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  • 1
    Publication Date: 2002-08-06
    Description: Excessive caloric intake is thought to be sensed by the brain, which then activates thermogenesis as a means of preventing obesity. The sympathetic nervous system, through beta-adrenergic receptor (betaAR) action on target tissues, is likely the efferent arm of this homeostatic mechanism. To test this hypothesis, we created mice that lack the three known betaARs (beta-less mice). beta-less mice on a Chow diet had a reduced metabolic rate and were slightly obese. On a high-fat diet, beta-less mice, in contrast to wild-type mice, developed massive obesity that was due entirely to a failure of diet-induced thermogenesis. These findings establish that betaARs are necessary for diet-induced thermogenesis and that this efferent pathway plays a critical role in the body's defense against diet-induced obesity.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Notes: 〈/span〉Bachman, Eric S -- Dhillon, Harveen -- Zhang, Chen-Yu -- Cinti, Saverio -- Bianco, Antonio C -- Kobilka, Brian K -- Lowell, Bradford B -- New York, N.Y. -- Science. 2002 Aug 2;297(5582):843-5.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Author address: 〈/span〉Department of Medicine, Division of Endocrinology, Beth Israel Deaconess Medical Center and Harvard Medical School, 99 Brookline Avenue, Boston, MA 02215, USA.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Record origin:〈/span〉 〈a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/12161655" target="_blank"〉PubMed〈/a〉
    Keywords: Adipose Tissue, Brown/drug effects/metabolism ; Animals ; Basal Metabolism/drug effects ; Body Temperature/drug effects ; Body Weight/drug effects/genetics ; *Diet ; Dietary Fats/administration & dosage/pharmacology ; Energy Intake ; Female ; Homeostasis/drug effects ; Immunohistochemistry ; Male ; Mice ; Mice, Knockout ; Obesity/blood/genetics/*metabolism/prevention & control ; Oxygen Consumption/drug effects ; Phenotype ; Receptors, Adrenergic, beta/genetics/*metabolism ; *Signal Transduction/drug effects ; Sympathetic Nervous System/drug effects/physiology ; Thermogenesis/genetics/*physiology
    Print ISSN: 0036-8075
    Electronic ISSN: 1095-9203
    Topics: Biology , Chemistry and Pharmacology , Computer Science , Medicine , Natural Sciences in General , Physics
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  • 2
    Publication Date: 2012-01-13
    Description: Exercise benefits a variety of organ systems in mammals, and some of the best-recognized effects of exercise on muscle are mediated by the transcriptional co-activator PPAR-gamma co-activator-1 alpha (PGC1-alpha). Here we show in mouse that PGC1-alpha expression in muscle stimulates an increase in expression of FNDC5, a membrane protein that is cleaved and secreted as a newly identified hormone, irisin. Irisin acts on white adipose cells in culture and in vivo to stimulate UCP1 expression and a broad program of brown-fat-like development. Irisin is induced with exercise in mice and humans, and mildly increased irisin levels in the blood cause an increase in energy expenditure in mice with no changes in movement or food intake. This results in improvements in obesity and glucose homeostasis. Irisin could be therapeutic for human metabolic disease and other disorders that are improved with exercise.〈br /〉〈br /〉〈a href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3522098/" target="_blank"〉〈img src="https://static.pubmed.gov/portal/portal3rc.fcgi/4089621/img/3977009" border="0"〉〈/a〉   〈a href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3522098/" target="_blank"〉This paper as free author manuscript - peer-reviewed and accepted for publication〈/a〉〈br /〉〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Notes: 〈/span〉Bostrom, Pontus -- Wu, Jun -- Jedrychowski, Mark P -- Korde, Anisha -- Ye, Li -- Lo, James C -- Rasbach, Kyle A -- Bostrom, Elisabeth Almer -- Choi, Jang Hyun -- Long, Jonathan Z -- Kajimura, Shingo -- Zingaretti, Maria Cristina -- Vind, Birgitte F -- Tu, Hua -- Cinti, Saverio -- Hojlund, Kurt -- Gygi, Steven P -- Spiegelman, Bruce M -- DK31405/DK/NIDDK NIH HHS/ -- DK54477/DK/NIDDK NIH HHS/ -- K99 DK087853/DK/NIDDK NIH HHS/ -- R01 DK054477/DK/NIDDK NIH HHS/ -- R01 DK061562/DK/NIDDK NIH HHS/ -- R37 DK031405/DK/NIDDK NIH HHS/ -- England -- Nature. 2012 Jan 11;481(7382):463-8. doi: 10.1038/nature10777.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Author address: 〈/span〉Dana-Farber Cancer Institute, Harvard Medical School, Boston, Massachusetts 02115, USA.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Record origin:〈/span〉 〈a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22237023" target="_blank"〉PubMed〈/a〉
    Keywords: Adipocytes/cytology/drug effects/metabolism ; Adipose Tissue, Brown/*cytology/drug effects/metabolism ; Adipose Tissue, White/*cytology/drug effects/metabolism ; Animals ; Cell Respiration/drug effects ; Cells, Cultured ; Culture Media, Conditioned/pharmacology ; Energy Metabolism/drug effects/genetics/physiology ; Exercise/physiology ; Gene Expression Regulation/drug effects/genetics ; Hormones/metabolism/secretion ; Humans ; Insulin Resistance/physiology ; Intracellular Signaling Peptides and Proteins/genetics/metabolism ; Ion Channels/metabolism ; Mice ; Mice, Inbred BALB C ; Mice, Transgenic ; Mitochondrial Proteins/metabolism ; Models, Animal ; Muscle Cells/metabolism ; Obesity/blood/chemically induced/prevention & control ; Physical Conditioning, Animal/physiology ; Plasma/chemistry ; Subcutaneous Fat/cytology/drug effects/metabolism ; *Thermogenesis/drug effects/genetics ; Trans-Activators/deficiency/genetics/*metabolism/secretion ; Transcription Factors
    Print ISSN: 0028-0836
    Electronic ISSN: 1476-4687
    Topics: Biology , Chemistry and Pharmacology , Medicine , Natural Sciences in General , Physics
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  • 3
    Publication Date: 2013-04-19
    Description: Low FasL levels promote proliferation of human bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells, higher levels inhibit their differentiation into adipocytes Cell Death and Disease 4, e594 (April 2013). doi:10.1038/cddis.2013.115 Authors: M R Rippo, L Babini, F Prattichizzo, L Graciotti, G Fulgenzi, F Tomassoni Ardori, F Olivieri, G Borghetti, S Cinti, A Poloni, F Fazioli & A D Procopio
    Keywords: bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cellsFas ligandproliferationadipogenesisperoxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma
    Electronic ISSN: 2041-4889
    Topics: Biology , Medicine
    Published by Springer Nature
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  • 4
    ISSN: 0248-4900
    Keywords: brown adipose tissue ; hibernoma ; immunohistochemistry ; ultrastructure
    Source: Elsevier Journal Backfiles on ScienceDirect 1907 - 2002
    Topics: Biology
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 5
    ISSN: 0248-4900
    Keywords: brown adipose tissue ; immunocytochemistry ; ultrastructure ; uncoupling protein
    Source: Elsevier Journal Backfiles on ScienceDirect 1907 - 2002
    Topics: Biology
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 6
    ISSN: 1432-0614
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology , Process Engineering, Biotechnology, Nutrition Technology
    Notes: Abstract A Pseudomonas sp. strain, designated CPE1, was found to be capable of completely mineralizing 4-chlorobiphenyl via 4-chlorobenzoate and of partially dechlorinating 3,4′-dichlorobiphenyl in the presence of biphenyl. A three-membered bacterial consortium, designated ECO3, prepared by combining CPE1 with two chlorobenzoate (CBA)-degrading strains, was capable of extensively degrading and dechlorinating all the monochlorinated biphenyls and several dichlorinated biphenyls in the presence of bipheny. Both CPE1 and ECO3 were capable of co-metabolizing several low-chlorinated biphenyl congeners of Fenclor 42 in the presence of biphenyl; however, only in ECO3 cultures were high degradation rates and chloride release observed. The higher rate of degradation and mineralization of some polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) of Fenclor 42 due to the concerted action of ECO3 members both on PCBs and CBAs suggested that the removal of CBAs from the culture medium may favour PCB degradation, and, therefore, that CBAs may be ivollved in the regulation of the degradation process of several chlorinated biphenyl congeners.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 7
    ISSN: 1432-0614
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology , Process Engineering, Biotechnology, Nutrition Technology
    Notes: Abstract. A Pseudomonas sp. strain, designated CPE1, was found to be capable of completely mineralizing 4-chlorobiphenyl via 4-chlorobenzoate and of partially dechlorinating 3,4′-dichlorobiphenyl in the presence of biphenyl. A three-membered bacterial consortium, designated ECO3, prepared by combining CPE1 with two chlorobenzoate (CBA)-degrading strains, was capable of extensively degrading and dechlorinating all the monochlorinated biphenyls and several dichlorinated biphenyls in the presence of biphenyl. Both CPE1 and ECO3 were capable of co-metabolizing several low-chlorinated biphenyl congeners of Fenclor 42 in the presence of biphenyl; however, only in ECO3 cultures were high degradation rates and chloride release observed. The higher rate of degradation and mineralization of some polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) of Fenclor 42 due to the concerted action of ECO3 members both on PCBs and CBAs suggested that the removal of CBAs from the culture medium may favour PCB degradation, and, therefore, that CBAs may be involved in the regulation of the degradation process of several chlorinated biphenyl congeners.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 8
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    Oxford, UK : Blackwell Publishing Ltd
    Plant breeding 122 (2003), S. 0 
    ISSN: 1439-0523
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Agriculture, Forestry, Horticulture, Fishery, Domestic Science, Nutrition
    Notes: Crambe abyssinica is becoming a reliable source of industrial oil with good technical characteristics because of its high erucic acid content. The possibility of using the industrial defatted meal of crambe as a feed could further promote the interest in this crop, but is prevented by the high glucosinolate content (70-150 μmol/g). Therefore the possibility of reducing this parameter by selection was evaluated and a search for a new quick analytical procedure begun. When hydrolysed by myrosinase (thioglucoside glucohydrolase EC 3.2.3.1.), at pH 6.5 or higher, epiprogoitrin, the main glucosinolate in crambe seed (〉90% of total glucosinolates), gives (5R)-5-vinyl-1,3-oxazolidine-2-thione quantitatively. The latter can be easily estimated by high-performance liquid chromatography. This is the background of the proposed analytical procedure that permits rapid analysis of about 100 samples per day using about 25 mg of crambe meal (five seeds) for assay. The method can also be used to select for glucosinolate content in rapeseed and, probably with some adjustment, all crops that have a 2-hydroxy-glucosinolate as the main glucosinolate.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 9
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    Amsterdam : Elsevier
    Experimental Cell Research 159 (1985), S. 261-266 
    ISSN: 0014-4827
    Source: Elsevier Journal Backfiles on ScienceDirect 1907 - 2002
    Topics: Biology , Medicine
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 10
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    Amsterdam : Elsevier
    Experimental Cell Research 159 (1985), S. 261-266 
    ISSN: 0014-4827
    Source: Elsevier Journal Backfiles on ScienceDirect 1907 - 2002
    Topics: Biology , Medicine
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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