Description / Table of Contents:
CONTENTS: General Introduction. - Part I. Spatial and temporal variations in sea ice deformatfon. - Introduction. - Approach. - Site location and data collection procedures. - Data analysis. - Strain results. - Comparison of mesoscale deformation with macroscale deformation. - Nature of the ice pack rotation. - Conciusion. - Literature cited. - Part Il. Comparison of mesoscale strain measurements with linear drift theory predictions. - Introduction. - List of symbols. - Linear drift equations. - Ice drift solutions. - Comparison of theory with mesoscale measurements. - A more general linear constitutive law. - Conclusions. - Literature cited. - Appendix Relative magnitudes of differential drift forces. - Abstract.
Description / Table of Contents:
Measurements of mesoscale sea ice deformation over a region approximately 20 km in diameter were made over a five-week period in the spring of 1972 at the main AIDJEX camp in the Beaufort Sea. They have been analyzed to determine nonlinearities in the ice velocity field (due to the discrete small-scale nature of the ice pack), as well as a continuum mode of deformation represented by a least squares strain rate tensor and vorticity. The deformation rate time series between Julian day 88 and 113 exhibited net areal changes as large as 3% and deformation rates up to 0.16% per hour. In the principal axis coordinate system, the strain rate typically exhibited a much larger compression (or extension) along one axis than along the other. Persistent cycles at ~12-hour wavelengths were observed in the divergence rate. A comparison of the average residual error with the average strain rate magnitude indicated that strains measured on a scale of 10 km or greater can serve as a valid measure of the continuum motion of the sea ice. This conclusion is also substantiated by a comparison between the mesoscale deformation, and macroscale deformation measured over a ~100-km-diameter region. Vorticity calculations indicate that at low temporal frequencies ( 〈 0.04 hr^-1 ) the whole mesoscale array rotates essentially as an entity and consequently the low frequency vorticity can accurately be estimated from the rotation of a single floe. (Part I) A comparison of mesoscale strain measurements with the atmospheric pressure field and the wind velocity field indicated that the ice divergence rate and vorticity followed the local pressure and wind divergence with significant correlation. For low atmospheric pressures and converging winds, the divergence rate was negative with the vorticity being counterclockwise. The inverse behavior was observed for high pressures and diverging winds. This behavior agreed with predictions based upon the infinite boundary solution of a linearized drift theory in the absence of gradient current effects and using the constitutive law proposed by Glen for pack ice. The best least squares values of the constitutive law parameters [Eta] and [Zeta] were found to be given by ~10^12 kg sec^-1. Using typical divergence rates, these values yielded compressive stresses of the magnitude of 10^5 N m^-1, which are similar to values suggested by the Parmerter and Coon ridge model. In general, the infinite boundary solution of the linear drift equation indicates that in a low pressure region that is reasonably localized in space, the ice would be expected to converge for high compactness (winter) and diverge for low compactness (summer). Calculations were also carried out using a more general linear viscoelastic constitutive law that includes memory effects and that includes a generalized Hooke's law as well as the Glen law as special cases. A best fit of this more general calculation with strain measurements indicates, overall, a better agreement with viscous behavior than with elastic behavior, with the frequency behavior of the estimated "viscosities" similar to the Glen law behavior at temporal frequencies less than ~0.01 hr^-1 (Part II)
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v, 37 S. : Ill., graph. Darst.
Research report / Cold Regions Research and Engineering Laboratory, CRREL, US Army Material Command 329