation resulting from a geodynamical model. The data are calculated with use of the ProSpher 3D code in a spectral domain by spherical harmonics decomposition. The resolution of the model is of 120 spherical harmonics laterally and 50 km in depth. For velocity data (file set: Petrunin-etal19-Vel_XXX.dat), the 1st column represents longitude, 2nd column – latitude, 3d, 4th , 5th – longitudinal, latitudinal, and radial components of velocity in mm/yr, correspondingly. For maximum principal stress orientation data (file set: Petrunin-etal19-SH_XXX.dat), the 1st column represents longitude, 2nd column – latitude, 3d, 4th – longitudinal and latitudinal components of the unit vector representing maximum principal stress direction.
    Keywords: Geodynamic model ; calculated velocity field ; maximum principal stress ; EARTH SCIENCE 〉 SOLID EARTH 〉 TECTONICS 〉 PLATE TECTONICS 〉 STRESS ; EARTH SCIENCE 〉 SOLID EARTH 〉 TECTONICS ; EARTH SCIENCE 〉 SOLID EARTH
    Type: Dataset
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  • 20
    Publication Date: 2020-02-26
    Description: Abstract
    Description: In "Climatic fluctuations modeled for carbon and sulfur emissions from end-Triassic volcanism" we study perturbations of Earth's climate and biogeochemical cycles by volcanism of the Central Atlantic Magmatic Province (CAMP) during the latest Triassic, about 201 million years ago, using a coupled climate model. The data presented here is the model output on which that manuscript is based on. Additionally, the figures of the publication and scripts (Python and Yorick) to analyse the model output and generate the figures are contained. The model output is provided in different netcdf files. The structure of the model output is explained in a readme file. The data is generated using the coupled ocean-atmosphere model CLIMBER3alpha which models climate globally on a 3.75°x3.75° (ocean) and 22.5° (longitude) x 7.5° (latitude) (atmosphere) grid. More information about the model can be found in the manuscript.
    Description: Methods
    Description: The data is model output from the coupled ocean-atmosphere model CLIMBER3alpha which models climate globally on a 3.75°x3.75° (ocean) and 22.5° (longitude) x 7.5° (latitude) (atmosphere) grid.
    Keywords: Central Atlantic Magmatic Province CAMP ; end-Triassic extinction ; Volcanic Climate Impacts ; Earth System Modeling ; climate 〉 climatic change ; environment 〉 geophysical environment ; Phanerozoic 〉 Mesozoic 〉 Triassic 〉 Late/Upper Triassic ; Models/Analyses 〉 CLIMATE MODELS ; EARTH SCIENCE SERVICES 〉 MODELS 〉 COUPLED CLIMATE MODELS ; EARTH SCIENCE 〉 PALEOCLIMATE
    Type: Dataset
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  • 21
    Publication Date: 2020-03-02
    Description: Abstract
    Description: This data publication contains scanning electron microscope (SEM) and (scanning) transmission electron microscope ((S)TEM) images as well as electron energy loss spectra (EELS) and Raman spectra of the principal slip surface of carbonate fault mirrors. We analysed a total of eleven samples to investigate the formation mechanisms of fault mirrors in carbonates. The samples were taken as drill cores in Central Greece from two different outcrop locations. The first location, close to Arkitsa, is a large anthropogenic outcrop exposing three large fault planes. The second location is close to Schinos and was also formed by human interaction at the side of a gravel road. The data set contains supplemental material to the publication "Mechanisms of fault mirror formation and fault healing in carbonate rocks" by Ohl et al., (2020). In addition to the electron microscopy images we provide the spectra files of the Raman and EELS measurements for the identification of the carbon species in relation to the principal slip surface. The publication concludes that decarbonation of calcite during fault slip and the subsequent reaction of the decarbonation products produces fault mirror surfaces. Post-seismic hybridization of carbon results in partly-hybridised amorphous carbon and contributes to connecting hanging wall and footwall. In addition, post-seismic carbonation of portlandite produces secondary nano-sized calcite crystals 〈 50 nm facilitating fault healing.
    Description: Methods
    Description: The SEM images were acquired on an FEI Helios Nanolab G3 DualBeam focused ion beam scanning electron microscope (FIB-SEM). For the preparation of TEM foils, prior to ion-beam deposition of platinum, a 200-nm layer of platinum was deposited by electron-beam precipitation. TEM imaging was carried out with an FEI Talos F200X at 200 kV acceleration voltage and 5 – 10 nA beam current. Electron imaging was done at the Utrecht University electron microscope center, The Netherlands. EELS data was acquired using a Zeiss Libra 200FE at 200kV with an in-column Omega energy filter at the Westfälische Wilhelms-Universität (WWU) in Münster. The energy resolution of the EELS analyses was 0.7 eV, measured at the full width at half maximum (FWHM) of the zero-loss peak. Energy loss spectra were obtained at 250,000× magnification with a 100 μm filter-entrance aperture giving an effective aperture of about 40 nm on the sample. Raman spectroscopy was carried out using a WiTec ALPHA300R confocal microscope and a 532-nm wavelength laser and a spectrometer grating of 600 grooves/cm.
    Description: Other
    Description: This data publication consists of SEM and (S)TEM images organized in folders named Figure X, where X is the number of the supplemental figure referred to in Ohl et al. (2020). The contents of these folders are described in the 2020-007_Ohl-2020-List_of_files.xls. In addition, the untreated Raman spectroscopy and electron energy loss spectroscopy spectra are provided as tab-separated files containing the XY coordinates for Arkitsa and Schinos. For the Raman spectroscopy measurements, the first column is the wavenumber shift in [rel. cm-1] and the second column refers to counts per second [cts/s] acquired on the spectrometer. In case of the EELS measurements, the first column is the electron energy loss in [eV] and the second column represents the intensity in counts per second [cts/s] on the CCD camera.
    Keywords: Nanogeoscience ; decarbonation ; calcite deformation ; earthquakes ; carbon hybridisation ; electron microscopy ; EARTH SCIENCE 〉 SOLID EARTH 〉 TECTONICS 〉 PLATE TECTONICS 〉 PLATE BOUNDARIES ; EARTH SCIENCE 〉 SOLID EARTH 〉 TECTONICS 〉 PLATE TECTONICS 〉 FAULT MOVEMENT ; EARTH SCIENCE 〉 SOLID EARTH 〉 TECTONICS 〉 EARTHQUAKES 〉 EARTHQUAKE OCCURRENCES ; EARTH SCIENCE 〉 SOLID EARTH 〉 ROCKS/MINERALS/CRYSTALS 〉 MINERALS 〉 MINERAL FORMATION
    Type: Dataset
    Format: 3 Files
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  • 22
    Publication Date: 2020-03-05
    Description: Abstract
    Description: Sampling large river´s sediment at outlets for cosmogenic nuclide analysis yields mean denudation rates of the sediment producing areas that average local variations in denudation commonly found in small rivers. Using this approach, we measured in situ cosmogenic 26Al and 10Be concentrations in sands of 〉50 large rivers over a range of climatic and tectonic regimes covering 32% of Earth’s terrestrial surface.River samples were processed in the Helmholtz Laboratory for the Geochemistry of the Earth Surface (HELGES) (von Blanckenburg et al., 2016). 10Be/9Be ratios were measured by Accelerator Mass Spectrometry (AMS) at the University of Cologne and normalized to the KN01-6-2 and KN01-5-3 standards. Denudation rates were calculated using a time-dependent scaling scheme according to Lal/Stone ”Lm” scaling (see Balco et al., 2008) together with a sea level high latitude (SLHL) production rate of 4.13 at/(gxyr) as reported by Martin et al. (2017).Measured in the mineral quartz, the cosmogenic nuclides 26Al and 10Be provide information on how fast Earth´s surface is lowering through denudation. If sediment is however stored in catchments over time spans similar to the nuclides half-lives (being 0.7 Myr and 1.4 Myr for 26Al and 10Be, respectively), the nuclide´s budget is disturbed, and meaningful denudation rates cannot be calculated. The ratio of 26Al/10Be informs us about these disturbances. In 35% of analyzed rivers, we find 26Al/10Be ratios significantly lower than these nuclides´ surface production rate ratio of 6.75 in quartz, indicating sediment storage and burial exceeding 0.5 Myr. We invoke mainly a combination of slow erosion, long transport, and low runoff for these low ratios.In the other 65% of rivers we find 26Al/10Be ratios within uncertainty of their surface production-rate ratio, indicating cosmogenic steady state, and hence meaningful denudation rates can be calculated. For these rivers, we derive a global source-area denudation rate of 140 t/km^2/yr that translates to a flux of 3.10 Gt/yr. By assuming that this sub-dataset is geomorphically representative of the global land surface, we upscale this value to the total surface area for exorheic basins, thereby obtaining a global denudation flux from cosmogenic nuclides of 15.1 Gt/yr that integrates over the past 5 kyr.In Table S1, we provide detailed 10Be nuclide production rates and their correction due to ice shielding and carbonates that are necessary to calculate denudation rates. We provide International GeoSample Numbers (ISGN) for samples used in the analysis, except values that were compiled from published sources. We then compare these denudation rates, converted to sediment fluxes, to published values of sediment fluxes from river load gauging. We find that our cosmogenic nuclide-derived sediment flux value is similar, within uncertainty, to published values from cosmogenic nuclides from small river basins (23 Gt/yr) upscaled using a global slope model, and modern sediment and dissolved loads exported to the oceans (23.6 Gt/yr). In Table S3, we compiled these modern sediment loads and give their references. We also compiled runoff values (mm/yr) from published sources (Table S2) that are used to infer what controls denudation rates.For more details on the sampling and analytical methods, please consult the data description part of this publication.
    Keywords: cosmogenic nuclides ; denudation rate ; EARTH SCIENCE 〉 CLIMATE INDICATORS 〉 PALEOCLIMATE INDICATORS 〉 BERYLLIUM-10 ANALYSIS ; EARTH SCIENCE 〉 SOLID EARTH 〉 GEOCHEMISTRY 〉 GEOCHEMICAL PROPERTIES 〉 ISOTOPE RATIOS ; EARTH SCIENCE 〉 SOLID EARTH 〉 GEOMORPHIC LANDFORMS/PROCESSES 〉 FLUVIAL PROCESSES 〉 SEDIMENTATION 〉 SEDIMENT CHEMISTRY ; EARTH SCIENCE 〉 SOLID EARTH 〉 GEOMORPHIC LANDFORMS/PROCESSES
    Language: English
    Type: Dataset , Dataset
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  • 23
    Publication Date: 2020-03-09
    Description: Abstract
    Description: Magmatic volatiles can be considered as the surface fingerprint of active volcanic systems, both during periods of quiescent and eruptive volcanic activity. The spatial variability of gas emissions at Earth’s surface is a proxy for structural discontinuities in the subsurface of volcanic systems. We conducted extensive and regular spaced soil gas surveys within the Los Humeros geothermal field to improve the understanding of the structural control on fluid flow.Surveys at different scales were performed with the aim to identify areas of increased gas emissions on reservoir scale, their relation to unknown/knows volcano-tectonic structures on fault scale favoring fluid flow, and determine the origin of gas emissions. Herein, we show results from a carbon dioxide efflux scouting survey, which was performed across the main geothermal production zone together with soil temperature measurements. We identified five areas with increased carbon dioxide emissions, where further sampling was performed with denser sampling grids to understand the fault zone architecture and local variations in gas emissions.We show that a systematic sampling approach on reservoir scale is necessary for the identification and assessment of major permeable fault segments. The combined processing of CO2 efflux and carbon/helium isotopes facilitated the detection of permeable structural segments with a connection to the deep, high-temperature geothermal reservoir, also in areas with low to intermediate carbon dioxide emissions. The results of this study complement existing geophysical datasets and define further promising areas for future exploration activities in the north- and southwestern sector of the production field.The data are presented as one zip folder with 4 data tables (tab delimited text format) according to the measurement variable. The columns are defined in each data file.
    Keywords: multi-scale soil gas survey ; CO2 efflux ; carbon and helium isotopes ; geothermal exploration ; structural analysis ; EARTH SCIENCE 〉 SOLID EARTH 〉 TECTONICS 〉 VOLCANIC ACTIVITY 〉 ERUPTION DYNAMICS 〉 VOLCANIC GASES ; EARTH SCIENCE 〉 SOLID EARTH 〉 GEOTHERMAL DYNAMICS 〉 GEOTHERMAL TEMPERATURE
    Type: Dataset
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  • 24
    Publication Date: 2020-03-20
    Description: Abstract
    Description: Multi-temporal landslide inventories are important information for the understanding of landslide dynamics and related predisposing and triggering factors, and thus a crucial prerequisite for probabilistic hazard and risk assessment. Despite the great importance of these inventories, they do not exist for many landslide prone regions in the world. In this context, the recently evolving global-scale availability of high temporal and spatial resolution optical satellite imagery (RapidEye, Sentinel-2A/B, planet) has opened up new opportunities for the creation of these multi-temporal inventories.To derive such multi-temporal landslide inventories, a semi-automated spatiotemporal landslide mapper was developed at the Remote Sensing Section of the GFZ Potsdam being capable of deriving post-failure landslide objects (polygons) from multi-sensor optical satellite time series data (Behling et al., 2016). The developed approach represents an extension of the original methodology (Behling et al., 2014, Behling and Roessner, 2020) and facilitates the integration of optical time series data acquired by different satellite systems. The goal of combining satellite data originating from variable sensor systems has been the establishment of longest possible time series for retrospective systematic assessment of multi-temporal landslide activity at highest possible temporal and spatial resolution. We applied the developed approach to a 2500 km² study area in Southern Kyrgyzstan using an optical satellite database acquired by the Landsat TM/ETM+, SPOT 1/5, IRS1-C LISSIII, ASTER, and RapidEye sensor systems covering a time period between 1986 and 2013. A multi-temporal landslide inventory from 2009-2013 derived from RapidEye satellite time series data is available as separate publications (Behling et al., 2014; Behling and Roessner, 2020).The resulting systematic multi-temporal landslide inventory being subject of this data publication is supplementary to the article of Behling et al. (2016), which describes the extended spatiotemporal landslide mapper in detail. This multi-sensor approach prioritizes most suitable images within the available multi-sensor satellite time series using parameters, such as spatial resolution, cloud coverage, similarity of sensor characteristics and seasonality related to vegetation characteristics with the goal of establishing a robust back-bone time series for initial detection of possible landslide objects. In a second step, this initial analysis gets more refined in order to achieve the best possible approximation of the date of landslide occurrence. For a more detailed description of the methodology of the extended spatiotemporal landslide mapper, please see Behling et al. (2016).In general, this landslide mapper detects landslide objects by analyzing temporal NDVI-based vegetation cover changes and relief-oriented parameters in a rule-based approach combining pixel- and object-based analysis. Typical landslide-related vegetation changes comprise abrupt disturbances of vegetation cover in the result of the actual failure as well as post-failure revegetation which usually happens at a slower pace compared to vegetation growth in the surrounding undisturbed areas, since the displaced landslide masses are susceptible to subsequent erosion and reactivation processes. The resulting landslide-specific temporal surface cover dynamics in form of temporal trajectories is used as input information to identify freshly occurred landslides and to separate them from other temporal variations in the surrounding vegetation cover (e.g., seasonal vegetation changes or changes due to agricultural activities) and from permanently non-vegetated areas (e.g., urban non-vegetated areas, water bodies, rock outcrops).The data are provided in vector format (polygons) in form of a standard shapefile contained in the zip-file 2020-002_Behling_et-al_2016_landslide_inventory_SouthernKyrgyzstan_1986_2013.zip and are described in more detail in the associated data description.
    Keywords: multi-temporal landslide inventory ; optical satellite remote sensing ; time series analysis ; Kyrgyzstan ; Central Asia ; RapidEye satellite system ; multi-sensor ; Earth Observation Satellites 〉 TERRA ; Earth Observation Satellites 〉 SPOT ; Earth Observation Satellites 〉 LANDSAT ; Earth Observation Satellites 〉 SATELLITES ; Earth Observation Satellites 〉 RAPIDEYE ; EARTH SCIENCE 〉 HUMAN DIMENSIONS 〉 NATURAL HAZARDS ; EARTH SCIENCE SERVICES 〉 ENVIRONMENTAL ADVISORIES 〉 GEOLOGICAL ADVISORIES 〉 LANDSLIDES ; EARTH SCIENCE 〉 LAND SURFACE 〉 EROSION/SEDIMENTATION 〉 LANDSLIDES ; EARTH SCIENCE 〉 SOLID EARTH 〉 GEOMORPHIC LANDFORMS/PROCESSES 〉 FLUVIAL PROCESSES 〉 LANDSLIDE ; EARTH SCIENCE 〉 HUMAN DIMENSIONS 〉 NATURAL HAZARDS 〉 LANDSLIDES ; land 〉 geomorphic process 〉 landslide ; methodology 〉 telemetry 〉 remote sensing ; environmental data 〉 geo-referenced data 〉 GIS digital format ; monitoring 〉 monitoring technique 〉 GIS digital technique 〉 image classification 〉 supervised image classification
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  • 25
    Publication Date: 2020-03-18
    Description: Abstract
    Description: This dataset is the MLT-averaged plasmapause position calculated for the NSF GEM Challenge Events. We use the recently developed Plasma density in the Inner magnetosphere Neural network-based Empirical (PINE) model [Zhelavskaya et al., 2017]. The PINE density model was developed using neural networks and was trained on the electron density data set from the Van Allen Probes Electric and Magnetic Field Instrument Suite and Integrated Science (EMFISIS) [Kletzing et al., 2013].The model reconstructs the plasmasphere dynamics well (with a cross-correlation of ~0.95 on the test set), and its global reconstructions of plasma density are in good agreement with the IMAGE EUV images of the global distribution of He+. We compare the electron number density value given by the PINE model with the density threshold separating plasmaspheric-like and trough-like density given by [Sheeley et al., 2001] and get the plasmapause position in each MLT. Then, we calculate the MLT-averaged plasmapause position. The. time resolution is 1 hour.These data files presenting the Magnetic Local Time (MLT)-averaged plasmapause position used in the simulations in Wang et al [2020]. The data are presented as the following three tabular ASCII files (.dat) :Lpp_PINE_Sheely_Mean_Mar15_Mar20.dat: content, column1 time [day], column 2 L [Re (Earth Radii)]Lpp_PINE_Sheely_Mean_May30_Jun02.dat: content, column1 time [day], column 2 L [Re (Earth Radii)]Lpp_PINE_Sheely_Mean_Sep17_Sep26.dat: content, column1 time [day], column 2 L [Re (Earth Radii)]
    Keywords: Plasmasphere ; Plasmapause ; EARTH SCIENCE SERVICES 〉 MODELS 〉 SOLAR-ATMOSPHERE/SPACE-WEATHER MODELS ; EARTH SCIENCE 〉 SUN-EARTH INTERACTIONS 〉 IONOSPHERE/MAGNETOSPHERE DYNAMICS 〉 PLASMA WAVES
    Type: Dataset
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  • 26
    Publication Date: 2020-03-18
    Description: Abstract
    Description: During the Egyptian 18th dynasty (c. 1550–1292 BC), cobalt ore was mined, processed and used as a colourant for glass, faience and blue-painted pottery. Co-coloured glass objects have a mid- to dark blue colour and were produced in order to imitate the semi-precious stone lapis lazuli. During this period, the glass objects were manufactured predominantly at two sites: Malqata (25°42'51.2"N 32°35'33.4"E) and Amarna (27°38'40.3"N 30°53'55.0"E).Major, minor and trace element concentration data from 38 blue glass objects from Amarna in the collection of Egyptian Museum and Papyrus Collection in Berlin are reported in this data publication. For comparison, glass objects from the same period and location, but of different colours (one red, two each of colourless, green and turquoise-blue glass) were analysed with the same method. These objects were originally brought to Berlin subsequent to the 1911–1914 excavations at Amarna carried out under the direction of Ludwig Borchardt on behalf of the Deutsche Orient-Gesellschaft. Unfortunately, most of these have by now lost their specific finds location. In addition, two recent samples of cobalt ore from the region of Ain Asil, near the Dakhla oasis (25°30'59.6"N 29°09'59.8"E), were included in the analysis.
    Keywords: Glass ; cobalt ; Egypt ; Amarna ; Late Bronze Age ; LA-ICP-MS ; pXRF ; product 〉 miscellaneous product 〉 glass ; industry 〉 glass industry ; chemical element 〉 transition element 〉 cobalt ; land 〉 world 〉 Africa 〉 North Africa ; EARTH SCIENCE 〉 ATMOSPHERE 〉 ATMOSPHERIC CHEMISTRY 〉 TRACE ELEMENTS/TRACE METALS ; In Situ/Laboratory Instruments 〉 Spectrometers/Radiometers 〉 XRF ; In Situ/Laboratory Instruments 〉 Spectrometers/Radiometers 〉 LA-ICP-MS
    Type: Dataset
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  • 27
    Publication Date: 2020-03-17
    Description: Abstract
    Description: These data are supplementary material to Ziegler & Heidbach (2020) and present the results of a 3D geomechanical-numerical model of the stress state with quantified uncertainties. The average modelled stress state is provided for each of the six components of the full stress tensor. In addition, the associated standard deviation for each component is provided. The modelling approach uses a published lithological model and the used data is described in the publication Ziegler & Heidbach (2020). The reduced stress tensor is derived using the Tecplot Addon GeoStress (Stromeyer & Heidbach, 2017).
    Description: TechnicalInfo
    Description: The model results are provided in a comma-separated ascii file. Each line in the file represents one of the approx. 3 million finite elements that comprise the model.The following data are provided for each element.1 - Location X / Easting (UTM 32)[m]2 - Location Y / Northing (UTM 32)[m]3 - Location Z / Depth below sea level [m]4 - Average of Sigma XX component of the stress tensor [Pa]5 - Standard Deviation of Sigma XX component of the stress tensor [Pa]6 - Average of Sigma YY component of the stress tensor [Pa]7 - Standard Deviation of Sigma YY component of the stress tensor [Pa]8 - Average of Sigma ZZ component of the stress tensor [Pa]9 - Standard Deviation of Sigma ZZ component of the stress tensor [Pa]10 - Average of Sigma XY component of the stress tensor [Pa]11 - Standard Deviation of Sigma XY component of the stress tensor [Pa]12 - Average of Sigma YZ component of the stress tensor [Pa]13 - Standard Deviation of Sigma YZ component of the stress tensor [Pa]14 - Average of Sigma ZX component of the stress tensor [Pa]15 - Standard Deviation of Sigma ZX component of the stress tensor [Pa]16 - Average of the maximum horizontal stress component (SHmax) [Pa]17 - Standard Deviation of the maximum horizontal stress component (SHmax) [Pa]18 - Average of the minimum horizontal stress component (Shmin) [Pa]19 - Standard Deviation of the minimum horizontal stress component (Shmin) [Pa]20 - The vertical stress component (Sv) [Pa]21 - Average of the differential stress (S1-S3) [Pa]22 - Standard Deviation of the differential stress (S1-S3) [Pa]
    Keywords: geomechanical-numerical model ; stress ; in-situ stress ; Molasse Basin ; EARTH SCIENCE 〉 SOLID EARTH 〉 TECTONICS 〉 PLATE TECTONICS 〉 CRUSTAL MOTION 〉 CRUSTAL MOTION DIRECTION ; EARTH SCIENCE 〉 SOLID EARTH 〉 TECTONICS 〉 PLATE TECTONICS 〉 STRESS ; EARTH SCIENCE 〉 SOLID EARTH 〉 TECTONICS 〉 NEOTECTONICS
    Type: Dataset
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  • 28
    Publication Date: 2020-03-19
    Description: Abstract
    Description: This dataset and code are related to artificial light emissions in the arctic area. They are a supplement to the report "Capabilities and limitations of advanced optical satellite missions for snow, vegetation, and artificial light source applications in Arctic areas".Dataset:The Radiance Light Trends app was used to identify artificial light sources on the Yamal Peninsula in Russia. In order to determine whether a location was lit, a threshold of 5 nW/cm² sr (displayed in yellow in the Radiance Light Trends app) was defined. Visible band daytime imagery from Google Maps and Bing Maps was then used to identify what type of human activity was responsible for the light. The positions of the 78 lit areas and their light source classification are provided in a csv table and kmz file. The classes are defined as: industry, industry / flare, community, ship/ airport, road, water and unknown. This data publication includes the artificial light sources on the Yamal Penninsula (Western Siberia) in .csv and .kmz formats.Code:The data publication includes the python code "Arctic light pollution clustering script", which identifies areas with bright light emissions in the arctic. The script requires the monthly composite images from the Day/Night Band of the Visible Infrared Imaging Radiometer Suite produced by the Earth Observation Group as an input. These data are currently available here: https://eogdata.mines.edu/download_dnb_composites.html
    Description: Other
    Description: Licence for the "Arctic light pollution clustering script":MIT LicenceCopyright (2020) Helmholtz Centre Potsdam GFZ German Research Centre for Geosciences, Potsdam, GermanyPermission is hereby granted, free of charge, to any person obtaining a copy of this software and associated documentation files (the "Software"), to deal in the Software without restriction, including without limitation the rights to use, copy, modify, merge, publish, distribute, sublicense, and/or sell copies of the Software, and to permit persons to whom the Software is furnished to do so, subject to the following conditions:The above copyright notice and this permission notice shall be included in all copies or substantial portions of the Software.THE SOFTWARE IS PROVIDED "AS IS", WITHOUT WARRANTY OF ANY KIND, EXPRESS OR IMPLIED, INCLUDING BUT NOT LIMITED TO THE WARRANTIES OF MERCHANTABILITY, FITNESS FOR A PARTICULAR PURPOSE AND NONINFRINGEMENT. IN NO EVENT SHALL THE AUTHORS OR COPYRIGHT HOLDERS BE LIABLE FOR ANY CLAIM, DAMAGES OR OTHER LIABILITY, WHETHER IN AN ACTION OF CONTRACT, TORT OR OTHERWISE, ARISING FROM, OUT OF OR IN CONNECTION WITH THE SOFTWARE OR THE USE OR OTHER DEALINGS IN THE SOFTWARE.
    Keywords: night ; light pollution ; pollution ; environmental impact ; effect 〉 environmental change ; land 〉 climatic zone 〉 polar region 〉 Arctic region ; EARTH SCIENCE 〉 HUMAN DIMENSIONS 〉 ENVIRONMENTAL IMPACTS ; Earth Remote Sensing Instruments 〉 Passive Remote Sensing 〉 Spectrometers/Radiometers 〉 Imaging Spectrometers/Radiometers 〉 VIIRS ; Earth Observation Satellites 〉 Joint Polar Satellite System (JPSS) 〉 SUOMI-NPP
    Language: English
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  • 29
    Publication Date: 2020-03-24
    Description: Abstract
    Description: Multi-temporal landslide inventories are important information for the understanding of landslide dynamics and related predisposing and triggering factors, and thus a crucial prerequisite for probabilistic hazard and risk assessment. Despite the great importance of these inventories, they do not exist for many landslide prone regions in the world. In this context, the recently evolving global-scale availability of high temporal and spatial resolution optical satellite imagery (RapidEye, Sentinel-2A/B, planet) has opened up new opportunities for the creation of these multi-temporal inventories.Taking up on these at the time still to be evolving opportunities, a semi-automated spatiotemporal landslide mapper was developed at the Remote Sensing Section of the GFZ Potsdam being capable of deriving post-failure landslide objects (polygons) from optical satellite time series data (Behling et al., 2014). The developed algorithm was applied to a 7500 km² study area using RapidEye time series data which were acquired in the frame of the RESA project (Project ID 424) for the time period between 2009 and 2013. A multi-temporal landslide inventory from 1986 to 2013 derived from multi-sensor optical satellite time series data is available as separate publications (Behling et al., 2016; Behling and Roessner, 2020).The resulting multi-temporal landslide inventory being subject of this data publication is supplementary to the article of Behling et al. (2014), which describes the developed spatiotemporal landslide mapper in detail. This landslide mapper detects landslide objects by analyzing temporal NDVI-based vegetation cover changes and relief-oriented parameters in a rule-based approach combining pixel- and object-based analysis. Typical landslide-related vegetation changes comprise abrupt disturbances of the vegetation cover in the result of the actual failure as well as post-failure revegetation which usually happens at a slower pace compared to vegetation growth in the surrounding undisturbed areas, since the displaced landslide masses are susceptible to subsequent erosion and reactivation processes. The resulting landslide-specific temporal surface cover dynamics in form of temporal trajectories is used as input information to detect freshly occurred landslides and to separate them from other temporal variations in the surrounding vegetation cover (e.g., seasonal vegetation changes or changes due to agricultural activities) and from permanently non-vegetated areas (e.g., urban non-vegetated areas, water bodies, rock outcrops). For a detailed description of the methodology of the spatiotemporal landslide mapper, please see Behling et al. (2014).The data are provided in vector format (polygons) in form of a standard shapefile contained in the zip-file Behling_et-al_2014_landslide_inventory_SouthernKyrgyzstan_2009_2013.zip and are described in more detail in the data description file.
    Keywords: multi-temporal landslide inventory ; optical satellite remote sensing ; time series analysis ; Kyrgyzstan ; Central Asia ; RapidEye satellite system ; EARTH SCIENCE 〉 HUMAN DIMENSIONS 〉 NATURAL HAZARDS ; EARTH SCIENCE SERVICES 〉 ENVIRONMENTAL ADVISORIES 〉 GEOLOGICAL ADVISORIES 〉 LANDSLIDES ; EARTH SCIENCE 〉 LAND SURFACE 〉 EROSION/SEDIMENTATION 〉 LANDSLIDES ; EARTH SCIENCE 〉 SOLID EARTH 〉 GEOMORPHIC LANDFORMS/PROCESSES 〉 FLUVIAL PROCESSES 〉 LANDSLIDE ; EARTH SCIENCE 〉 HUMAN DIMENSIONS 〉 NATURAL HAZARDS 〉 LANDSLIDES ; land 〉 geomorphic process 〉 landslide ; methodology 〉 telemetry 〉 remote sensing ; environmental data 〉 geo-referenced data 〉 GIS digital format ; monitoring 〉 monitoring technique 〉 GIS digital technique 〉 image classification 〉 supervised image classification ; Earth Observation Satellites 〉 RAPIDEYE
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  • 30
    Publication Date: 2020-03-25
    Description: Abstract
    Description: This dataset provides friction data from ring-shear tests (RST) for a quartz sand (“A”). This material is used in various types of analogue experiments in Tectonic Modelling Lab of the University of Bern as an analogue for brittle layers in the crust or lithosphere. The material has been characterized by means of internal friction coefficients μ and cohesions C. Three sub-datasets represent a systematic increase of the sieving height from 10 cm to 20 cm to 30 cm into a shear cell of type No. 1, following the same protocol. This dataset shows that packing density of quartz sand is dependent on the chosen sieving height. However, the effect of the sieving height on internal friction coefficients μ as well as cohesion C is minor and thus negligible in sandbox experiments. According to our analysis the material shows for a sieving height of 10 cm a Mohr-Coulomb behaviour characterized by a linear failure envelope and peak, dynamic and reactivation friction coefficients of μP = 0.70, μD = 0.60 and μR = 0.65, respectively. Cohesions C are in the order of 40 – 80 Pa.
    Keywords: EPOS ; analogue models of geologic processes ; Multi-scale Laboratories ; property data of analogue modelling materials ; Cohesion ; Friction coefficient ; Ring-shear tester ; Sand 〉 Quartz sand ; Deformation 〉 fracturing ; tectonic and structural features ; EARTH SCIENCE SERVICES 〉 DATA ANALYSIS AND VISUALIZATION 〉 CALIBRATION/VALIDATION ; EARTH SCIENCE SERVICES 〉 MODELS 〉 PHYSICAL/LABORATORY MODELS ; EARTH SCIENCE SERVICES 〉 MODELS 〉 GEOLOGIC/TECTONIC/PALEOCLIMATE MODELS ; EARTH SCIENCE 〉 SOLID EARTH 〉 TECTONICS 〉 PLATE TECTONICS 〉 PLATE BOUNDARIES ; Force sensor ; Shear Box ; Analogue Material ; sand ; Density ; Friction 〉 Imposed Stress
    Type: Dataset
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  • 31
    Publication Date: 2020-03-25
    Description: Abstract
    Description: This dataset provides friction data from ring-shear tests (RST) for a corundum sand (“NKF120”). This material is used in various types of analogue experiments in Tectonic Modelling Lab of the University of Bern as an analogue for brittle layers in the crust or lithosphere. The material has been characterized by means of internal friction coefficients μ and cohesions C. Three sub-datasets represent a systematic increase of the sieving height from 10 cm to 20 cm to 30 cm into a shear cell of type No. 1, following the same protocol. This dataset shows that packing density of corundum sand is dependent on the chosen sieving height. However, the effect of the sieving height on internal friction coefficients μ as well as cohesion C is minor and thus negligible in sandbox experiments. According to our analysis the material shows for a sieving height of 10 cm a Mohr-Coulomb behaviour characterized by a linear failure envelope and peak, dynamic and reactivation friction coefficients of μP = 0.75, μD = 0.64 and μR = 0.68, respectively. Cohesions C are in the order of 70 – 105 Pa.
    Keywords: EPOS ; analogue models of geologic processes ; multi-scale Laboratories ; property data of analogue modelling materials ; cohesion ; Friction coefficient ; Ring-shear tester ; Sand 〉 Corrundum sand ; Deformation 〉 fracturing ; tectonic and structural features ; European Plate Observing System ; EARTH SCIENCE SERVICES 〉 MODELS 〉 PHYSICAL/LABORATORY MODELS ; EARTH SCIENCE 〉 SOLID EARTH 〉 GEOMORPHIC LANDFORMS/PROCESSES 〉 TECTONIC PROCESSES 〉 RIFTING ; EARTH SCIENCE 〉 SOLID EARTH 〉 TECTONICS 〉 PLATE TECTONICS 〉 PLATE BOUNDARIES ; EARTH SCIENCE SERVICES 〉 DATA ANALYSIS AND VISUALIZATION 〉 CALIBRATION/VALIDATION ; LabView Deformation Mapper ; LabView Deformation Mapper ; Force sensor ; Shear Box ; sand ; Analogue material ; Friction 〉 Imposed Stress ; Density
    Language: English
    Type: Dataset , Dataset
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  • 32
    Publication Date: 2020-03-27
    Description: Abstract
    Description: The dataset presents the electron density derived using the Neural-network-based Upper hybrid Resonance Determination (NURD) algorithm (Zhelavskaya et al., 2016) from plasma wave measurements made with the Van Allen Probes Electric and Magnetic Field Instrument Suite and Integrated Science (EMFISIS) (Kletzing et al., 2013). The method employs feedforward neural networks to derive the upper hybrid resonance frequency from the electric field measurements, and hence electron density, in an automated fashion. The dataset contains electron density for the period from October 1, 2012 to January 14, 2018 for RBSP-A and from October 1, 2012 to July 1, 2016 for RBSP-B (RBSP = Radiation Belt Storm Probes).For convenience, the density data are organized in two ways: in terms of orbits and in terms of days. Directories ../../Orbits_organization/ and ../../Days_organization/ contain files with densities per orbit and per day, respectively. Data are provided in .txt and .cdf formats. Data in .mat format are available at ftp://ftp.gfz-potsdam.de/home/rbm/NURD/. For more information on directory organization and files description, please refer to the associated data description and Zhelaskaya et al. (2016).
    Keywords: Van Allen Probes ; EMFISIS ; electron density ; neural networks ; upper-hybrid resonance ; dataset ; EARTH SCIENCE 〉 SUN-EARTH INTERACTIONS 〉 IONOSPHERE/MAGNETOSPHERE DYNAMICS 〉 ELECTRIC FIELDS/ELECTRIC CURRENTS ; EARTH SCIENCE 〉 SUN-EARTH INTERACTIONS 〉 IONOSPHERE/MAGNETOSPHERE DYNAMICS 〉 PLASMA WAVES
    Type: Dataset
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  • 33
    Publication Date: 2020-03-27
    Description: Abstract
    Description: This dataset contains catchment average time series of five meteorological or hydrological parameters for 3872 hydrometric stations across Europe from 1960-2010. The parameters are: rainfall, soil moisture saturation, snowmelt, snow cover and convective conditions. All parameters have a daily resolution and were derived from a 0.11x0.11° reanalysis dataset. Daily averages were calculated from the pixels within each catchment, weighted by the fraction of pixel area that lies within the respective catchment. This dataset was originally created for the classification of floods by their generating process, but is also suitable for different hydrological studies.The dataset consists of two types of files:(1) The station metadata, which contains latitude, longitude, catchment area and an ID for each hydrometric station.(2) The five time series datasets, which contain one value for each station ID and each day from 1960-01-01 to 2010-12-31.
    Keywords: Convective available potential energy ; Convective inhibition ; Catchment average time series ; EARTH SCIENCE 〉 HUMAN DIMENSIONS 〉 NATURAL HAZARDS 〉 FLOODS ; EARTH SCIENCE 〉 ATMOSPHERE 〉 CLOUDS 〉 CONVECTIVE CLOUDS/SYSTEMS (OBSERVED/ANALYZED) 〉 PRECIPITATING CONVECTIVE CLOUD SYSTEMS ; EARTH SCIENCE 〉 ATMOSPHERE 〉 ATMOSPHERIC WINDS 〉 CONVECTION ; EARTH SCIENCE 〉 LAND SURFACE 〉 SOILS 〉 SOIL MOISTURE/WATER CONTENT ; EARTH SCIENCE 〉 ATMOSPHERE 〉 PRECIPITATION 〉 SNOW ; EARTH SCIENCE 〉 ATMOSPHERE 〉 PRECIPITATION 〉 RAIN ; EARTH SCIENCE 〉 ATMOSPHERE 〉 PRECIPITATION 〉 PRECIPITATION AMOUNT ; EARTH SCIENCE 〉 TERRESTRIAL HYDROSPHERE 〉 SURFACE WATER 〉 WATERSHED CHARACTERISTICS ; science 〉 natural science 〉 water science 〉 hydrology ; land 〉 natural area 〉 terrestrial area 〉 hydrographic basin 〉 catchment area ; parameter 〉 meteorological parameter ; The Present ; Models/Analyses 〉 CLM-LSM ; Models/Analyses 〉 REANALYSIS MODELS ; In Situ/Laboratory Instruments 〉 Gauges 〉 STREAM GAUGES
    Type: Dataset
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  • 34
    Publication Date: 2020-04-07
    Description: Abstract
    Description: The project from which the data derived aimed to establish the first systematic study of Cu isotope fractionation during the prehistoric smelting and refining process. For this reason, an experimental approach was used to smelt sulfide copper ore according to reconstructed prehistoric smelting models. The ore was collected by E. Hanning as part of her PhD thesis work from a Bronze Age mining site, the Mitterberg region, Austria (Hanning and Pils 2011) and was made available for the experiments.All starting materials for the experiments such as the natural ore, roasted ore, construction clay, flux, dung (used for the roasting), wood and charcoal (fuel) were natural materials. All firing conditions including the amount of fuel or charging material and the temperatures in the furnaces were recorded, and the experimental procedures were documented in the very detail. In total, 30 experiments were carried out in 4 experimental series. The smelting products, both intermediate products and final products were sampled during or after the respective experiment. Slag, matte and copper metal were the major smelting products. All other materials used in and produced by the experiments were sampled, too. Materials used and produced in the two most promising experimental series with regard to potential Cu isotope fractionation were analyzed. Based on the analytical results, the potential of Cu isotopes as a tool in archaeometallurgical research was systematically evaluated and consequences for the copper isotope application as a provenance tool in archaeometry were identified.The data include the documentation of the experiments, laboratory procedures and analytical methods. An experimental outline was previously published in Rose et al. (2019). Analytical methods applied were ICP-MS (elemental analysis, 80 samples), MC-ICP-MS (copper isotopes, 98 samples), and XRD (phase analysis, 25 samples). The experiments were carried out at the Römisch-Germanisches Zentralmuseum, Labor für Experimentelle Archäologie, Mayen, Germany. Laboratories used for the analytical part of the project were the research laboratories at the Deutsches Bergbau-Museum Bochum and FIERCE (Frankfurt Isotope and Element Research Center), Goethe-University Frankfurt, both Germany. Data were processed and plots created with R (R Core Team 2019) in RStudio®. Data are provided as data tables or text files, the R scripts used to create the time-temperature plots of the smelting experiments are also included.The full description of the data and methods is provided in the data description file.
    Keywords: copper isotopes ; archaeometallurgy ; roasting ; smelting experiment ; chalcopyrite ; Mitterberg ; ore ; slag ; experimental archaeology ; industry 〉 metallurgical industry 〉 non-ferrous metal industry ; science 〉 human science 〉 archaeology ; research 〉 scientific research 〉 experimental study ; chemical 〉 isotope ; industrial process 〉 metal working 〉 metal smelting ; chemical element 〉 transition element 〉 copper ; In Situ/Laboratory Instruments 〉 Spectrometers/Radiometers 〉 ICP-MS ; Solar/Space Observing Instruments 〉 X-Ray/Gamma Ray Detectors 〉 XRPD ; In Situ/Laboratory Instruments 〉 Spectrometers/Radiometers 〉 MC-ICP-MS ; EARTH SCIENCE 〉 SOLID EARTH 〉 GEOCHEMISTRY 〉 GEOCHEMICAL PROPERTIES 〉 CHEMICAL CONCENTRATIONS ; EARTH SCIENCE 〉 SOLID EARTH 〉 ROCKS/MINERALS/CRYSTALS 〉 ELEMENTS 〉 TRACE ELEMENTS ; EARTH SCIENCE 〉 SOLID EARTH 〉 GEOCHEMISTRY 〉 GEOCHEMICAL PROPERTIES 〉 ISOTOPE MEASUREMENTS
    Type: Dataset
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  • 35
    Publication Date: 2020-04-06
    Description: Abstract
    Description: To understand the physical mechanisms governing fluid-induced seismicity at field-scale fluid injection projects, we conducted fluid-induced fault slip experiments in the laboratory on critically stressed saw-cut sandstone samples with high permeability using different fluid pressurization rates. The data archived here acts as supplementary material to Wang et al. (2020; https://doi.org/10.1029/2019GL086627).Experiments were conducted at room temperature using a servo-hydraulic tri-axial deformation apparatus (MTS) equipped with a pore pressure system (Quizix pumps) at Experimental Rock Deformation Laboratory, GFZ. To investigate the correlation between fault slip and fluid pressure, we applied two different fluid injection schemes (hereafter tests “SC1” and “SC2”, respectively). ‘TestSC1’ refers to the fluid-induced fault slip experiment performed at fluid pressurization rate of 2 MPa/min while ‘TestSC2’ indicates the fluid-induced fault slip experiment performed at fluid pressurization rate of 0.5 MPa/min. The other boundary conditions for both experiments are similar. In addition, to simultaneously record acoustic emission (AE) events induced by artificial fault slip, 16 piezoelectric transducers (PZTs, resonance frequency ~1 MHz) contained in brass cases were directly mounted to the surface of samples, ensuring full azimuthal coverage for AE events. AE waveforms were amplified first by 40 dB using preamplifiers equipped with 100‐kHz high‐pass filters and then recorded at a sampling rate of 10 MHz with 16‐bit amplitude resolution. Each experiment lasted for about 4 hours. Throughout the experiment, mechanical data (measured by MTS) and hydraulic data (measured by Quizix pump) were all synchronously monitored with a sampling rate of 10 Hz whereas acoustic emission data were recorded with a sampling rate of 10 MHz. All results shown are recorded as a function of experimental time.The data are provided in tab-separated ASCII-Format (.txt). 2020-002_Wang-et-al_TestSC1.zip and 2020-002_Wang-et-al_TestSC2.zip are composed of 7 txt files and 8 txt files, respectively, as described below in Table 1. The first column represents time in second and the subsequent columns are indicated by the corresponding header at the first row. The second row indicates the unit for each column data. The raw data was processed with MATLAB. The algorithms we implemented include the moving average method, statistical regression and our developed MATLAB-based codes.
    Keywords: Fault slip ; Fluid injection ; Induced seismicity ; Fluid pressurization rate
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  • 36
    Publication Date: 2020-04-09
    Description: Abstract
    Description: This data set contains a panel data frame for analysis of land use change from 1984-2017 in Zambezi Region, Namibia. The region is located in one of the study areas of the CRC/Transregio 228: “Future Rural Africa: Future-Making and Social-Ecological Transformation”. Data contains remote sensing and spatial socio-economic data, derived and/or processed by the authors.
    Keywords: Carbon Storage Dynamics ; Conservation ; Econometrics ; Impact Evaluation ; Empirical Research ; Land Use Change ; Remote Sensing ; environmental impact ; environmental economics ; Land use ; environmental conservation ; wildlife conservation ; environment ; Land cover ; Land use ; Species distribution ; Protected sites ; 545 Quantitative analysis
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  • 37
    Publication Date: 2020-04-13
    Description: Abstract
    Description: This data publication provides access to (1) an archive of maps and statistics on MISR RCCM data products updated as described in Verstraete et al. (2020, https://doi.org/10.5194/essd-2019-77), (2) a user manual describing this archive, and (3) a large archive of standard (unprocessed) MISR data files that can be used in conjunction with the IDL software repository published on GitHub and available from https://github.com/mmverstraete (Verstraete et al., 2019, https://doi.org/10.5281/zenodo.3240018). The authors also make a self-contained, stand-alone version of that processing software available to all users, using the IDL Virtual Machine technology (which does not require an IDL license) from Verstraete et al., 2020: http://doi.org/10.5880/fidgeo.2020.008.(1) The compressed archive 'RCCM_Out.zip' contains all outputs produced in the course of generating the various Figures of the manuscript Verstraete et al. (2020).Once this archive is installed and uncompressed, 8 subdirectories named Pxxx-Oyyyyyy-Bzzz are created, where xxx, yyyyyy and zzz stand for the Path, Orbit and Block numbers, respectively. At a minimum, those directories contain a 'GM/RCCM' subdirectory that includes a collection of 75 text, graphics (maps in PNG format) and binary data files relative to the intermediary, final and ancillary results generated while preparing those Figures.The 3 subdirectories for Orbit 92981, as well as the one dedicated to Orbit 78010, contain a subdirectory labeled 'GM/RCCM__[cc]-[l1]-[l2]' instead, where [cc] indicates the camera whose data have been modified to evaluate the performance of the algorithms, and [l1] and [l2] indicate the first and last line that is artificially deemed to contain missing data: those subdirectories include collections of 93 text, graphics and binary data files; they include maps of the RCCM data product before and after this artificial modification.Two of those subdirectories (for Orbits 2111 and 78171) also contain a subdirectory 'GM/L1B2', which hosts a number of text and graphics (maps in PNG format) files obtained by plotting the top of atmosphere bidirectional reflectance measured by the MISR instrument. These images can be used to verify visually the state of the cloud cover in the corresponding cameras and spectral bands.Each map is accompanied by a similarly named text file providing the legend of the corresponding map. Those subdirectories also contain log files that report on the success rate of the replacement algorithm as well as accuracy of the replacement procedure, when some data are artificially removed.(2) The document 'RCCM_Out.pdf' provides the User Manual to install and explore the compressed archive 'RCCM_Out.zip'.(3) The compressed archive 'RCCM_input_68050.zip' contains MISR L1B2 GRP and RCCM data for the full Orbit 68050, acquired on 3 October 2012. This file includes data for a wide range of locations, from Russia to north-west Iran, central and eastern Iraq, Saudi Arabia, and many more countries along the eastern coast of the African continent. It is provided to allow users to analyze actual data with the software package mentioned above, without needing to download MISR data from the NASA ASDC web site.
    Keywords: Missing data ; Algorithms ; Software codes ; MISR ; RCCM ; Radiometric Camera-by-Camera Cloud Mask ; Earth Observation Satellites 〉 TERRA ; Earth Remote Sensing Instruments 〉 Passive Remote Sensing 〉 Spectrometers/Radiometers 〉 Imaging Spectrometers/Radiometers 〉 MISR ; EARTH SCIENCE 〉 ATMOSPHERE 〉 CLOUDS
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  • 38
    Publication Date: 2020-04-13
    Description: Abstract
    Description: (1) The compressed archive 'RCCM_Soft_Win.zip' includes the self-contained, executable IDL Virtual Machine software package that allows processing MISR RCCM data without requiring an IDL license. Users who do have access to an IDL license are encouraged to obtain the necessary source codes from the GitHub web site https://github.com/mmverstraete (Verstraete et al., 2019, https://doi.org/10.5281/zenodo.3240018) and to incorporate those functions in their own custom programs.(2) The document 'RCCM_Soft_Win.pdf' provides the User Manual to install and use the software package 'RCCM_Soft_Win.zip' on a PC running under the MS Windows operating system.In addition, the authors provide the test input data archive 'RCCM_input_68050.zip', available from Verstraete et al., 2020, http://doi.org/10.5880/fidgeo.2020.004, to allow users to explore for themselves the various steps of this missing data replacement process in actual MISR RCCM files.Background information:The Multi-angle Imaging SpectroRadiometer (MISR) is one of the five instruments hosted on- board the NASA Terra platform, launched on 18 December 1999. It features 9 cameras pointing at various angles along the track of the platform, each measuring the amount of solar radiation reflected by the Earth in 4 spectral bands. MISR started acquiring observations on 24 February 2000, and is still operating as of this writing, therefore providing almost 20 years of continuous global observations.One of the most basic data products generated by NASA after the initial pre-processing of MISR raw data is the Level 1B2 Georectified Radiance Product (GRP). This data product intermittently contains missing data that are often due to a temporary overload of the on- board computer. This process, which results in the dropping of lines of measurements while the computer resets itself, tends to occur especially when the MISR instrument is switched from the default Global Mode (GM) to the occasional Local Mode (LM) of operation, and conversely. As a result, those missing lines are unevenly distributed and tend to cluster around particular sites and dates.
    Description: Other
    Description: This code is published under the MIT License.Copyright (c) [2020] Michel VerstraetePermission is hereby granted, free of charge, to any person obtaining a copy of this software and associated documentation files (the "Software"), to deal in the Software without restriction, including without limitation the rights to use, copy, modify, merge, publish, distribute, sublicense, and/or sell copies of the Software, and to permit persons to whom the Software is furnished to do so, subject to the following conditions: The above copyright notice and this permission notice shall be included in all copies or substantial portions of the Software.THE SOFTWARE IS PROVIDED "AS IS", WITHOUT WARRANTY OF ANY KIND, EXPRESS OR IMPLIED, INCLUDING BUT NOT LIMITED TO THE WARRANTIES OF MERCHANTABILITY, FITNESS FOR A PARTICULAR PURPOSE AND NONINFRINGEMENT. IN NO EVENT SHALL THE AUTHORS OR COPYRIGHT HOLDERS BE LIABLE FOR ANY CLAIM, DAMAGES OR OTHER LIABILITY, WHETHER IN AN ACTION OF CONTRACT, TORT OR OTHERWISE, ARISING FROM, OUT OF OR IN CONNECTION WITH THE SOFTWARE OR THE USE OR OTHER DEALINGS IN THE SOFTWARE.
    Keywords: Missing data ; Algorithms ; Software codes ; MISR ; RCCM ; Radiometric Camera-by-Camera Cloud Mask ; Earth Observation Satellites 〉 TERRA ; Earth Remote Sensing Instruments 〉 Passive Remote Sensing 〉 Spectrometers/Radiometers 〉 Imaging Spectrometers/Radiometers 〉 MISR ; EARTH SCIENCE 〉 ATMOSPHERE 〉 CLOUDS
    Type: Software
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  • 39
    Publication Date: 2020-04-24
    Description: Abstract
    Description: During 1978-79, a seismic refraction experiment was carried out in the Rhenish Massif, West Germany, and adjacent areas, extending through Belgium and Luxembourg into the Paris Basin in France. The experiment was designed to investigate the structure of the crust and uppermost mantle beneath the massif and thus help in a multidisciplinary study, sponsored by the Deutsche Forschungsgemeinschaft, into the causes and mechanisms of uplift of the massif.The Aachen-Baumholder (L1/L2-M1/M2) profile was completed in May and August, 1978. The 600 km long, main profile and the cross profiles, B-K and K-F, were completed in May 1979. During the main experiment in May 1979, 137 recording units of the MARS type from various European countries participated. 20 shots were fired in 1979 and thus a total of 2740 three-component recordings were made.
    Keywords: Rhenish Massif ; seismic refraction ; geophysics ; plateau uplift ; 1978-79 Rhenish Massif seismic refraction experiment ; GIPP Grant Number 197901 ; EARTH SCIENCE 〉 SOLID EARTH 〉 TECTONICS ; In Situ Land-based Platforms 〉 GEOPHYSICAL STATIONS/NETWORKS ; 197901 ; 1978-79 Rhenish Massif seismic refraction experiment
    Language: English
    Type: Dataset , controlled source data
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  • 40
    Publication Date: 2020-04-20
    Description: Abstract
    Description: The movies in this dataset are supplementary to the article of Scherler and Schwanghart (submitted), in which experiments with numerical landscape evolution models have been conducted to analyze the evolution of drainage divide networks. The experiments were run in MATLAB with the TopoToolbox landscape evolution model (TTLEM) 1.0 (Campforts et al., 2017), and analyzed with the TopoToolbox v2 (Schwanghart and Scherler, 2014).The different experiments in this dataset comprise five different setups, called ‘Initialize’, ‘Reference’, ‘Rotate’, ‘Inclined’, and ‘Spheres’, which all simulate the evolution of landscapes over 10 Million years. See Scherler and Schwanghart (submitted) for details on the different models. For each model run, we produced five different movies that were saved as Audio Video Interleave (AVI) files. All movies show the evolution of the topography and the drainage divide network, colored for different properties. Detailed description of the files is provided in the associated data description.
    Keywords: Drainage divides ; Landscape evolution models ; EARTH SCIENCE 〉 SOLID EARTH 〉 GEOMORPHIC LANDFORMS/PROCESSES 〉 TECTONIC LANDFORMS 〉 MOUNTAINS ; EARTH SCIENCE SERVICES 〉 MODELS 〉 DIGITAL ELEVATION/DIGITAL TERRAIN MODELS ; EARTH SCIENCE 〉 LAND SURFACE 〉 TOPOGRAPHY ; EARTH SCIENCE 〉 LAND SURFACE 〉 TOPOGRAPHY 〉 LANDFORMS
    Type: Dataset
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  • 41
    Publication Date: 2020-05-05
    Description: Abstract
    Description: The data are the numerical modeling results to investigate plume-induced subduction initation on which the figures of the paper "Plume-induced subduction initiation: single- or multi-slab subduction?" by Baes, Sobolev, Gerya and Brune are based. Detailed description on how they are obtained is given in that article (Baes et al., 2020).The naming of the files is based on the number of figures in the paper. Each zipped file contains input files (init.t3c and mode.t3c) and output files (*.vtr).
    Keywords: subduction initiation ; mantle plume ; numerical modeling ; single-slab ; multi-slab ; EARTH SCIENCE SERVICES 〉 MODELS ; EARTH SCIENCE 〉 SOLID EARTH 〉 TECTONICS 〉 PLATE TECTONICS 〉 PLATE BOUNDARIES
    Language: English
    Type: Model , Dataset
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  • 42
    Publication Date: 2020-05-06
    Description: Abstract
    Description: Analyzing the chemical composition of rocks and minerals is an important tool for exploring and understanding mineral resources. Typically, hydrothermal ore deposits are characterized by primary alteration halos. At the world-class Panasqueira W-Sn-Cu deposit, the hydrothermal alteration of the wall rocks produced concentric zones with progressively greater distance from the veins, consisting of a proximal tourmaline-quartz-muscovite zone and a distal muscovite-quartz zone.Tourmaline and mica are ubiquitous minerals at Panasqueira W-Sn-Cu and coexist in many other hydrothermal ore deposits worldwide. Both minerals are well-known to host variable amounts of trace elements and to have potential as pathfinder minerals as well as fluid monitors.We analyzed major, minor and trace element contents of altered and unaltered metasediments from the Panasqueira by XRF and ICP-MS and tourmaline and white mica major, minor and trace element compositions by laser ablation inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (LA-ICP-MS) in previously well-characterized samples from different locations/setting in the mine (greisen, vein-selvages, wall-rock alteration zones, fault zone, and late vugs).Detailed information about the samples used, the location, and general geological background of the samples, and the analytical method is provided in the data description "2020-002_Codeco-et-al_data-description.pdf ".Detailed information about the the samples used, the location and general geological background of the samples and the analytical methods are provided in the data description file (2020-002_Codeco-et-al_data-description.pdf).
    Description: Other
    Description: Panasqueira is a world-class W-Sn-Cu lode-type deposit located in the Castelo Branco district (Beira Baixa, central Portugal). The ore deposit consists of a swarm of sub-horizontal veins associated with a Late-Variscan S-type granite and enclosed by a metasedimentary unit of Late Ediacaran to Early Cambrian age (e.g., Kelly and Rye, 1979; Romão et al., 2013).The veins are mainly composed of gangue quartz, muscovite and minor carbonates, apatite, topaz,  topaz, fluorite, tourmaline, rutile, ilmenite, arsenopyrite, sphalerite, pyrite, marcasite, stannite, and pyrrhotite. Mineralization of wolframite, chalcopyrite, and cassiterite is predominantly hosted in veins with minor stringers and lenses of sulfide minerals in the wall rocks (e.g., Kelly and Rye, 1979; Polya, 1989; Polya et al., 2000). Although there is a strong variation in the vein mineralogy, typically, the quartz vein-filling is rimmed by a muscovite selvage up to 4-5 cm thick. The hydrothermal alteration produced a 2 to 30 cm thick tourmaline-rich alteration halo in the metasedimentary host rock (Bussink, 1984).
    Description: Methods
    Description: The analyzed samples are described by Codeço et al. (2017), Codeço et al. (2019), and Codeço et al. (in review). These studies discuss the chemical (major, minor, and trace elements) and boron-isotopic compositions of tourmaline and white mica, and whole-rock chemistry of altered and unaltered metasediments. Further details on sample description can be found in the folder "2020-002_Codeco-et-al_Samples" and the analytical methods are described in " 2020-002_Codeco-et-al_data-description.pdf".
    Keywords: Geochemistry ; hydrothermal alteration ; whole-rock chemistry ; tourmaline ; white mica ; muscovite ; LA-ICP-MS ; trace elements ; Panasqueira ; magmatic-hydrothermal systems ; EARTH SCIENCE 〉 SOLID EARTH 〉 ROCKS/MINERALS/CRYSTALS 〉 IGNEOUS ROCKS 〉 IGNEOUS ROCK PHYSICAL/OPTICAL PROPERTIES 〉 COMPOSITION/TEXTURE ; EARTH SCIENCE 〉 SOLID EARTH 〉 ROCKS/MINERALS/CRYSTALS 〉 METAMORPHIC ROCKS 〉 METAMORPHIC ROCK PHYSICAL/OPTICAL PROPERTIES 〉 COMPOSITION/TEXTURE ; EARTH SCIENCE 〉 SOLID EARTH 〉 ROCKS/MINERALS/CRYSTALS 〉 MINERALS 〉 MINERAL PHYSICAL/OPTICAL PROPERTIES 〉 COMPOSITION/TEXTURE ; EARTH SCIENCE 〉 SOLID EARTH 〉 GEOCHEMISTRY 〉 GEOCHEMICAL PROPERTIES 〉 CHEMICAL CONCENTRATIONS
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  • 43
    Publication Date: 2020-05-06
    Description: Abstract
    Description: Version History:29 April 2020: Release of Version 0.3This is an updated version of Reyer et al., (2019, V. 0.1.12, http://doi.org/10.5880/PIK.2019.008). All changes and updates are documented in the changelog available via the data download section.Current process-based vegetation models are complex scientific tools that require proper evaluation of the different processes included in the models to prove that the models can be used to integrate our understanding of forest ecosystems and project climate change impacts on forests. The PROFOUND database (PROFOUND DB) described here aims to bring together data from a wide range of data sources to evaluate vegetation models and simulate climate impacts at the forest stand scale.It has been designed to fulfill two objectives:- Allow for a thorough evaluation of complex, process-based vegetation models using multiple data streams covering a range of processes at different temporal scales- Allow for climate impact assessments by providing the latest climate scenario data.Therefore, the PROFOUND DB provides general a site description as well as soil, climate, CO2, Nitrogen deposition, tree-level, forest stand-level and remote sensing data for 9 forest stands spread throughout Europe. Moreover, for a subset of 5 sites, also time series of carbon fluxes, energy balances and soil water are available. The climate and nitrogen deposition data contains several datasets for the historic period and a wide range of future climate change scenarios following the Representative Emission Pathways (RCP2.6, RCP4.5, RCP6.0, RCP8.5).In addition, we also provide pre-industrial climate simulations that allow for model runs aimed at disentangling the contribution of climate change to observed forest productivity changes. The PROFOUND Database is available freely but we incite users to respect the data policies of the individual datasets as provided in the metadata of each data file. The database can also be accessed via the PROFOUND R-package, which provides basic functions to explore, plot and extract the data.The data (PROFOUND DB) are provided in two different versions (ProfoundData.sqlite download as ProfoundData.zip, ProfoundData_ASCII.zip) accompanied by a change-log to the previous published version (changelog_Profound-DB_v03.pdf), auxiliary data of reconstructed single tree data at the site Sorø (Soroe_DBH_H_AGE_20200428.zip) and documented by the three explanatory documents:(1) PROFOUNDdatabase.pdf: describes the structure, organisation and content of the PROFOUND DB.(2) PROFOUNDsites.pdf: displays the main data of the PROFOUND DB for each of the 9 forest sites in tables and plots.(3) ProfoundData.pdf: explains how to use the PROFOUND R-Package "ProfoundData" to access the PROFOUND DB and provides example scripts on how to apply it.
    Keywords: vegetation model ; soil ; climate ; CO2 ; Nitrogen deposition ; tree-level ; forest stand-level ; remote sensing ; EARTH SCIENCE 〉 BIOSPHERE 〉 VEGETATION 〉 NITROGEN ; EARTH SCIENCE 〉 CLIMATE INDICATORS ; EARTH SCIENCE 〉 LAND SURFACE 〉 SOILS ; EARTH SCIENCE SERVICES 〉 MODELS 〉 DYNAMIC VEGETATION/ECOSYSTEM MODELS
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  • 44
    Publication Date: 2020-05-07
    Description: Abstract
    Description: Imaging growing lava domes has remained a great challenge in volcanology due to their inaccessibility and the severe hazard of collapse or explosion. Here, we present orthophotos and topography data derived from a series of repeated survey flights with both optical and thermal cameras at the Caliente lava dome, part of the Santiaguito complex at Santa Maria volcano, Guatemala, using an Unoccupied Aircraft System (UAS). The data archived here supplements the material detailed in Zorn et al. (2020, https://doi.org/10.1038/s41598-020-65386-2).Note, all files are saved in WGS 84 / UTM Zone 15N format. The data are provided the following .zip folders:- 2020-001_Zorn-et-al_DEM-Geotiffs-zip: DEMs of surveys A-D in geotiff format (.tif)- 2020-001_Zorn-et-al_Orthophotos.zip: Orthophotos of surveys A-D and 2 thermal surveys as Tiff-images (.tif). A .jpg of the color scale for the thermal data is also included- 2020-001_Zorn-et-al_Point_Cloud_Models.zip: Point clouds of surveys A-D, 2 thermal surveys (.las)
    Description: Methods
    Description: During fieldwork in February 2019 we performed UAS survey flights over the active Caliente vent at Santiaguito volcano with multiple drones and sensors at a height of approx. 100 m over the lava dome (Fig. 1a, 2a). The flights were recorded using high-resolution optical photos and an additional thermal camera. The optical images were acquired with the onboard sRGB camera of our UAS (DJI Phantom 4 Pro) with a resolution of 5472 x 3078 px and a sampling rate of 0.5 Hz. The thermal images were acquired with a FLIR TAU 2 (9 mm lens), stored in a TEAX ThermalCapture frame grabber, and processed with the Thermoviewer software (v3.0.4). These provided radiometric temperature data and had a resolution of 640 x 512 px with a sampling rate of 8 Hz. In total we processed four flights with optical photos (named surveys A, B, C, and D) and two thermal flights.We performed Structure-from-Motion (SfM) photogrammetric processing using Agisoft Metashape 1.5.2 on all optical and thermal surveys to reconstruct the 3D environment of the active lava dome, enabling us to construct both high resolution DEMs from dense point clouds as well as detailed orthophotos. The survey photos were acquired in nadir or near-nadir position, with only some single photos being taken at an oblique angle to improve the model quality. The difficult and hazardous terrain did not allow for sufficient ground control points to create a reliable georeferencing. To georeference the UAS datasets acquired at Santiaguito volcano, we used a photogrammetric model built from high-resolution optical Pléiades satellite imagery on 15.01.2017. In this process, the SfM-built DEM is attached to the Pléiades one by identifying recognizable features in both datasets. The final referencing had an RMS-error of 3.3 m, but due to the high resolution of the SfM models, they could be better referenced relative to each other, meaning that all other SfM-DEMs now use the prereferenced Survey D as a basis. This minimizes the relative errors between the DEMs and allows for high-precision data comparison. Here, all models are within 0.3 m accurate relative to each other.
    Keywords: Santiaguito ; UAS ; Structure-from-Motion ; volcano hazards ; remote sensing ; dome collapse ; pyroclastic flow ; explosive eruption ; Earth Remote Sensing Instruments 〉 Passive Remote Sensing 〉 Thermal/Radiation Detectors 〉 FLIR ; EARTH SCIENCE SERVICES 〉 MODELS 〉 DIGITAL ELEVATION/DIGITAL TERRAIN MODELS ; EARTH SCIENCE 〉 SOLID EARTH 〉 GEOMORPHIC LANDFORMS/PROCESSES 〉 TECTONIC LANDFORMS 〉 LAVA DOME ; monitoring 〉 monitoring technique 〉 photogrammetry
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  • 45
    Publication Date: 2020-05-08
    Description: Abstract
    Description: We study the crustal structure of Sri Lanka by analyzing data from a temporary seismic network deployed in 2016-2017 (Seneviratne et al., 2016) to shed light on the amalgamation process from the geophysical perspective. Rayleigh wave phase dispersion from ambient noise cross-correlation and receiver functions were jointly inverted using a transdimensional Bayesian approach (Bodin et al., 2012, Dreiling & Tilmann, 2019).The dataset provides results from Dreiling et al. (2020) and includes multiple files:(1) the ASCII file 1-results.dat, including the Moho depths and Vp/Vs derived from Bayesian inversion and Hκ-stack grid search, and average crustal Vs and depth of mid-crustal interface from Bayesian inversion and uncertainties for each seismic station, as summarized in Table S2 in the Supporting Information to the manuscript, and(2) the ASCII files *_models.dat (*explicit station name), each includes the final median Vs-depth model beneath each station derived from Bayesian inversion, including Vs standard deviations.
    Keywords: seismic crustal structure ; Bayesian joint inversion ; seismic ambient noise ; receiver functions ; BayHunter ; Sri Lanka ; EARTH SCIENCE SERVICES 〉 MODELS ; EARTH SCIENCE 〉 SOLID EARTH ; lithosphere 〉 earth's crust ; science 〉 natural science 〉 earth science 〉 geophysics
    Language: English
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  • 46
    Publication Date: 2020-05-13
    Description: Abstract
    Description: This dataset comprises data of an interdisciplinary pedon-scale irrigation experiment at a grassland site near Karlsruhe, Germany, including pedo-hydrological, geophysical, and remote sensing data. The objective of this experiment is to monitor soil moisture dynamics during a well-defined infiltration process with a combination of direct and non-invasive techniques.Overall, the quantification of soil water dynamics and, in particular, its spatial distributions is essential for the understanding of land-atmosphere interactions. However, the precise measurement of soil water dynamics and its spatial distribution in a continuous manner is a challenging task. Pedo-hydrological monitoring techniques rely on direct, point-based measurement with buried probes for soil water content and matric potential. Non-invasive remote sensing (RS) and geophysical measurement techniques allow for spatially continuous measurements on different spatial scales and extents. This experiment provides a basis for the analyses of signal coherence between the measurement techniques and disciplines. It contributes to forthcoming developments of monitoring setups and modeling approaches to landscape-water dynamics.For direct monitoring, an array of time-domain reflectometry (TDR) probes and tensiometers was used. As non-invasive techniques, we applied a ground-penetrating radar (GPR), a hyperspectral snapshot sensor, a long-wave infrared (LWIR) sensor, and a hyperspectral field spectroradiometer. We provide the data in nearly raw format, including information about the site properties and calibration references. The data are organized along with the different sensors and disciplines. Thus, the distinct sensor data can also be used independently of each other. In addition, exemplary scripts for reading and processing the data are included.
    Keywords: soil moisture ; irrigation experiment ; hyperspectral data ; VNIR data ; ground penetrating radar ; LWIR data ; interdisciplinary dataset ; CAOS ; Catchments as Organised Systems ; EARTH SCIENCE 〉 LAND SURFACE 〉 SOILS 〉 SOIL MOISTURE/WATER CONTENT ; EARTH SCIENCE 〉 TERRESTRIAL HYDROSPHERE ; EARTH SCIENCE SERVICES 〉 DATA ANALYSIS AND VISUALIZATION 〉 STATISTICAL APPLICATIONS ; Earth Remote Sensing Instruments 〉 Active Remote Sensing 〉 Profilers/Sounders 〉 Radar Sounders ; Earth Remote Sensing Instruments 〉 Active Remote Sensing ; Earth Remote Sensing Instruments 〉 Passive Remote Sensing 〉 Spectrometers/Radiometers 〉 Hyperspectral Spectrometers/Radiometers ; Earth Remote Sensing Instruments 〉 Passive Remote Sensing 〉 Thermal/Radiation Detectors 〉 FLIR ; Earth Remote Sensing Instruments 〉 Passive Remote Sensing 〉 Thermal/Radiation Detectors ; In Situ/Laboratory Instruments 〉 Probes 〉 SOIL MOISTURE PROBE
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  • 47
    Publication Date: 2020-05-20
    Description: Abstract
    Description: This data publication provides access to (1) an archive of maps and statistics on MISR L1B2 GRP data products updated as described in Verstraete et al. (2020, https://doi.org/10.5194/essd-2019-210), (2) a user manual describing this archive, (3) a large archive of standard (unprocessed) MISR data files that can be used in conjunction with the IDL software repository published on GitHub and available from https://github.com/mmverstraete (Verstraete et al., 2019, https://doi.org/10.5281/zenodo.3519989), (4) an additional archive of maps and statistics on MISR L1B2 GRP data products updated as described for eight additional Blocks of MISR data, spanning a broader range of climatic and environmental conditions (between Iraq and Namibia), and (5) a user manual describing this second archive. The authors also make a self-contained, stand-alone version of that processing software available to all users, using the IDL Virtual Machine technology (which does not require an IDL license) from Verstraete et al., 2020: http://doi.org/10.5880/fidgeo.2020.011.(1) The compressed archive 'L1B2_Out.zip' contains all outputs produced in the course of generating the various Figures of the manuscript Verstraete et al. (2020b).Once this archive is installed and uncompressed, 9 subdirectories named Fig-fff-Ttt_Pxxx-Oyyyyyy-Bzzz are created, where fff, tt, xxx, yyyyyy and zzz stand for the Figure number, an optional Table number, Path, Orbit and Block numbers, respectively. These directories contain collections of text, graphics (maps and scatterplots) and binary data files relative to the intermediary, final and ancillary results generated while preparing those Figures.Maps and scatterplots are provided as graphics files in PNG format. Map legends are plain text files with the same names as the maps themselves, but with a file extension '.txt'. Log files are also plain text files. They are generated by the software that creates those graphics files and provide additional details on the intermediary and final results.The processing of MISR L1B2 GRP data product files requires access to cloud masks for the same geographical areas (one for each of the 9 cameras). Since those masks are themselves derived from the L1B2 GRP data and therefore also contain missing data, the outcomes from updating the RCCM data products, as described in Verstraete et al. (2020, https://doi.org/10.5194/essd-12-611-2020), are also included in this archive.The last 2 subdirectories contain the outcomes from the normal processing of the indicated data files, as well as those generated when additional missing data are artificially inserted in the input files for the purpose of assessing the performance of the algorithms.(2) The document 'L1B2_Out.pdf' provides the User Manual to install and explore the compressed archive 'L1B2_Out.zip'.(3) The compressed archive 'L1B2_input_68050.zip' contains MISR L1B2 GRP and RCCM data for the full Orbit 68050, acquired on 3 October 2012, as well as the corresponding AGP file, which is required by the processing system to update the radiance product. This archive includes data for a wide range of locations, from Russia to north-west Iran, central and eastern Iraq, Saudi Arabia, and many more countries along the eastern coast of the African continent. It is provided to allow users to analyze actual data with the software package mentioned above, without needing to download MISR data from the NASA ASDC web site.(4) The compressed archive 'L1B2_Suppl.zip' contains a set of results similar to the archive 'L1B2_Out.zip' mentioned above, for four additional sites, spanning a much wider range of geographical, climatic and ecological conditions: these are covering areas in Iraq (marsh and arid lands), Kenya (agriculture and tropical forests), South Sudan (grasslands) and Namibia (coastal desert and Atlantic Ocean). Two of them involve largely clear scenes, and the other two include clouds. The last case also includes a test to artificially introduce missing data over deep water and clouds, to demonstrate the performance of the procedure on targets other than continental areas. Once uncompressed, this new archive expands into 8 subdirectories and takes up 1.8 GB of disk space, providing access to about 2,900 files.(5) The companion user manual L1B2_Suppl.pdf, describing how to install, uncompress and explore those additional files.
    Keywords: Missing data ; Algorithms ; Software codes ; MISR ; L1B2 Georectified Radiance Product ; EARTH SCIENCE 〉 SPECTRAL/ENGINEERING 〉 VISIBLE WAVELENGTHS 〉 VISIBLE RADIANCE ; Earth Observation Satellites 〉 TERRA ; Earth Remote Sensing Instruments 〉 Passive Remote Sensing 〉 Spectrometers/Radiometers 〉 Imaging Spectrometers/Radiometers 〉 MISR
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  • 48
    Publication Date: 2020-05-27
    Description: Abstract
    Description: As reverse weathering has been shown to impact long-term changes in atmospheric CO2 levels, it is crucial to develop quantitative tools to reconstruct marine authigenic clay formation. We explored the potential of the beryllium (Be) isotope ratio (10Be/9Be) recorded in marine clay-sized sediment to track neoformation of authigenic clays. The power of such proxy relies on the orders-of-magnitude difference in 10Be/9Be ratios between continental Be and Be dissolved in seawater. On riverine and marine sediments collected along a Chilean margin transect we chemically extracted reactive phases and separated the clay-sized sediment fraction. We compare the riverine and marine 10Be/9Be ratio of this fraction. Moreover, we compare the elemental and mineralogical composition and the Nd and Sr-isotopic composition of these samples. 10Be/9Be ratios increase four-fold from riverine to marine sediment. We attribute this increase to the incorporation of Be high in 10Be/9Be from dissolved biogenic opal, which also serves as a Si-source for the precipitation of marine authigenic clays. 10Be/9Be ratios thus sensitively track reverse-weathering reactions forming marine authigenic clays.
    Keywords: reverse weathering ; authigenic clay ; beryllium ; cosmogenic nuclide ; 10Be ; denudation ; EARTH SCIENCE 〉 LAND SURFACE 〉 EROSION/SEDIMENTATION 〉 WEATHERING ; EARTH SCIENCE 〉 LAND SURFACE 〉 EROSION/SEDIMENTATION 〉 SEDIMENTS ; EARTH SCIENCE 〉 LAND SURFACE 〉 EROSION/SEDIMENTATION 〉 EROSION ; EARTH SCIENCE 〉 SOLID EARTH 〉 GEOMORPHIC LANDFORMS/PROCESSES 〉 FLUVIAL PROCESSES 〉 WEATHERING ; EARTH SCIENCE 〉 OCEANS 〉 OCEAN CHEMISTRY 〉 RADIONUCLIDES ; EARTH SCIENCE 〉 SOLID EARTH 〉 GEOCHEMISTRY 〉 GEOCHEMICAL PROPERTIES 〉 ISOTOPES ; EARTH SCIENCE 〉 SOLID EARTH 〉 GEOCHEMISTRY 〉 GEOCHEMICAL PROPERTIES 〉 ISOTOPE RATIOS ; EARTH SCIENCE 〉 SOLID EARTH 〉 GEOCHEMISTRY 〉 GEOCHEMICAL PROPERTIES 〉 CHEMICAL CONCENTRATIONS ; EARTH SCIENCE 〉 SOLID EARTH 〉 GEOCHEMISTRY 〉 GEOCHEMICAL PROPERTIES 〉 ISOTOPES ; EARTH SCIENCE 〉 SOLID EARTH 〉 GEOCHEMISTRY 〉 MARINE GEOCHEMICAL PROCESSES 〉 CHEMICAL DECOMPOSITION ; EARTH SCIENCE 〉 SOLID EARTH 〉 GEOCHEMISTRY 〉 GEOCHEMICAL PROCESSES 〉 CHEMICAL WEATHERING ; EARTH SCIENCE 〉 OCEANS 〉 OCEAN CHEMISTRY 〉 MARINE GEOCHEMISTRY ; EARTH SCIENCE 〉 OCEANS 〉 MARINE SEDIMENTS 〉 SEDIMENT CHEMISTRY ; EARTH SCIENCE 〉 OCEANS 〉 MARINE SEDIMENTS 〉 TERRIGENOUS SEDIMENTS ; EARTH SCIENCE 〉 OCEANS 〉 MARINE SEDIMENTS 〉 SEDIMENT COMPOSITION ; EARTH SCIENCE 〉 OCEANS 〉 MARINE SEDIMENTS 〉 PARTICLE FLUX ; compound material 〉 sedimentary material 〉 sediment 〉 mud size sediment ; compound material 〉 sedimentary material 〉 clastic sedimentary material ; compound material 〉 sedimentary material 〉 sediment ; compound material 〉 sedimentary material 〉 chemical sedimentary material ; geological process 〉 sedimentation (geology)
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  • 49
    Publication Date: 2020-06-05
    Description: Abstract
    Description: The profile 1C was recorded in 1988 as part of the joint reflection venture DEKORP 1 of DEKORP (German Deep Seismic Reflection Program) and BELCORP (Belgian Continental Reflection Seismic Program) groups. The seismic survey of the ca. 75-km long line 1C was conducted to investigate the deep crustal structure of the western Rhenish Massif with high-fold near-vertical incidence vibroseis acquisition. The objectives of the experiment were to analyse deep Variscan and post-Variscan crustal structures in the region and to compare them with the results from the eastern Rhenish Massif gathered from the survey DEKORP 2N. The first results were presented by DEKORP Research Group (1991) and supplemented by many other researches. The Technical Report of line 1C gives detailed information about acquisition and processing parameters.The European Variscides, extending from the French Central Massif to the East European Platform, originated during the collision between Gondwana and Baltica in the Late Palaeozoic. Due to involvement of various crustal blocks in the orogenesis, the mountain belt is subdivided into distinct zones. The external fold-and-thrust belts of the Rhenohercynian and Saxothuringian as well as the predominantly crystalline body of the Moldanubian dominate the central European segment of the Variscides. Polyphase tectonic deformation, magmatism and metamorphic processes led to a complex interlinking between the units.The Rhenohercynian Zone is a foreland fold-and-thrust belt cropping out in the Rhenish Massif which extends from the Ardennes to the Harz Mountains. This geological unit consists predominantly of Devonian and Lower Carboniferous rocks affected by very low-grade metamorphism (DEKORP Research Group, 1991).The survey 1C was carried out in the western part of the Rhenish Massif and intersects the Variscan main structures almost perpendicular. It stretches from the Mosel Syncline to the Saar-Nahe Basin (WNW-ESE) crossing the Devonian metamorphic rocks of the Hunsrueck Mountains, the Northern Phyllite Zone and the Hunsrueck Boundary Fault separating the Rhenohercynian and Saxothuringian Zones. In the northwest 1C joins line 1B which runs through the Hocheifel area. In the southeast the line continues with 9N running across the northern part of the Upper Rhine Graben.
    Description: Other
    Description: The German Continental Seismic Reflection Program DEKORP (DEutsches KOntinentales Reflexionsseismisches Programm) was carried out between 1984 – 1999 as the German national reflection seismic program funded by the Federal Ministry of Research and Technology (BMFT), Bonn [now: the Federal Ministry of Education and Research (BMBF)]. DEKORP was administrated by the former Geological Survey of Lower Saxony (NLfB), Hannover [now: the State Authority for Mining, Energy and Geology (LBEG)]. In 1994 the DEKORP management was taken over by the Helmholtz Centre Potsdam GFZ German Research Centre for Geosciences.The aim of DEKORP was to investigate the deep crustal structure of Germany with high-resolution near-vertical incidence (mostly vibro)seismic acquisition, supplemented by wide-angle seismic and other target-oriented piggy-back experiments, all complemented by optimized methods of data processing and interpretation. The DEKORP project was closely linked with the KTB (German continental deep-drilling program) and was an equivalent to many other deep-seismic programs world-wide such as COCORP, BIRPS, LITHOPROBE, ECORS, CROP, BELCORP, IBERSEIS and many more. The DEKORP-Atlas (Meissner & Bortfeld, 1990) gives a detailed overview about most of the different campaigns and results.In sum, the resulting DEKORP database includes approximately 40 crustal-scale 2D-seismic reflection lines covering a total of ca. 4 700 km and one 3D-seismic reflection survey covering ca. 400 km². Each DEKORP survey is provided with all datasets that are necessary for either a re-processing (i.e. raw unstacked field records in SEGY) or a re-interpretation (i.e. finally processed sections in SEGY or PNG). The raw data are sorted by records or by CDPs. The final data are available as unmigrated or migrated stacks without or with coherency enhancement. Automatical line-drawings are also included. All data come with additional meta information for each domain (source, receiver, CDP) like coordinates, elevations, locations and static corrections combined in ASCII-tables for geometry assignment. Furthermore, all metadata originating from paper copies are made available as scanned files in PNG or PDF, e.g. field and observer reports, location maps in different scales, near-surface profile headers and others.The DEKORP datasets provide unique and deep insights into the subsurface below Germany covering the earth’s crust from the surface to the upper mantle and are increasingly requested by academic institutions and commercial companies. Fields of applications are geothermal development, hazard analysis, hydrocarbon/shale gas exploration, underground gas storage, tunnel construction and much more.
    Keywords: deep crustal structure ; crustal-scale seismic survey ; near-vertical incidence seismic reflection ; Vibroseis acquisition ; Rhenish Massif ; Variscan orogenic belts ; Rhenohercynian ; Saxothuringian ; Mosel Syncline ; Hunsrueck ; Northern Phyllite Zone ; Hunsrueck boundary fault ; Saar-Nahe Basin ; Mohorovičić discontinuity ; geothermal resources ; seismic risks ; DEKORP ; Deutsches Kontinentales Reflexionsseismisches Programm ; In Situ/Laboratory Instruments 〉 Profilers/Sounders 〉 SEISMIC REFLECTION PROFILERS ; EARTH SCIENCE 〉 SOLID EARTH 〉 TECTONICS 〉 EARTHQUAKES 〉 SEISMIC PROFILE ; EARTH SCIENCE 〉 SOLID EARTH 〉 TECTONICS 〉 PLATE TECTONICS ; lithosphere 〉 earth's crust
    Type: Dataset
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