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Hanover, NH : U.S. Army Cold Regions Research and Engineering Laboratory
Call number: ZSP-202-345
In: Research report / Cold Regions Research and Engineering Laboratory, 345
Description / Table of Contents: CONTENTS: Abstract. - Preface. - List of symbols. - Introduction. - Previous work. - Experimental design. - The radioisotope 22Na. - Description of apparatus. - Experimental procedure. - Correction of profiles. - Assumptions. - Decay correction. - Boundary correction. - Error analysis. - Results. - Salinity data. - Temperature data. - Growth velocity. - Discussion. - Brine and ice properties. - Brine salinity. - Brine density. - Brine volume. - Brine latent heat of freezing. - Brine viscosity, specific heat, and thermal conductivity. - Ice properties. - Theoretical brine expulsion model. - Continuity equations. - Thermal energy equation. - Simplified brine expulsion equations. - Brine expulsion in NaCl ice. - Results. - Discussion. - Gravity drainage in NaCl ice. - Application of results to natural sea ice. - Effective distribution coefficient. - Previous work. - Experimental procedure and results. - Conclusions. - Literature cited. - Appendix A: Profile correction data. - Appendix B: Program "correct" and sample output. - Appendix C: Tabulation of salinity data. - Appendix D: Tabulation of profile data. - Appendix E: Time-ice thickness equations (Runs 2 and 3). - Appendix F: Tabulation of distribution coefficient data.
Description / Table of Contents: To obtain a better understanding of the desalination of natural sea ice, an experimental technique was developed to measure sequential salinity profiles of a growing sodium chloride ice sheet. Using radioactive 22Na as a tracer, it was possible to determine both the concentration and movement of the brine within the ice without destroying the sample. A detailed temperature and growth history of the ice was also maintained so that the variation of the salinity profiles could be properly interpreted. Since the experimental salinity profile represented a smoothed, rather than a true salinity distribution, a deconvolution method was devised to restore the true salinity profile. This was achieved without any significant loss of end points. In all respects, the salinity profiles are similar to those of natural sea ice. They have a characteristic C-shape, and clearly exhibit the effects of brine drainage. Not knowing the rates of brine expulsion or gravity drainage, the variation of the salinity profiles during the period of ice growth could be explained by either process. To determine the relative importance of the desalination mechanisms, a theoretical brine expulsion model was derived and compared to the experimental data. As input for the model, equations describing the variation of some properties of NaCl brine with temperature were derived. These included the brine salinity, viscosity, specific heat, thermal conductivity, and latent heat of freezing. The theoretical brine expulsion model was derived by performing mass and energy balances over a control volume of NaCl ice. A simplified form of the model, when compared to the experimental results, indicated that brine expulsion was only important during the first several hours of ice growth, and later became a minor desalination process relative to gravity drainage which continued to be the dominant mechanism for the remainder of the study period (up to 6 weeks). The rate of gravity drainage was found to be dependent on the brine volume and the temperature gradient of the ice. As either the brine volume or temperature gradient was increased, the rate of change of salinity due to gravity drainage increased. The equation commonly used to calculate the effective distribution coefficient (Weeks and Lofgren 1967) was modified and improved by taking brine drainage into account. An expression was also derived to give the distribution coefficient at very low growth velocities.
Type of Medium: Series available for loan
Pages: vii, 85 Seiten , Illustrationen
Series Statement: Research report / Cold Regions Research and Engineering Laboratory 345
Language: English
Location: AWI Archive
Branch Library: AWI Library
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  • 2
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    Hanover, NH ; Nachgewiesen 93.1964; 94.1962 -
    Call number: ZSP-202
    ISSN: 0501-5812
    Branch Library: GFZ Library
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  • 3
    Series available for loan
    Series available for loan
    Hanover, N.H. : U.S. Army Cold Regions Research and Engineering Laboratory
    Call number: ZSP-202-350
    In: Research report / Cold Regions Research and Engineering Laboratory, 350
    Type of Medium: Series available for loan
    Pages: iv, 27 Seiten , Illustrationen
    Series Statement: Research report / Cold Regions Research and Engineering Laboratory 350
    Language: English
    Note: CONTENTS: Abstract. - Preface. - Introduction. - Sample preparation. - Apparatus and testing procedure. - Test results. - Uniaxial strength. - Initial tangent and 50% strength moduli. - Specific energy. - Discussion. - Testing method. - Compressive strength. - Tensile strength. - Ductile and brittle fracture.. - Initial tangent and 50% stress moduli. - Specific energy. - Conclusions and recommendations. - References. - Appendix A: Description of soil and calculations. - Appendix B: Description of the LVDT and averaging circuits. - Appendix C: Determination of strain in the neck section of a dumbbell specimen.
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  • 4
    Call number: ZSP-202-346
    In: Research report / Cold Regions Research and Engineering Laboratory, 346
    Description / Table of Contents: CONTENTS: Abstract. - Preface. - USA CRREL project and personnel involvement. - Part I. Introduction. - Background. - Literature review. - Part II. CRREL investigations from 1970 - 1974. - Initial literature survey (1970). - Oil detection kit development. - Survey of Cape Simpson, Alaska, natural crude oil seepages (1970). - Haines-Fairbanks military pipeline investigations (1971-1973). - Barrow investigations (1970-1974). - Fairbanks and Fox investigations. - Germination studies. - Physiological studies. - Dispersant studies. - Microbiological investigations. - Field investigations of accidental petroleum losses. - Part III. Recent related literature. - Part IV. Conclusions and recommendations. - USA CRREL reports, publications and presentations on Alaska oil spill research. - Literature cited.
    Description / Table of Contents: Knowledge concerning the biological effects of oil pollution on arctic and subarctic terrestrial ecosystems is limited. USA CRREL research personnel conducted investigations from 1970 through 1974 to expand information in this field. Objectives were to: 1) define the ecosystems most sensitive to the presence of crude oil or its refined products, 2) quantify and understand the injury response, and 3) establish time frames for manifestation of damage and natural restorative processes in arctic and subarctic regions. This was accomplished through: 1) surveys of natural oil seepages and past accidential spills in the Arctic and Subarctic, 2) initiation of controlled oil spills and 3) detailed laboratory investigations. Results demonstrated that terrestrial oil spills will to some degree be detrimental to both arctic and subarctic plant communities. Degree and longevity of damage will be influenced primarily by the magnitude of the spill, season of occurrence and existing soil moisture content. Rapid recovery of plant communities subjected to spills will occur only if root systems remain relatively unaffected. Damage will be more extensive and long-term when root systems are saturated with oil. Effects of damage will be manifested gradually over several seasons being influenced by winter stresses. Variation does exist in plant species susceptibility. Carex aquatilis, a predominant sedge of the arctic, is markedly resistant to crude oil damage. In the taiga Picea mariana is very susceptible. Plant recovery can be enhanced through the application of fertilizer. Fertilization, in addition to its direct effect on plant nutrition, will stimulate microbial decomposition of crude oil.
    Type of Medium: Series available for loan
    Pages: vii, 66 Seiten , Illustrationen
    Series Statement: Research report / Cold Regions Research and Engineering Laboratory 346
    Language: English
    Location: AWI Archive
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  • 5
    Series available for loan
    Series available for loan
    Hanover, NH : U.S. Dept. of Defense, Dept. of the Army, Corps of Engineers, Cold Regions Research and Engineering Laboratory
    Call number: ZSP-202-344
    In: Research report
    Description / Table of Contents: CONTENTS: Abstract. - Preface. - Introduction. - Approach and methods. - Results. - Lake morphology. - Elongation. - Orientation. - Percentage cover (density). - Lake classification. - L1 unit. - L2 unit. - L3 unit. - L4 unit. - L5 and Lu units. - Other units. - Lake basin depths. - Ice volume and basin genesis. - Geological implications. - Conclusions. - Selected bibliography.
    Description / Table of Contents: The lakes of the Arctic Coastal Plain of northern Alaska were classified, based on size, shape, orientation and distribution, into six lake units and three nonlake units. Regional slope and relief were demonstrated to control lake size, the largest lakes occurring on the flattest, northernmost segment of the Coastal Plain. Using ERTS-1 sequential imagery and existing photography and data, lakes were grouped according to three depth ranges, 〈 1 m, 1-2 m and 〉 2 m. Deepest lakes have the longest period of summer ice cover. Ice on shallow lakes melts the earliest. Maximum depths of lakes were computed based on ice volume content of the perennially frozen ground (permafrost) and these agreed with observed values and ranges. The lake classification and regional ERTS-1 coverage also appear to provide additional information on the limits of late-Pleistocene transgressions on the Coastal Plain.
    Type of Medium: Series available for loan
    Pages: iv, 21 Seiten , Illustrationen
    Series Statement: Research report / Cold Regions Research and Engineering Laboratory, CRREL, US Army Material Command 344
    Language: English
    Branch Library: AWI Library
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  • 6
    Series available for loan
    Series available for loan
    Hanover, NH : Corps of Engineers, U.S. Army Cold Regions Research and Engineering Laboratory
    Call number: ZSP-202-343
    In: Research report
    Description / Table of Contents: CONTENTS: Abstract. - Preface. - Introduction. - Experimental procedure. - Experimental and theoretical equations. - Results and discussion. - Conclusions. - Literature cited.
    Description / Table of Contents: Simultaneous laser extinction measurements were made in warm fog at wavelengths of 0.6238, 1.15 and 10.6 [Mu]. The warm fog was generated in a 4-m^3 environmental chamber. Particle sampling was carried out simultaneously with the laser measurements using an impactor. Using the same size distribution in each case the theoretical extinction coefficients were calculated and compared with the experimental coefficients. Results obtained during this experiment and aprevious one indicate that propagation at 1.15 [Mu] is adversely affected by the presence of atmospheric water vapor. Experimental data obtained simultaneously at 0.6328 and 10.6 [Mu] indicate that virtually no difference exists between the extinction coefficients at these two wavelengths for moderate particle concentrations while at much larger concentrations [Alpha]0.6328 increases indefinitely while [Alpha]10.6 levels off at 0.2.
    Type of Medium: Series available for loan
    Pages: iii, 7 Seiten , Illustrationen
    Series Statement: Research report / Cold Regions Research and Engineering Laboratory, CRREL, US Army Material Command 343
    Language: English
    Branch Library: AWI Library
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  • 7
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    Series available for loan
    Hanover, NH : U.S. Army Cold Regions Research and Engineering Laboratory
    Call number: ZSP-202-291
    In: Research report
    Description / Table of Contents: CONTENTS: Introduction. - Study lake. - Previous work at Post Pond. - Methods and procedures. - Results and discussion. - Summer stratification. - Autumnal mixing and thermocline disappearance. - Winter period of ice cover. - Spring circulation. - Summary and conclusions. - Literature cited. - Appendix A: Ice sample analysis. - Abstract.
    Description / Table of Contents: The temperature structure of Post Pond, a small (46.6 hectares), mid-latitude, dimictic lake in west-central New Hampshire, was studied during autumn,winter and spring of 1968-1969. The lake was instrumented over its maximum depth (11.7 m) with a string of 24 thermocouples which recorded hourly temperatures. Temperatures in 9 m of sediments underlying the lake were measured with a thermistor probe. Secondary and tertiary thermocline development in the epilimnion occurred during short warming periods in the early autumn. The autumn overturn lasted 25 days, whereas the spring overturn lasted only 4 days. The entire lake mixed isothermally in the autumn to 3.2°C. During the period of ice cover, the lower 5 m of water gained approximately 51.5 cal/cm^2, which was supplied by stored heat in the bottom sediments. A steady-state thermal gradient of 0.07°C/m was found for the deeper sediments underlying the lake during ice cover. Late winter cooling of bottom water under the ice cover may be the result of snowmelt in areas adjacent to the lake causing activation of groundwater influx. Melting of the clear ice portion of the ice cover was primarily the result of heat supplied to the lake from snowmelt water, and occurred on the underside of the ice sheet. Thermal instability of the water mass persisted for 9 days during peak snowmelt runoff; this can be partially explained by an increase in dissolved solids with depth.
    Type of Medium: Series available for loan
    Pages: 23 S. : Ill.
    Series Statement: Research report / Cold Regions Research and Engineering Laboratory, CRREL, US Army Material Command 291
    Branch Library: AWI Library
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  • 8
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    Series available for loan
    Hanover, NH : Corps of Engineers, U.S. Army Cold Regions Research and Engineering Laboratory
    Call number: ZSP-202-289
    In: Research report
    Description / Table of Contents: CONTENTS: Introduction. - Materials and methods. - Materials. - Methods. - Results and discussion. - Literature cited. - Appendix A.
    Description / Table of Contents: Clay mineral and soil samples were subjected to neutron activation analysis in order to identify and measure the abundances of trace elements having radionuclides with long half-lives. After exposure of cadmium-shielded samples to neutrons for a period of five days, the gamma radiation associated with the decay of the resulting radionuclides was observed using a high resolution Ge(Li) detector. Trace elements identified without prior chemical separation using the gross gamma-ray spectra included Fe, Zn, Ti, Ni, Co, Cr, Sr, Ba, Ca, La, Eu, Tb, Hf, Ta, Th, and U. It should be possible to determine quantitatively the amount of each of these elements. This is a considerable improvement over the number of elements determined in soils previously by activation analysis without destructive chemical treatments.
    Type of Medium: Series available for loan
    Pages: iii, 27 S. : Ill.
    Series Statement: Research report / Cold Regions Research and Engineering Laboratory, CRREL, US Army Material Command 289
    Branch Library: AWI Library
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  • 9
    Series available for loan
    Series available for loan
    Hanover, NH : Corps of Engineers, U.S. Army Cold Regions Research and Engineering Laboratory
    Call number: ZSP-202-287
    In: Research report
    Description / Table of Contents: Hugoniot curves were generated from simultaneous measurements of shock and free-surface velocities, obtained from samples of frozen Fairbanks (Fox) silt, using the exploding wire technique. The abrupt change in slope of the Us-Up Hugoniot is indicative of a phase change. The shape of the P-V Hugoniot suggests that the transformation begins immediately but does not go to completion. This means that, although the pressure lies slightly above the Rayleigh line through the mixed phase region, the slope does not increase as rapidly as it would if the material had stayed in the initial phase.
    Type of Medium: Series available for loan
    Pages: iv, 13 S. : Ill.
    Series Statement: Research report / Cold Regions Research and Engineering Laboratory, CRREL, US Army Material Command 287
    Language: Undetermined
    Branch Library: AWI Library
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  • 10
    Series available for loan
    Series available for loan
    Hanover, NH : Corps of Engineers, U.S. Army Cold Regions Research and Engineering Laboratory
    Call number: ZSP-202-286
    In: Research report
    Description / Table of Contents: CONTENTS : Introduction. - Basic analysis. - Part I: Far field surface motion. - A single oscillating source. - A group of forces over a finite area. - Part II: Near field study. - Motion at center of source. - Approximation of displacements. - Conclusion. - Literature cited. - Abstract.
    Description / Table of Contents: Wave propagation generated by vibratory load on a homogeneous, isotropic, linear viscoelastic half-space is studied. The effect of a single concentrated force and a group of forces applied over a circular area has been examined and solutions of the displacement functions are presented. In the case of the group forces, the three types of force distribution used by Reissner and Sung were employed. At a great distance (far field) from the applied load, surface displacements are reduced to closed form expressions. A field method based on these results is recommended for determining the complex modulus and the damping property of a viscoelastic material. For areas near the source (near field), numerical procedures were employed to evaluate the integral solution. To facilitate the application, two simplified versions are provided for calculating the center displacement under the load. They both provide good approximation to the integral solution and, most important of all, they speed up the computation enormously
    Type of Medium: Series available for loan
    Pages: iv, 33 S. : Ill.
    Series Statement: Research report / Cold Regions Research and Engineering Laboratory, CRREL, US Army Material Command 286
    Branch Library: AWI Library
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