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  • 1
    Publication Date: 2018-02-03
    Description: Thermoelectric generation technology has attracted increasing attention because of its promising applications. In this work, the heat transfer characteristics and the performance of a thermoelectric generator (TEG) with different cold-side heat dissipation intensity has been studied. By fixing the hot-side temperature of TEG, the effects of various external conditions including the flow rate and the inlet temperature of the cooling water flowing through the cold-sided heat sink have been investigated detailedly. It was showed that the output power and the efficiency of TEG increased with temperature different enlarged, whereas the efficiency of TEG reduced with flow rate increased. It is proposed that more heat taken by the cooling water is attributed to the efficiency decrease when the flow rate of the cooling water is increased. This study would provide fundamental understanding for the design of more refined thermoelectric generation systems.
    Print ISSN: 1757-8981
    Electronic ISSN: 1757-899X
    Topics: Mechanical Engineering, Materials Science, Production Engineering, Mining and Metallurgy, Traffic Engineering, Precision Mechanics
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  • 2
    Publication Date: 2013-11-13
    Description: Recent studies have found evidence of introgression from Neanderthals into modern humans outside of sub-Saharan Africa. Given the geographic range of Neanderthals, the findings have been interpreted as evidence of gene exchange between Neanderthals and modern humans descended from the Out-of-Africa (OOA) migration. Here, we examine an alternative interpretation in which the introgression occurred earlier within Africa, between ancestors or relatives of Neanderthals and a subset of African modern humans who were the ancestors of those involved in the OOA migration. Under the alternative model, if the population structure among present-day Africans predates the OOA migration, we might find some African populations show a signal of Neanderthal introgression whereas others do not. To test this alternative model, we compiled a whole-genome data set including 38 sub-Saharan Africans from eight populations and 25 non-African individuals from five populations. We assessed differences in the amount of Neanderthal-like single-nucleotide polymorphism alleles among these populations and observed up to 1.5% difference in the number of Neanderthal-like alleles among African populations. Further analyses suggest that these differences are likely due to recent non-African admixture in these populations. After accounting for recent non-African admixture, our results do not support the alternative model of older (e.g., 〉100 kya) admixture between modern humans and Neanderthal-like hominids within Africa.
    Electronic ISSN: 1759-6653
    Topics: Biology
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  • 3
    Publication Date: 2015-06-25
    Description: Identification of retrotransposon insertions in nonmodel taxa can be technically challenging and costly. This has inhibited progress in understanding retrotransposon insertion dynamics outside of a few well-studied species. To address this problem, we have extended a retrotransposon-based capture and sequence method (ME-Scan [mobile element scanning]) to identify insertions belonging to the Ves family of short interspersed elements (SINEs) across seven species of the bat genus Myotis. We identified between 120,000 and 143,000 SINE insertions in six taxa lacking a draft genome by comparing to the M. lucifugus reference genome. On average, each Ves insertion was sequenced to 129.6 x coverage. When mapped back to the M. lucifugus reference genome, all insertions were confidently assigned within a 10-bp window. Polymorphic Ves insertions were identified in each taxon based on their mapped locations. Using cross-species comparisons and the identified insertion positions, a presence–absence matrix was created for approximately 796,000 insertions. Dollo parsimony analysis of more than 85,000 phylogenetically informative insertions recovered strongly supported, monophyletic clades that correspond with the biogeography of each taxa. This phylogeny is similar to previously published mitochondrial phylogenies, with the exception of the placement of M. vivesi. These results support the utility of our variation on ME-Scan to identify polymorphic retrotransposon insertions in taxa without a reference genome and for large-scale retrotransposon-based phylogenetics.
    Electronic ISSN: 1759-6653
    Topics: Biology
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  • 4
    Publication Date: 2016-05-25
    Description: Multiple-objective optimization is common in biological systems. In the mammalian olfactory system, each sensory neuron stochastically expresses only one out of up to thousands of olfactory receptor (OR) gene alleles; at the organism level, the types of expressed ORs need to be maximized. Existing models focus only on monoallele activation,...
    Print ISSN: 0027-8424
    Electronic ISSN: 1091-6490
    Topics: Biology , Medicine , Natural Sciences in General
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  • 5
    Publication Date: 2018-10-27
    Description: Novel technological applications significantly favor alternatives to electrons toward constructing low power–consuming, high-speed all-optical integrated optoelectronic devices. Polariton condensates, exhibiting high-speed coherent propagation and spin-based behavior, attract considerable interest for implementing the basic elements of integrated optoelectronic devices: switching, transport, and logic. However, the implementation of this coherent polariton condensate flow is typically limited to cryogenic temperatures, constrained by small exciton binding energy in most semiconductor microcavities. Here, we demonstrate the capability of long-range nonresonantly excited polariton condensate flow at room temperature in a one-dimensional all-inorganic cesium lead bromide (CsPbBr 3 ) perovskite microwire microcavity. The polariton condensate exhibits high-speed propagation over macroscopic distances of 60 μm while still preserving the long-range off-diagonal order. Our findings pave the way for using coherent polariton condensate flow for all-optical integrated logic circuits and polaritonic devices operating at room temperature.
    Electronic ISSN: 2375-2548
    Topics: Natural Sciences in General
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  • 6
    Publication Date: 2018
    Description: 〈p〉Novel technological applications significantly favor alternatives to electrons toward constructing low power–consuming, high-speed all-optical integrated optoelectronic devices. Polariton condensates, exhibiting high-speed coherent propagation and spin-based behavior, attract considerable interest for implementing the basic elements of integrated optoelectronic devices: switching, transport, and logic. However, the implementation of this coherent polariton condensate flow is typically limited to cryogenic temperatures, constrained by small exciton binding energy in most semiconductor microcavities. Here, we demonstrate the capability of long-range nonresonantly excited polariton condensate flow at room temperature in a one-dimensional all-inorganic cesium lead bromide (CsPbBr〈sub〉3〈/sub〉) perovskite microwire microcavity. The polariton condensate exhibits high-speed propagation over macroscopic distances of 60 μm while still preserving the long-range off-diagonal order. Our findings pave the way for using coherent polariton condensate flow for all-optical integrated logic circuits and polaritonic devices operating at room temperature.〈/p〉
    Electronic ISSN: 2375-2548
    Topics: Natural Sciences in General
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  • 7
    Publication Date: 2013-07-06
    Description: Many large noncoding RNAs (lncRNAs) regulate chromatin, but the mechanisms by which they localize to genomic targets remain unexplored. We investigated the localization mechanisms of the Xist lncRNA during X-chromosome inactivation (XCI), a paradigm of lncRNA-mediated chromatin regulation. During the maintenance of XCI, Xist binds broadly across the X chromosome. During initiation of XCI, Xist initially transfers to distal regions across the X chromosome that are not defined by specific sequences. Instead, Xist identifies these regions by exploiting the three-dimensional conformation of the X chromosome. Xist requires its silencing domain to spread across actively transcribed regions and thereby access the entire chromosome. These findings suggest a model in which Xist coats the X chromosome by searching in three dimensions, modifying chromosome structure, and spreading to newly accessible locations.〈br /〉〈br /〉〈a href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3778663/" target="_blank"〉〈img src="https://static.pubmed.gov/portal/portal3rc.fcgi/4089621/img/3977009" border="0"〉〈/a〉   〈a href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3778663/" target="_blank"〉This paper as free author manuscript - peer-reviewed and accepted for publication〈/a〉〈br /〉〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Notes: 〈/span〉Engreitz, Jesse M -- Pandya-Jones, Amy -- McDonel, Patrick -- Shishkin, Alexander -- Sirokman, Klara -- Surka, Christine -- Kadri, Sabah -- Xing, Jeffrey -- Goren, Alon -- Lander, Eric S -- Plath, Kathrin -- Guttman, Mitchell -- 1F32GM103139-01/GM/NIGMS NIH HHS/ -- DP5 OD012190/OD/NIH HHS/ -- DP5OD012190/OD/NIH HHS/ -- P01 GM099134/GM/NIGMS NIH HHS/ -- P01GM099134/GM/NIGMS NIH HHS/ -- P50HG006193/HG/NHGRI NIH HHS/ -- New York, N.Y. -- Science. 2013 Aug 16;341(6147):1237973. doi: 10.1126/science.1237973. Epub 2013 Jul 4.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Author address: 〈/span〉Broad Institute of Harvard and MIT, Cambridge, MA 02142, USA.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Record origin:〈/span〉 〈a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23828888" target="_blank"〉PubMed〈/a〉
    Keywords: Animals ; Cell Differentiation ; Cell Line ; Chromatin/chemistry/metabolism ; Female ; *Genome ; Male ; Mice ; Models, Genetic ; RNA, Long Noncoding/chemistry/*metabolism ; Transcription, Genetic ; X Chromosome/*metabolism/ultrastructure ; *X Chromosome Inactivation
    Print ISSN: 0036-8075
    Electronic ISSN: 1095-9203
    Topics: Biology , Chemistry and Pharmacology , Computer Science , Medicine , Natural Sciences in General , Physics
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  • 8
    Publication Date: 2007-04-14
    Description: The completion of the draft sequence of the rhesus macaque genome allowed us to study the genomic composition and evolution of transposable elements in this representative of the Old World monkey lineage, a group of diverse primates closely related to humans. The L1 family of long interspersed elements appears to have evolved as a single lineage, and Alu elements have evolved into four currently active lineages. We also found evidence of elevated horizontal transmissions of retroviruses and the absence of DNA transposon activity in the Old World monkey lineage. In addition, approximately 100 precursors of composite SVA (short interspersed element, variable number of tandem repeat, and Alu) elements were identified, with the majority being shared by the common ancestor of humans and rhesus macaques. Mobile elements compose roughly 50% of primate genomes, and our findings illustrate their diversity and strong influence on genome evolution between closely related species.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Notes: 〈/span〉Han, Kyudong -- Konkel, Miriam K -- Xing, Jinchuan -- Wang, Hui -- Lee, Jungnam -- Meyer, Thomas J -- Huang, Charles T -- Sandifer, Erin -- Hebert, Kristi -- Barnes, Erin W -- Hubley, Robert -- Miller, Webb -- Smit, Arian F A -- Ullmer, Brygg -- Batzer, Mark A -- GM59290/GM/NIGMS NIH HHS/ -- R01 HG002939/HG/NHGRI NIH HHS/ -- New York, N.Y. -- Science. 2007 Apr 13;316(5822):238-40.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Author address: 〈/span〉Department of Biological Sciences, Biological Computation and Visualization Center, Center for Bio-Modular Multi-Scale Systems, Louisiana State University, Baton Rouge, LA 70803, USA.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Record origin:〈/span〉 〈a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/17431169" target="_blank"〉PubMed〈/a〉
    Keywords: Animals ; Cercopithecidae/*genetics ; *DNA Transposable Elements ; Endogenous Retroviruses/genetics ; Evolution, Molecular ; Gene Transfer, Horizontal ; Genome ; Genome, Human ; Humans ; Macaca mulatta/*genetics ; Repetitive Sequences, Nucleic Acid ; Retroelements
    Print ISSN: 0036-8075
    Electronic ISSN: 1095-9203
    Topics: Biology , Chemistry and Pharmacology , Computer Science , Medicine , Natural Sciences in General , Physics
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  • 9
    Publication Date: 2010-05-15
    Description: Tibetans have lived at very high altitudes for thousands of years, and they have a distinctive suite of physiological traits that enable them to tolerate environmental hypoxia. These phenotypes are clearly the result of adaptation to this environment, but their genetic basis remains unknown. We report genome-wide scans that reveal positive selection in several regions that contain genes whose products are likely involved in high-altitude adaptation. Positively selected haplotypes of EGLN1 and PPARA were significantly associated with the decreased hemoglobin phenotype that is unique to this highland population. Identification of these genes provides support for previously hypothesized mechanisms of high-altitude adaptation and illuminates the complexity of hypoxia-response pathways in humans.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Notes: 〈/span〉Simonson, Tatum S -- Yang, Yingzhong -- Huff, Chad D -- Yun, Haixia -- Qin, Ga -- Witherspoon, David J -- Bai, Zhenzhong -- Lorenzo, Felipe R -- Xing, Jinchuan -- Jorde, Lynn B -- Prchal, Josef T -- Ge, RiLi -- 1P01CA108671-01A2/CA/NCI NIH HHS/ -- DK069513/DK/NIDDK NIH HHS/ -- GM059290/GM/NIGMS NIH HHS/ -- HL50077/HL/NHLBI NIH HHS/ -- R00 HG005846/HG/NHGRI NIH HHS/ -- New York, N.Y. -- Science. 2010 Jul 2;329(5987):72-5. doi: 10.1126/science.1189406. Epub 2010 May 13.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Author address: 〈/span〉Eccles Institute of Human Genetics, University of Utah School of Medicine, Salt Lake City, UT 84112, USA.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Record origin:〈/span〉 〈a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/20466884" target="_blank"〉PubMed〈/a〉
    Keywords: *Acclimatization ; *Altitude ; Asian Continental Ancestry Group/genetics ; Ethnic Groups/genetics ; Female ; Genetic Association Studies ; Genetic Variation ; Genome, Human ; Haplotypes ; Hemoglobins/*analysis ; Humans ; Hypoxia-Inducible Factor 1/metabolism ; Hypoxia-Inducible Factor-Proline Dioxygenases ; Linear Models ; Male ; *Oxygen ; PPAR alpha/*genetics ; Phenotype ; Polymorphism, Single Nucleotide ; Procollagen-Proline Dioxygenase/*genetics ; *Selection, Genetic ; Signal Transduction ; Tibet
    Print ISSN: 0036-8075
    Electronic ISSN: 1095-9203
    Topics: Biology , Chemistry and Pharmacology , Computer Science , Medicine , Natural Sciences in General , Physics
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  • 10
    Publication Date: 2017-12-08
    Description: Aviation is a unique anthropogenic source with 4-dimensional varying emissions, peaking at cruise altitudes (9 – 12 km). Aircraft emission budgets in the upper troposphere lower stratosphere region and their potential impacts on upper troposphere and surface air quality are not well understood. Our key objective is to use chemical-transport models (with prescribed meteorology) to predict aircraft emissions impacts on the troposphere and surface air quality. We quantified the importance of including full-flight intercontinental emissions and increased horizontal grid resolution. The full-flight aviation emissions in the Northern Hemisphere contributed ~1.3 % (mean, min – max: 0.46, 0.3 – 0.5 ppbV) and 0.2 % (0.013, 0.004 – 0.02 μg/m 3 ) of total O 3 and PM 2.5 concentrations at the surface, with Europe showing slightly higher impacts (1.9% (O 3 0.69, 0.5 – 0.85 ppbV) and 0.5% (PM 2.5 0.03, 0.01 – 0.05 μg/m 3 )) than North America (NA) and East Asia. We computed seasonal aviation-attributable mass flux vertical profiles and aviation perturbations along isentropic surfaces to quantify the transport of cruise altitude emissions at the hemispheric scale. The comparison of coarse (108 × 108 km 2 ) and fine (36 × 36 km 2 ) grid resolutions in NA showed ~70x and ~13x higher aviation impacts for O 3 and PM 2.5 in coarser domain. These differences are mainly due to the inability of the coarse resolution simulation to capture non-linearities in chemical processes near airport locations and other urban areas. Future global studies quantifying aircraft contributions should consider model resolution and perhaps use finer scales near major aviation source regions.
    Print ISSN: 0148-0227
    Topics: Geosciences , Physics
    Published by Wiley on behalf of American Geophysical Union (AGU).
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