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  • 1
    Publication Date: 2014-05-23
    Description: Metformin is considered to be one of the most effective therapeutics for treating type 2 diabetes because it specifically reduces hepatic gluconeogenesis without increasing insulin secretion, inducing weight gain or posing a risk of hypoglycaemia. For over half a century, this agent has been prescribed to patients with type 2 diabetes worldwide, yet the underlying mechanism by which metformin inhibits hepatic gluconeogenesis remains unknown. Here we show that metformin non-competitively inhibits the redox shuttle enzyme mitochondrial glycerophosphate dehydrogenase, resulting in an altered hepatocellular redox state, reduced conversion of lactate and glycerol to glucose, and decreased hepatic gluconeogenesis. Acute and chronic low-dose metformin treatment effectively reduced endogenous glucose production, while increasing cytosolic redox and decreasing mitochondrial redox states. Antisense oligonucleotide knockdown of hepatic mitochondrial glycerophosphate dehydrogenase in rats resulted in a phenotype akin to chronic metformin treatment, and abrogated metformin-mediated increases in cytosolic redox state, decreases in plasma glucose concentrations, and inhibition of endogenous glucose production. These findings were replicated in whole-body mitochondrial glycerophosphate dehydrogenase knockout mice. These results have significant implications for understanding the mechanism of metformin's blood glucose lowering effects and provide a new therapeutic target for type 2 diabetes.〈br /〉〈br /〉〈a href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4074244/" target="_blank"〉〈img src="https://static.pubmed.gov/portal/portal3rc.fcgi/4089621/img/3977009" border="0"〉〈/a〉   〈a href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4074244/" target="_blank"〉This paper as free author manuscript - peer-reviewed and accepted for publication〈/a〉〈br /〉〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Notes: 〈/span〉Madiraju, Anila K -- Erion, Derek M -- Rahimi, Yasmeen -- Zhang, Xian-Man -- Braddock, Demetrios T -- Albright, Ronald A -- Prigaro, Brett J -- Wood, John L -- Bhanot, Sanjay -- MacDonald, Michael J -- Jurczak, Michael J -- Camporez, Joao-Paulo -- Lee, Hui-Young -- Cline, Gary W -- Samuel, Varman T -- Kibbey, Richard G -- Shulman, Gerald I -- K01 DK-099402/DK/NIDDK NIH HHS/ -- P30 DK-034989/DK/NIDDK NIH HHS/ -- P30 DK-45735/DK/NIDDK NIH HHS/ -- P30 DK034989/DK/NIDDK NIH HHS/ -- P30 DK045735/DK/NIDDK NIH HHS/ -- R01 DK-092606/DK/NIDDK NIH HHS/ -- R01 DK-28348/DK/NIDDK NIH HHS/ -- R01 DK-40936/DK/NIDDK NIH HHS/ -- R01 DK028348/DK/NIDDK NIH HHS/ -- R01 DK040936/DK/NIDDK NIH HHS/ -- R01 DK092606/DK/NIDDK NIH HHS/ -- R24 DK-085638/DK/NIDDK NIH HHS/ -- R24 DK085638/DK/NIDDK NIH HHS/ -- U24 DK-059635/DK/NIDDK NIH HHS/ -- U24 DK059635/DK/NIDDK NIH HHS/ -- UL1 TR000142/TR/NCATS NIH HHS/ -- Howard Hughes Medical Institute/ -- England -- Nature. 2014 Jun 26;510(7506):542-6. doi: 10.1038/nature13270. Epub 2014 May 21.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Author address: 〈/span〉1] Department of Internal Medicine, Yale University School of Medicine, New Haven, Connecticut 06520, USA [2] Department of Cellular & Molecular Physiology, Yale University School of Medicine, New Haven, Connecticut 06520, USA [3] Howard Hughes Medical Institute, Yale University School of Medicine, New Haven, Connecticut 06520, USA. ; Department of Internal Medicine, Yale University School of Medicine, New Haven, Connecticut 06520, USA. ; Department of Pathology, Yale University School of Medicine, New Haven, Connecticut 06520, USA. ; Department of Chemistry, Colorado State University, Fort Collins, Colorado 80523, USA. ; Cancer Prevention Research Institute of Texas Scholar, Department of Chemistry and Biochemistry, Baylor University, Waco, Texas 76798, USA. ; Isis Pharmaceuticals, 2855 Gazelle Court, Carlsbad, California 92010, USA. ; University of Wisconsin School of Medicine and Public Health, Madison, Wisconsin, USA, 53706. ; 1] Department of Internal Medicine, Yale University School of Medicine, New Haven, Connecticut 06520, USA [2] Department of Cellular & Molecular Physiology, Yale University School of Medicine, New Haven, Connecticut 06520, USA. ; 1] Department of Internal Medicine, Yale University School of Medicine, New Haven, Connecticut 06520, USA [2] Department of Cellular & Molecular Physiology, Yale University School of Medicine, New Haven, Connecticut 06520, USA [3] Howard Hughes Medical Institute, Yale University School of Medicine, New Haven, Connecticut 06520, USA [4] Novo Nordisk Foundation Center for Basic Metabolic Research, University of Copenhagen, Copenhagen, Denmark, DK-2200.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Record origin:〈/span〉 〈a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24847880" target="_blank"〉PubMed〈/a〉
    Keywords: Animals ; Blood Glucose/analysis/biosynthesis ; Cells, Cultured ; Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2/drug therapy/enzymology/metabolism ; Gluconeogenesis/*drug effects ; Glycerolphosphate Dehydrogenase/*antagonists & ; inhibitors/deficiency/genetics/metabolism ; Humans ; Hypoglycemic Agents/pharmacology ; Insulin/secretion ; Lactic Acid/metabolism ; Liver/drug effects/metabolism ; Male ; Metformin/*pharmacology ; Mice, Knockout ; Mitochondria/*enzymology ; Oxidation-Reduction/drug effects ; Rats ; Rats, Sprague-Dawley
    Print ISSN: 0028-0836
    Electronic ISSN: 1476-4687
    Topics: Biology , Chemistry and Pharmacology , Medicine , Natural Sciences in General , Physics
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  • 2
    Publication Date: 2012-02-03
    Description: Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is the hepatic manifestation of metabolic syndrome and the leading cause of chronic liver disease in the Western world. Twenty per cent of NAFLD individuals develop chronic hepatic inflammation (non-alcoholic steatohepatitis, NASH) associated with cirrhosis, portal hypertension and hepatocellular carcinoma, yet the causes of progression from NAFLD to NASH remain obscure. Here, we show that the NLRP6 and NLRP3 inflammasomes and the effector protein IL-18 negatively regulate NAFLD/NASH progression, as well as multiple aspects of metabolic syndrome via modulation of the gut microbiota. Different mouse models reveal that inflammasome-deficiency-associated changes in the configuration of the gut microbiota are associated with exacerbated hepatic steatosis and inflammation through influx of TLR4 and TLR9 agonists into the portal circulation, leading to enhanced hepatic tumour-necrosis factor (TNF)-alpha expression that drives NASH progression. Furthermore, co-housing of inflammasome-deficient mice with wild-type mice results in exacerbation of hepatic steatosis and obesity. Thus, altered interactions between the gut microbiota and the host, produced by defective NLRP3 and NLRP6 inflammasome sensing, may govern the rate of progression of multiple metabolic syndrome-associated abnormalities, highlighting the central role of the microbiota in the pathogenesis of heretofore seemingly unrelated systemic auto-inflammatory and metabolic disorders.〈br /〉〈br /〉〈a href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3276682/" target="_blank"〉〈img src="https://static.pubmed.gov/portal/portal3rc.fcgi/4089621/img/3977009" border="0"〉〈/a〉   〈a href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3276682/" target="_blank"〉This paper as free author manuscript - peer-reviewed and accepted for publication〈/a〉〈br /〉〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Notes: 〈/span〉Henao-Mejia, Jorge -- Elinav, Eran -- Jin, Chengcheng -- Hao, Liming -- Mehal, Wajahat Z -- Strowig, Till -- Thaiss, Christoph A -- Kau, Andrew L -- Eisenbarth, Stephanie C -- Jurczak, Michael J -- Camporez, Joao-Paulo -- Shulman, Gerald I -- Gordon, Jeffrey I -- Hoffman, Hal M -- Flavell, Richard A -- K08A1085038/PHS HHS/ -- P30 DK-45735/DK/NIDDK NIH HHS/ -- P30 DK045735/DK/NIDDK NIH HHS/ -- P30 DK045735-14/DK/NIDDK NIH HHS/ -- R01 DK-40936/DK/NIDDK NIH HHS/ -- R01 DK040936/DK/NIDDK NIH HHS/ -- R01DK076674-01/DK/NIDDK NIH HHS/ -- R24 DK-085638/DK/NIDDK NIH HHS/ -- T32HL007974/HL/NHLBI NIH HHS/ -- U24 DK-059635/DK/NIDDK NIH HHS/ -- U24 DK059635/DK/NIDDK NIH HHS/ -- Howard Hughes Medical Institute/ -- England -- Nature. 2012 Feb 1;482(7384):179-85. doi: 10.1038/nature10809.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Author address: 〈/span〉Department of Immunobiology, Yale University School of Medicine, New Haven, Connecticut 06520, USA.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Record origin:〈/span〉 〈a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22297845" target="_blank"〉PubMed〈/a〉
    Keywords: Animals ; Apoptosis Regulatory Proteins ; Carrier Proteins/metabolism ; Choline ; Colon/microbiology ; Cytoskeletal Proteins/deficiency ; Disease Models, Animal ; *Disease Progression ; Fatty Liver/genetics/*metabolism/*pathology ; Inflammasomes/*metabolism ; Inflammation/metabolism/pathology ; Interleukin-18/deficiency ; Male ; Metagenome ; Methionine/deficiency ; Mice ; Mice, Inbred C57BL ; Non-alcoholic Fatty Liver Disease ; Obesity/*metabolism/*pathology ; RNA, Ribosomal, 16S/genetics ; Receptors, Cell Surface/metabolism ; Toll-Like Receptor 4/deficiency/metabolism ; Toll-Like Receptor 9/deficiency/metabolism ; Tumor Necrosis Factor-alpha/deficiency/metabolism
    Print ISSN: 0028-0836
    Electronic ISSN: 1476-4687
    Topics: Biology , Chemistry and Pharmacology , Medicine , Natural Sciences in General , Physics
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  • 3
    Publication Date: 2011-09-06
    Description: PPARgamma is the functioning receptor for the thiazolidinedione (TZD) class of antidiabetes drugs including rosiglitazone and pioglitazone. These drugs are full classical agonists for this nuclear receptor, but recent data have shown that many PPARgamma-based drugs have a separate biochemical activity, blocking the obesity-linked phosphorylation of PPARgamma by Cdk5. Here we describe novel synthetic compounds that have a unique mode of binding to PPARgamma, completely lack classical transcriptional agonism and block the Cdk5-mediated phosphorylation in cultured adipocytes and in insulin-resistant mice. Moreover, one such compound, SR1664, has potent antidiabetic activity while not causing the fluid retention and weight gain that are serious side effects of many of the PPARgamma drugs. Unlike TZDs, SR1664 also does not interfere with bone formation in culture. These data illustrate that new classes of antidiabetes drugs can be developed by specifically targeting the Cdk5-mediated phosphorylation of PPARgamma.〈br /〉〈br /〉〈a href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3179551/" target="_blank"〉〈img src="https://static.pubmed.gov/portal/portal3rc.fcgi/4089621/img/3977009" border="0"〉〈/a〉   〈a href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3179551/" target="_blank"〉This paper as free author manuscript - peer-reviewed and accepted for publication〈/a〉〈br /〉〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Notes: 〈/span〉Choi, Jang Hyun -- Banks, Alexander S -- Kamenecka, Theodore M -- Busby, Scott A -- Chalmers, Michael J -- Kumar, Naresh -- Kuruvilla, Dana S -- Shin, Youseung -- He, Yuanjun -- Bruning, John B -- Marciano, David P -- Cameron, Michael D -- Laznik, Dina -- Jurczak, Michael J -- Schurer, Stephan C -- Vidovic, Dusica -- Shulman, Gerald I -- Spiegelman, Bruce M -- Griffin, Patrick R -- 1RC4DK090861/DK/NIDDK NIH HHS/ -- DK31405/DK/NIDDK NIH HHS/ -- R01 DK040936/DK/NIDDK NIH HHS/ -- R01 GM084041/GM/NIGMS NIH HHS/ -- R01 GM084041-03/GM/NIGMS NIH HHS/ -- R01-GM084041/GM/NIGMS NIH HHS/ -- R37 DK031405/DK/NIDDK NIH HHS/ -- R37 DK031405-30/DK/NIDDK NIH HHS/ -- R37 DK031405-31/DK/NIDDK NIH HHS/ -- RC4 DK090861/DK/NIDDK NIH HHS/ -- RC4 DK090861-01/DK/NIDDK NIH HHS/ -- S10 RR027270/RR/NCRR NIH HHS/ -- U24 DK059635/DK/NIDDK NIH HHS/ -- U54 MH074404/MH/NIMH NIH HHS/ -- U54 MH074404-01/MH/NIMH NIH HHS/ -- U54-MH074404/MH/NIMH NIH HHS/ -- Howard Hughes Medical Institute/ -- Intramural NIH HHS/ -- England -- Nature. 2011 Sep 4;477(7365):477-81. doi: 10.1038/nature10383.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Author address: 〈/span〉Department of Cancer Biology and Division of Metabolism and Chronic Disease, Dana-Farber Cancer Institute and Department of Cell Biology, Harvard Medical School, Boston, Massachusetts 02115, USA.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Record origin:〈/span〉 〈a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21892191" target="_blank"〉PubMed〈/a〉
    Keywords: 3T3-L1 Cells ; Adipocytes/drug effects/metabolism ; Adipose Tissue, White/drug effects/metabolism ; Animals ; Biphenyl Compounds/chemistry/pharmacology ; Body Fluids/drug effects ; COS Cells ; Cercopithecus aethiops ; Cyclin-Dependent Kinase 5/*antagonists & inhibitors ; Dietary Fats/pharmacology ; Disease Models, Animal ; Dose-Response Relationship, Drug ; HEK293 Cells ; Humans ; Hypoglycemic Agents/adverse effects/chemistry/*pharmacology ; Ligands ; Male ; Mice ; Mice, Inbred C57BL ; Mice, Obese ; Models, Molecular ; Obesity/chemically induced/metabolism ; Osteogenesis/drug effects ; PPAR gamma/agonists/chemistry/*metabolism ; Phosphorylation/drug effects ; Phosphoserine/metabolism ; Thiazolidinediones/adverse effects/pharmacology ; Transcription, Genetic/drug effects ; Tumor Necrosis Factor-alpha/pharmacology ; Weight Gain/drug effects
    Print ISSN: 0028-0836
    Electronic ISSN: 1476-4687
    Topics: Biology , Chemistry and Pharmacology , Medicine , Natural Sciences in General , Physics
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  • 4
    Publication Date: 2014-11-20
    Description: Obesity-linked insulin resistance is a major precursor to the development of type 2 diabetes. Previous work has shown that phosphorylation of PPARgamma (peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma) at serine 273 by cyclin-dependent kinase 5 (Cdk5) stimulates diabetogenic gene expression in adipose tissues. Inhibition of this modification is a key therapeutic mechanism for anti-diabetic drugs that bind PPARgamma, such as the thiazolidinediones and PPARgamma partial agonists or non-agonists. For a better understanding of the importance of this obesity-linked PPARgamma phosphorylation, we created mice that ablated Cdk5 specifically in adipose tissues. These mice have both a paradoxical increase in PPARgamma phosphorylation at serine 273 and worsened insulin resistance. Unbiased proteomic studies show that extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK) kinases are activated in these knockout animals. Here we show that ERK directly phosphorylates serine 273 of PPARgamma in a robust manner and that Cdk5 suppresses ERKs through direct action on a novel site in MAP kinase/ERK kinase (MEK). Importantly, pharmacological inhibition of MEK and ERK markedly improves insulin resistance in both obese wild-type and ob/ob mice, and also completely reverses the deleterious effects of the Cdk5 ablation. These data show that an ERK/Cdk5 axis controls PPARgamma function and suggest that MEK/ERK inhibitors may hold promise for the treatment of type 2 diabetes.〈br /〉〈br /〉〈a href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4297557/" target="_blank"〉〈img src="https://static.pubmed.gov/portal/portal3rc.fcgi/4089621/img/3977009" border="0"〉〈/a〉   〈a href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4297557/" target="_blank"〉This paper as free author manuscript - peer-reviewed and accepted for publication〈/a〉〈br /〉〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Notes: 〈/span〉Banks, Alexander S -- McAllister, Fiona E -- Camporez, Joao Paulo G -- Zushin, Peter-James H -- Jurczak, Michael J -- Laznik-Bogoslavski, Dina -- Shulman, Gerald I -- Gygi, Steven P -- Spiegelman, Bruce M -- DK31405/DK/NIDDK NIH HHS/ -- DK93638/DK/NIDDK NIH HHS/ -- K01 DK093638/DK/NIDDK NIH HHS/ -- R01 DK031405/DK/NIDDK NIH HHS/ -- England -- Nature. 2015 Jan 15;517(7534):391-5. doi: 10.1038/nature13887. Epub 2014 Nov 17.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Author address: 〈/span〉Division of Endocrinology, Diabetes and Hypertension, Brigham and Women's Hospital and Harvard Medical School, Boston, Massachusetts 02115, USA. ; Department of Cell Biology, Harvard Medical School, Boston, Massachusetts 02115, USA. ; Yale Mouse Metabolic Phenotyping Center and Departments of Internal Medicine and Cellular and Molecular Physiology, Yale University School of Medicine, New Haven, Connecticut 06510, USA. ; Dana-Farber Cancer Institute, Boston, Massachusetts 02115, USA. ; 1] Department of Cell Biology, Harvard Medical School, Boston, Massachusetts 02115, USA [2] Dana-Farber Cancer Institute, Boston, Massachusetts 02115, USA.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Record origin:〈/span〉 〈a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25409143" target="_blank"〉PubMed〈/a〉
    Keywords: Adipocytes/enzymology/metabolism ; Adipose Tissue/cytology/enzymology/metabolism ; Animals ; Cell Proliferation ; Cells, Cultured ; Cyclin-Dependent Kinase 5/deficiency/*metabolism ; Diabetes Mellitus/*metabolism ; Diet, High-Fat ; Extracellular Signal-Regulated MAP Kinases/*metabolism ; Humans ; Insulin Resistance ; MAP Kinase Kinase 2/antagonists & inhibitors/metabolism ; MAP Kinase Signaling System ; Male ; Mice ; Mice, Inbred C57BL ; Mice, Obese ; PPAR gamma/chemistry/*metabolism ; Phosphorylation
    Print ISSN: 0028-0836
    Electronic ISSN: 1476-4687
    Topics: Biology , Chemistry and Pharmacology , Medicine , Natural Sciences in General , Physics
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  • 5
    Publication Date: 2015-02-26
    Description: We thank Constantin-Teodosiu et al. (1) for their comments on our manuscript (2). Constantin-Teodosiu et al. interpret our data to indicate that mice with genetic activation of pyruvate dehydrogenase (PDH) by deletion of pyruvate dehydrogenase kinase isoforms 2 and 4 (DKO mice) are protected from high-fat diet (HFD)-induced muscle insulin...
    Keywords: Letters
    Print ISSN: 0027-8424
    Electronic ISSN: 1091-6490
    Topics: Biology , Medicine , Natural Sciences in General
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  • 6
    Publication Date: 2014-11-19
    Description: The pyruvate dehydrogenase complex (PDH) has been hypothesized to link lipid exposure to skeletal muscle insulin resistance through a glucose-fatty acid cycle in which increased fatty acid oxidation increases acetyl-CoA concentrations, thereby inactivating PDH and decreasing glucose oxidation. However, whether fatty acids induce insulin resistance by decreasing PDH flux remains...
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    Electronic ISSN: 1091-6490
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  • 7
    Publication Date: 2013-07-31
    Description: Hepatic insulin resistance is a principal component of type 2 diabetes, but the cellular and molecular mechanisms responsible for its pathogenesis remain unknown. Recent studies have suggested that saturated fatty acids induce hepatic insulin resistance through activation of the toll-like receptor 4 (TLR-4) receptor in the liver, which in turn...
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    Electronic ISSN: 1091-6490
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  • 8
    Publication Date: 2016-02-24
    Description: Sarcopenia, or skeletal muscle atrophy, is a debilitating comorbidity of many physiological and pathophysiological processes, including normal aging. There are no approved therapies for sarcopenia, but the antihypertrophic myokine myostatin is a potential therapeutic target. Here, we show that treatment of young and old mice with an anti-myostatin antibody (ATA...
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    Electronic ISSN: 1091-6490
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  • 9
    Publication Date: 2011-08-24
    Description: We thank Monetti et al. (1) for their thoughtful comparison between our two studies (2, 3). Although the main conclusion of our reports differs, several aspects of both studies are similar. We used the same transgenic line of low DGAT2-overexpressing mice on the same C57BL/6NHsd background strain. Notably, the DGAT2 mice accumulate hepatic triglyceride and diacylglycerol (DAG) compared with WT mice in both studies. By using LC-MS/MS combined with cell fractionation, we measured individual species of DAGs in different compartments and reported that the active DAG compartment associated with hepatic insulin resistance appears to be cytosolic (3). The critical difference...
    Keywords: Letters
    Print ISSN: 0027-8424
    Electronic ISSN: 1091-6490
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  • 10
    Publication Date: 2012-06-13
    Description: Reduced peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor γ coactivator-1α (PGC-1α) expression and mitochondrial dysfunction in adipose tissue have been associated with obesity and insulin resistance. Whether this association is causally involved in the development of insulin resistance or is only a consequence of this condition has not been clearly determined. Here we studied the effects of adipose-specific deficiency of PGC-1α on systemic glucose homeostasis. Loss of PGC-1α in white fat resulted in reduced expression of the thermogenic and mitochondrial genes in mice housed at ambient temperature, whereas gene expression patterns in brown fat were not altered. When challenged with a high-fat diet, insulin resistance was observed in the mutant mice, characterized by reduced suppression of hepatic glucose output. Resistance to insulin was also associated with an increase in circulating lipids, along with a decrease in the expression of genes regulating lipid metabolism and fatty acid uptake in adipose tissues. Taken together, these data demonstrate a critical role for adipose PGC-1α in the regulation of glucose homeostasis and a potentially causal involvement in the development of insulin resistance.
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