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  • 1
    Publication Date: 1993-04-09
    Description: Calcium ions (Ca2+) act as an intracellular second messenger and can enter neurons through various ion channels. Influx of Ca2+ through distinct types of Ca2+ channels may differentially activate biochemical processes. N-Methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) receptors and L-type Ca2+ channels, two major sites of Ca2+ entry into hippocampal neurons, were found to transmit signals to the nucleus and regulated gene transcription through two distinct Ca2+ signaling pathways. Activation of the multifunctional Ca(2+)-calmodulin-dependent protein kinase (CaM kinase) was evoked by stimulation of either NMDA receptors or L-type Ca2+ channels; however, activation of CaM kinase appeared to be critical only for propagating the L-type Ca2+ channel signal to the nucleus. Also, the NMDA receptor and L-type Ca2+ channel pathways activated transcription by means of different cis-acting regulatory elements in the c-fos promoter. These results indicate that Ca2+, depending on its mode of entry into neurons, can activate two distinct signaling pathways. Differential signal processing may provide a mechanism by which Ca2+ controls diverse cellular functions.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Notes: 〈/span〉Bading, H -- Ginty, D D -- Greenberg, M E -- 2F32 NS 08764/NS/NINDS NIH HHS/ -- NS28829/NS/NINDS NIH HHS/ -- New York, N.Y. -- Science. 1993 Apr 9;260(5105):181-6.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Author address: 〈/span〉Department of Microbiology and Molecular Genetics, Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA 02115.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Record origin:〈/span〉 〈a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/8097060" target="_blank"〉PubMed〈/a〉
    Keywords: Animals ; Calcium/*metabolism ; Calcium Channels/metabolism ; Calcium-Calmodulin-Dependent Protein Kinases ; Cells, Cultured ; DNA-Binding Proteins/genetics ; *Gene Expression Regulation ; Genes, fos ; Glutamates/pharmacology ; Glutamic Acid ; Hippocampus/*metabolism ; Neurons/*metabolism ; Nuclear Proteins/genetics ; Protein Kinases/metabolism ; Rats ; Receptors, N-Methyl-D-Aspartate/metabolism ; Regulatory Sequences, Nucleic Acid ; Second Messenger Systems ; Serum Response Factor ; *Signal Transduction ; Transcription Factors/genetics ; Transfection
    Print ISSN: 0036-8075
    Electronic ISSN: 1095-9203
    Topics: Biology , Chemistry and Pharmacology , Computer Science , Medicine , Natural Sciences in General , Physics
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  • 2
    Publication Date: 1998-12-04
    Description: Cortical neurons communicate with various cortical and subcortical targets by way of stereotyped axon projections through the white matter. Slice overlay experiments indicate that the initial growth of cortical axons toward the white matter is regulated by a diffusible chemorepulsive signal localized near the marginal zone. Semaphorin III is a major component of this diffusible signal, and cortical neurons transduce this signal by way of the neuropilin-1 receptor. These observations indicate that semaphorin-neuropilin interactions play a critical role in the initial patterning of projections in the developing cortex.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Notes: 〈/span〉Polleux, F -- Giger, R J -- Ginty, D D -- Kolodkin, A L -- Ghosh, A -- NS35165/NS/NINDS NIH HHS/ -- NS36176/NS/NINDS NIH HHS/ -- NS534814/NS/NINDS NIH HHS/ -- New York, N.Y. -- Science. 1998 Dec 4;282(5395):1904-6.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Author address: 〈/span〉Department of Neuroscience, Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine, 725 North Wolfe Street, Baltimore, MD 21205, USA.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Record origin:〈/span〉 〈a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/9836643" target="_blank"〉PubMed〈/a〉
    Keywords: Animals ; Axons/*physiology ; Cell Line ; Cerebral Cortex/*cytology/embryology ; Coculture Techniques ; Gene Targeting ; Glycoproteins/genetics/*physiology ; Humans ; Mice ; Nerve Growth Factors/*metabolism ; Nerve Tissue Proteins/*physiology ; Neurons, Efferent/cytology/*physiology ; Neuropilin-1 ; Rats ; Recombinant Proteins/metabolism ; Semaphorin-3A ; Signal Transduction
    Print ISSN: 0036-8075
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  • 3
    Publication Date: 1999-12-22
    Description: Nerve growth factor (NGF) and other neurotrophins support survival of neurons through processes that are incompletely understood. The transcription factor CREB is a critical mediator of NGF-dependent gene expression, but whether CREB family transcription factors regulate expression of genes that contribute to NGF-dependent survival of sympathetic neurons is unknown. CREB-mediated gene expression was both necessary for NGF-dependent survival and sufficient on its own to promote survival of sympathetic neurons. Moreover, expression of Bcl-2 was activated by NGF and other neurotrophins by a CREB-dependent transcriptional mechanism. Overexpression of Bcl-2 reduced the death-promoting effects of CREB inhibition. Together, these data support a model in which neurotrophins promote survival of neurons, in part through a mechanism involving CREB family transcription factor-dependent expression of genes encoding prosurvival factors.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Notes: 〈/span〉Riccio, A -- Ahn, S -- Davenport, C M -- Blendy, J A -- Ginty, D D -- NS34814-04/NS/NINDS NIH HHS/ -- New York, N.Y. -- Science. 1999 Dec 17;286(5448):2358-61.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Author address: 〈/span〉Department of Neuroscience, The Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine, 725 North Wolfe Street, Baltimore, MD 21205-2185, USA.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Record origin:〈/span〉 〈a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/10600750" target="_blank"〉PubMed〈/a〉
    Keywords: Animals ; Apoptosis ; Axons/drug effects/metabolism ; Brain-Derived Neurotrophic Factor/pharmacology ; Cell Nucleus/metabolism ; Cell Survival ; Cells, Cultured ; Cyclic AMP Response Element-Binding Protein/antagonists & inhibitors/*metabolism ; *Gene Expression Regulation ; Genes, bcl-2 ; Genetic Vectors ; Nerve Growth Factor/*pharmacology ; Neurons/*cytology/drug effects/metabolism ; PC12 Cells ; Promoter Regions, Genetic ; Proto-Oncogene Proteins c-bcl-2/genetics/metabolism ; Rats ; Recombinant Fusion Proteins/metabolism ; Signal Transduction ; Sympathetic Nervous System/*cytology/drug effects/metabolism ; Transfection
    Print ISSN: 0036-8075
    Electronic ISSN: 1095-9203
    Topics: Biology , Chemistry and Pharmacology , Computer Science , Medicine , Natural Sciences in General , Physics
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  • 4
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    American Association for the Advancement of Science (AAAS)
    Publication Date: 2014-11-22
    Description: The skin is our largest sensory organ, transmitting pain, temperature, itch, and touch information to the central nervous system. Touch sensations are conveyed by distinct combinations of mechanosensory end organs and the low-threshold mechanoreceptors (LTMRs) that innervate them. Here we explore the various structures underlying the diverse functions of cutaneous LTMR end organs. Beyond anchoring of LTMRs to the surrounding dermis and epidermis, recent evidence suggests that the non-neuronal components of end organs play an active role in signaling to LTMRs and may physically gate force-sensitive channels in these receptors. Combined with LTMR intrinsic properties, the balance of these factors comprises the response properties of mechanosensory neurons and, thus, the neural encoding of touch.〈br /〉〈br /〉〈a href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4450345/" target="_blank"〉〈img src="https://static.pubmed.gov/portal/portal3rc.fcgi/4089621/img/3977009" border="0"〉〈/a〉   〈a href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4450345/" target="_blank"〉This paper as free author manuscript - peer-reviewed and accepted for publication〈/a〉〈br /〉〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Notes: 〈/span〉Zimmerman, Amanda -- Bai, Ling -- Ginty, David D -- R01 DE022750/DE/NIDCR NIH HHS/ -- R01 NS034814/NS/NINDS NIH HHS/ -- R01 NS34814/NS/NINDS NIH HHS/ -- Howard Hughes Medical Institute/ -- New York, N.Y. -- Science. 2014 Nov 21;346(6212):950-4. doi: 10.1126/science.1254229.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Author address: 〈/span〉Department of Neurobiology, Howard Hughes Medical Institute, Harvard Medical School, 220 Longwood Avenue, Boston, MA 02115, USA. ; Department of Neurobiology, Howard Hughes Medical Institute, Harvard Medical School, 220 Longwood Avenue, Boston, MA 02115, USA. The Solomon H. Snyder Department of Neuroscience and Howard Hughes Medical Institute, Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine, Baltimore, MD 21205, USA. ; Department of Neurobiology, Howard Hughes Medical Institute, Harvard Medical School, 220 Longwood Avenue, Boston, MA 02115, USA. david_ginty@hms.harvard.edu.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Record origin:〈/span〉 〈a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25414303" target="_blank"〉PubMed〈/a〉
    Keywords: Animals ; Dermis/*innervation/*physiology ; Epidermis/*innervation/*physiology ; Hair/physiology ; Hair Follicle/innervation/physiology ; Humans ; Mechanoreceptors/*physiology ; *Mechanotransduction, Cellular ; Merkel Cells/physiology ; Neurons/physiology ; Pacinian Corpuscles/physiology ; Touch/*physiology
    Print ISSN: 0036-8075
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    Topics: Biology , Chemistry and Pharmacology , Computer Science , Medicine , Natural Sciences in General , Physics
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  • 5
    Publication Date: 2004-11-20
    Description: The development of a patterned vasculature is essential for normal organogenesis. We found that signaling by semaphorin 3E (Sema3E) and its receptor plexin-D1 controls endothelial cell positioning and the patterning of the developing vasculature in the mouse. Sema3E is highly expressed in developing somites, where it acts as a repulsive cue for plexin-D1-expressing endothelial cells of adjacent intersomitic vessels. Sema3E-plexin-D1 signaling did not require neuropilins, which were previously presumed to be obligate Sema3 coreceptors. Moreover, genetic ablation of Sema3E or plexin-D1 but not neuropilin-mediated Sema3 signaling disrupted vascular patterning. These findings reveal an unexpected semaphorin signaling pathway and define a mechanism for controlling vascular patterning.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Notes: 〈/span〉Gu, Chenghua -- Yoshida, Yutaka -- Livet, Jean -- Reimert, Dorothy V -- Mann, Fanny -- Merte, Janna -- Henderson, Christopher E -- Jessell, Thomas M -- Kolodkin, Alex L -- Ginty, David D -- CA23767-24/CA/NCI NIH HHS/ -- MH59199-06/MH/NIMH NIH HHS/ -- New York, N.Y. -- Science. 2005 Jan 14;307(5707):265-8. Epub 2004 Nov 18.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Author address: 〈/span〉Department of Neuroscience, Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine, Baltimore, MD 21205-2185, USA.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Record origin:〈/span〉 〈a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/15550623" target="_blank"〉PubMed〈/a〉
    Keywords: Animals ; Binding Sites ; Blood Vessels/*embryology/metabolism ; Body Patterning ; COS Cells ; Cercopithecus aethiops ; Chick Embryo ; Endothelial Cells/cytology/physiology ; Endothelium, Vascular/cytology/embryology ; Glycoproteins/*metabolism ; In Situ Hybridization ; Ligands ; Membrane Glycoproteins/*metabolism ; Membrane Proteins/*metabolism ; Mice ; Morphogenesis ; Mutation ; Nerve Tissue Proteins/*metabolism ; Neuropilin-1/metabolism ; Neuropilin-2/metabolism ; Phenotype ; Protein Binding ; Recombinant Fusion Proteins/metabolism ; Signal Transduction ; Somites/*metabolism ; Transfection
    Print ISSN: 0036-8075
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    Topics: Biology , Chemistry and Pharmacology , Computer Science , Medicine , Natural Sciences in General , Physics
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  • 6
    Publication Date: 2008-04-11
    Description: During development, sympathetic neurons extend axons along a myriad of distinct trajectories, often consisting of arteries, to innervate one of a large variety of distinct final target tissues. Whether or not subsets of neurons within complex sympathetic ganglia are predetermined to innervate select end-organs is unknown. Here we demonstrate in mouse embryos that the endothelin family member Edn3 (ref. 1), acting through the endothelin receptor EdnrA (refs 2, 3), directs extension of axons of a subset of sympathetic neurons from the superior cervical ganglion to a preferred intermediate target, the external carotid artery, which serves as the gateway to select targets, including the salivary glands. These findings establish a previously unknown mechanism of axonal pathfinding involving vascular-derived endothelins, and have broad implications for endothelins as general mediators of axonal growth and guidance in the developing nervous system. Moreover, they suggest a model in which newborn sympathetic neurons distinguish and choose between distinct vascular trajectories to innervate their appropriate end organs.〈br /〉〈br /〉〈a href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC2713667/" target="_blank"〉〈img src="https://static.pubmed.gov/portal/portal3rc.fcgi/4089621/img/3977009" border="0"〉〈/a〉   〈a href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC2713667/" target="_blank"〉This paper as free author manuscript - peer-reviewed and accepted for publication〈/a〉〈br /〉〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Notes: 〈/span〉Makita, Takako -- Sucov, Henry M -- Gariepy, Cheryl E -- Yanagisawa, Masashi -- Ginty, David D -- R01 HL078891/HL/NHLBI NIH HHS/ -- R01 HL078891-01A1/HL/NHLBI NIH HHS/ -- R01 HL078891-02/HL/NHLBI NIH HHS/ -- R01 HL078891-03/HL/NHLBI NIH HHS/ -- R37 NS034814/NS/NINDS NIH HHS/ -- R37 NS034814-11/NS/NINDS NIH HHS/ -- R37 NS034814-11S1/NS/NINDS NIH HHS/ -- R37 NS034814-12/NS/NINDS NIH HHS/ -- R37 NS034814-13/NS/NINDS NIH HHS/ -- Howard Hughes Medical Institute/ -- England -- Nature. 2008 Apr 10;452(7188):759-63. doi: 10.1038/nature06859.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Author address: 〈/span〉The Solomon H. Snyder Department of Neuroscience, Howard Hughes Medical Institute, The Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine, Baltimore, Maryland 21205, USA.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Record origin:〈/span〉 〈a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/18401410" target="_blank"〉PubMed〈/a〉
    Keywords: Animals ; Axons/*physiology ; Carotid Arteries/cytology/*metabolism ; Cues ; Embryo, Mammalian/blood supply/cytology ; Endothelin-3/metabolism ; Endothelins/*metabolism ; Mice ; Neurites/physiology ; Receptors, Endothelin/metabolism ; Salivary Glands/innervation ; *Signal Transduction ; Superior Cervical Ganglion/*cytology/metabolism
    Print ISSN: 0028-0836
    Electronic ISSN: 1476-4687
    Topics: Biology , Chemistry and Pharmacology , Medicine , Natural Sciences in General , Physics
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  • 7
    Publication Date: 2009-12-17
    Description: The majority of excitatory synapses in the mammalian CNS (central nervous system) are formed on dendritic spines, and spine morphology and distribution are critical for synaptic transmission, synaptic integration and plasticity. Here, we show that a secreted semaphorin, Sema3F, is a negative regulator of spine development and synaptic structure. Mice with null mutations in genes encoding Sema3F, and its holoreceptor components neuropilin-2 (Npn-2, also known as Nrp2) and plexin A3 (PlexA3, also known as Plxna3), exhibit increased dentate gyrus (DG) granule cell (GC) and cortical layer V pyramidal neuron spine number and size, and also aberrant spine distribution. Moreover, Sema3F promotes loss of spines and excitatory synapses in dissociated neurons in vitro, and in Npn-2(-/-) brain slices cortical layer V and DG GCs exhibit increased mEPSC (miniature excitatory postsynaptic current) frequency. In contrast, a distinct Sema3A-Npn-1/PlexA4 signalling cascade controls basal dendritic arborization in layer V cortical neurons, but does not influence spine morphogenesis or distribution. These disparate effects of secreted semaphorins are reflected in the restricted dendritic localization of Npn-2 to apical dendrites and of Npn-1 (also known as Nrp1) to all dendrites of cortical pyramidal neurons. Therefore, Sema3F signalling controls spine distribution along select dendritic processes, and distinct secreted semaphorin signalling events orchestrate CNS connectivity through the differential control of spine morphogenesis, synapse formation, and the elaboration of dendritic morphology.〈br /〉〈br /〉〈a href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC2842559/" target="_blank"〉〈img src="https://static.pubmed.gov/portal/portal3rc.fcgi/4089621/img/3977009" border="0"〉〈/a〉   〈a href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC2842559/" target="_blank"〉This paper as free author manuscript - peer-reviewed and accepted for publication〈/a〉〈br /〉〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Notes: 〈/span〉Tran, Tracy S -- Rubio, Maria E -- Clem, Roger L -- Johnson, Dontais -- Case, Lauren -- Tessier-Lavigne, Marc -- Huganir, Richard L -- Ginty, David D -- Kolodkin, Alex L -- F32 NS051003/NS/NINDS NIH HHS/ -- P50 MH06883/MH/NIMH NIH HHS/ -- R01 DC-006881/DC/NIDCD NIH HHS/ -- R01 MH059199/MH/NIMH NIH HHS/ -- R01 MH059199-07/MH/NIMH NIH HHS/ -- R01 MH059199-08/MH/NIMH NIH HHS/ -- R01 MH059199-09/MH/NIMH NIH HHS/ -- R01 MH059199-10/MH/NIMH NIH HHS/ -- R01 MH59199/MH/NIMH NIH HHS/ -- Howard Hughes Medical Institute/ -- England -- Nature. 2009 Dec 24;462(7276):1065-9. doi: 10.1038/nature08628. Epub 2009 Dec 13.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Author address: 〈/span〉Solomon H. Snyder Department of Neuroscience, The Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine, Baltimore, Maryland 21205, USA.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Record origin:〈/span〉 〈a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/20010807" target="_blank"〉PubMed〈/a〉
    Keywords: Animals ; Central Nervous System/cytology/drug effects/*growth & ; development/*metabolism/ultrastructure ; Female ; Gene Expression Regulation, Developmental ; Male ; Mice ; Mice, Knockout ; Neuropilin-1/metabolism ; Neuropilin-2/metabolism ; Pyramidal Cells/*cytology/drug effects/*growth & development/ultrastructure ; Recombinant Proteins/pharmacology ; Semaphorins/genetics/*metabolism/pharmacology ; Signal Transduction ; Synapses/drug effects/*physiology/ultrastructure
    Print ISSN: 0028-0836
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  • 8
    Publication Date: 1993-04-09
    Description: Mammalian circadian rhythms are regulated by a pacemaker within the suprachiasmatic nuclei (SCN) of the hypothalamus. The molecular mechanisms controlling the synchronization of the circadian pacemaker are unknown; however, immediate early gene (IEG) expression in the SCN is tightly correlated with entrainment of SCN-regulated rhythms. Antibodies were isolated that recognize the activated, phosphorylated form of the transcription factor cyclic adenosine monophosphate response element binding protein (CREB). Within minutes after exposure of hamsters to light, CREB in the SCN became phosphorylated on the transcriptional regulatory site, Ser133. CREB phosphorylation was dependent on circadian time: CREB became phosphorylated only at times during the circadian cycle when light induced IEG expression and caused phase shifts of circadian rhythms. These results implicate CREB in neuronal signaling in the hypothalamus and suggest that circadian clock gating of light-regulated molecular responses in the SCN occurs upstream of phosphorylation of CREB.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Notes: 〈/span〉Ginty, D D -- Kornhauser, J M -- Thompson, M A -- Bading, H -- Mayo, K E -- Takahashi, J S -- Greenberg, M E -- F31 MH10241/MH/NIMH NIH HHS/ -- F32 NS08764/NS/NINDS NIH HHS/ -- NS 28829/NS/NINDS NIH HHS/ -- etc. -- New York, N.Y. -- Science. 1993 Apr 9;260(5105):238-41.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Author address: 〈/span〉Department of Microbiology and Molecular Genetics, Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA 02115.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Record origin:〈/span〉 〈a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/8097062" target="_blank"〉PubMed〈/a〉
    Keywords: Amino Acid Sequence ; Animals ; Base Sequence ; *Circadian Rhythm ; Colforsin/pharmacology ; Cricetinae ; Cyclic AMP Response Element-Binding Protein/immunology/*metabolism ; Darkness ; Gene Expression Regulation ; Genes, fos ; Glutamates/pharmacology ; Glutamic Acid ; *Light ; Molecular Sequence Data ; PC12 Cells ; Phosphorylation ; Potassium Chloride/pharmacology ; Suprachiasmatic Nucleus/drug effects/*metabolism
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    Topics: Biology , Chemistry and Pharmacology , Computer Science , Medicine , Natural Sciences in General , Physics
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  • 9
    Publication Date: 1996-08-16
    Description: A signaling pathway has been elucidated whereby growth factors activate the transcription factor cyclic adenosine monophosphate response element-binding protein (CREB), a critical regulator of immediate early gene transcription. Growth factor-stimulated CREB phosphorylation at serine-133 is mediated by the RAS-mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) pathway. MAPK activates CREB kinase, which in turn phosphorylates and activates CREB. Purification, sequencing, and biochemical characterization of CREB kinase revealed that it is identical to a member of the pp90(RSK) family, RSK2. RSK2 was shown to mediate growth factor induction of CREB serine-133 phosphorylation both in vitro and in vivo. These findings identify a cellular function for RSK2 and define a mechanism whereby growth factor signals mediated by RAS and MAPK are transmitted to the nucleus to activate gene expression.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Notes: 〈/span〉Xing, J -- Ginty, D D -- Greenberg, M E -- CA43855/CA/NCI NIH HHS/ -- NS34814-01/NS/NINDS NIH HHS/ -- P30-HD18655/HD/NICHD NIH HHS/ -- New York, N.Y. -- Science. 1996 Aug 16;273(5277):959-63.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Author address: 〈/span〉Program in Biological and Biomedical Sciences, Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA 02115, USA.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Record origin:〈/span〉 〈a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/8688081" target="_blank"〉PubMed〈/a〉
    Keywords: Amino Acid Sequence ; Animals ; Calcium-Calmodulin-Dependent Protein Kinases/*metabolism ; Cell Line ; Cell Nucleus/metabolism ; Cyclic AMP Response Element-Binding Protein/*metabolism ; Epidermal Growth Factor/pharmacology ; *Gene Expression Regulation ; Growth Substances/*pharmacology ; Humans ; Molecular Sequence Data ; Nerve Growth Factors/pharmacology ; PC12 Cells ; Phosphorylation ; Protein-Serine-Threonine Kinases/*metabolism ; Rats ; Ribosomal Protein S6 Kinases ; *Signal Transduction ; Tetradecanoylphorbol Acetate/pharmacology ; Transcriptional Activation ; Transfection ; Tumor Cells, Cultured ; ras Proteins/metabolism
    Print ISSN: 0036-8075
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    Topics: Biology , Chemistry and Pharmacology , Computer Science , Medicine , Natural Sciences in General , Physics
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  • 10
    Publication Date: 1997-08-22
    Description: Nerve growth factor (NGF) is a neurotrophic factor secreted by cells that are the targets of innervation of sympathetic and some sensory neurons. However, the mechanism by which the NGF signal is propagated from the axon terminal to the cell body, which can be more than 1 meter away, to influence biochemical events critical for growth and survival of neurons has remained unclear. An NGF-mediated signal transmitted from the terminals and distal axons of cultured rat sympathetic neurons to their nuclei regulated phosphorylation of the transcription factor CREB (cyclic adenosine monophosphate response element-binding protein). Internalization of NGF and its receptor tyrosine kinase TrkA, and their transport to the cell body, were required for transmission of this signal. The tyrosine kinase activity of TrkA was required to maintain it in an autophosphorylated state upon its arrival in the cell body and for propagation of the signal to CREB within neuronal nuclei. Thus, an NGF-TrkA complex is a messenger that delivers the NGF signal from axon terminals to cell bodies of sympathetic neurons.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Notes: 〈/span〉Riccio, A -- Pierchala, B A -- Ciarallo, C L -- Ginty, D D -- New York, N.Y. -- Science. 1997 Aug 22;277(5329):1097-100.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Author address: 〈/span〉Department of Neuroscience, Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine, 725 North Wolfe Street, Baltimore, MD 21205, USA.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Record origin:〈/span〉 〈a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/9262478" target="_blank"〉PubMed〈/a〉
    Keywords: Animals ; Animals, Newborn ; *Axonal Transport ; Axons/*metabolism ; Carbazoles/pharmacology ; Cell Membrane/metabolism ; Cells, Cultured ; Cyclic AMP Response Element-Binding Protein/*metabolism ; Indole Alkaloids ; Microspheres ; Nerve Growth Factors/*metabolism/pharmacology ; Neurons/*metabolism ; Phosphorylation ; Proto-Oncogene Proteins/antagonists & inhibitors/*metabolism ; Rats ; Receptor Protein-Tyrosine Kinases/antagonists & inhibitors/*metabolism ; Receptor, trkA ; Receptors, Nerve Growth Factor/antagonists & inhibitors/*metabolism ; Signal Transduction ; Superior Cervical Ganglion/cytology
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    Electronic ISSN: 1095-9203
    Topics: Biology , Chemistry and Pharmacology , Computer Science , Medicine , Natural Sciences in General , Physics
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