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  • 1
    Publication Date: 2016-03-31
    Description: Brown and beige adipose tissues can dissipate chemical energy as heat through thermogenic respiration, which requires uncoupling protein 1 (UCP1). Thermogenesis from these adipocytes can combat obesity and diabetes, encouraging investigation of factors that control UCP1-dependent respiration in vivo. Here we show that acutely activated thermogenesis in brown adipose tissue is defined by a substantial increase in levels of mitochondrial reactive oxygen species (ROS). Remarkably, this process supports in vivo thermogenesis, as pharmacological depletion of mitochondrial ROS results in hypothermia upon cold exposure, and inhibits UCP1-dependent increases in whole-body energy expenditure. We further establish that thermogenic ROS alter the redox status of cysteine thiols in brown adipose tissue to drive increased respiration, and that Cys253 of UCP1 is a key target. UCP1 Cys253 is sulfenylated during thermogenesis, while mutation of this site desensitizes the purine-nucleotide-inhibited state of the carrier to adrenergic activation and uncoupling. These studies identify mitochondrial ROS induction in brown adipose tissue as a mechanism that supports UCP1-dependent thermogenesis and whole-body energy expenditure, which opens the way to improved therapeutic strategies for combating metabolic disorders.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Notes: 〈/span〉Chouchani, Edward T -- Kazak, Lawrence -- Jedrychowski, Mark P -- Lu, Gina Z -- Erickson, Brian K -- Szpyt, John -- Pierce, Kerry A -- Laznik-Bogoslavski, Dina -- Vetrivelan, Ramalingam -- Clish, Clary B -- Robinson, Alan J -- Gygi, Steve P -- Spiegelman, Bruce M -- DK31405/DK/NIDDK NIH HHS/ -- Canadian Institutes of Health Research/Canada -- England -- Nature. 2016 Apr 7;532(7597):112-6. doi: 10.1038/nature17399. Epub 2016 Mar 30.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Author address: 〈/span〉Dana-Farber Cancer Institute, Harvard Medical School, Boston, Massachusetts 02115, USA. ; Department of Cell Biology, Harvard Medical School, Boston, Massachusetts 02115, USA. ; Broad Institute of Harvard and MIT, Cambridge, Massachusetts 02142, USA. ; Department of Neurology, Harvard Medical School, Boston, Massachusetts 02215, USA. ; MRC Mitochondrial Biology Unit, Hills Road, Cambridge CB2 0XY, UK.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Record origin:〈/span〉 〈a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27027295" target="_blank"〉PubMed〈/a〉
    Keywords: Adipose Tissue, Brown/chemistry/cytology/metabolism ; Animals ; Cell Respiration ; Cysteine/*chemistry/genetics/metabolism ; *Energy Metabolism/drug effects ; Female ; Humans ; Ion Channels/*chemistry/deficiency/genetics/*metabolism ; Male ; Mice ; Mice, Inbred C57BL ; Mitochondria/drug effects/*metabolism ; Mitochondrial Proteins/*chemistry/deficiency/genetics/*metabolism ; Mutant Proteins/chemistry/genetics/metabolism ; Oxidation-Reduction ; Reactive Oxygen Species/*metabolism ; Sulfhydryl Compounds/metabolism ; *Thermogenesis/drug effects
    Print ISSN: 0028-0836
    Electronic ISSN: 1476-4687
    Topics: Biology , Chemistry and Pharmacology , Medicine , Natural Sciences in General , Physics
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  • 2
    Publication Date: 2014-11-20
    Description: Obesity-linked insulin resistance is a major precursor to the development of type 2 diabetes. Previous work has shown that phosphorylation of PPARgamma (peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma) at serine 273 by cyclin-dependent kinase 5 (Cdk5) stimulates diabetogenic gene expression in adipose tissues. Inhibition of this modification is a key therapeutic mechanism for anti-diabetic drugs that bind PPARgamma, such as the thiazolidinediones and PPARgamma partial agonists or non-agonists. For a better understanding of the importance of this obesity-linked PPARgamma phosphorylation, we created mice that ablated Cdk5 specifically in adipose tissues. These mice have both a paradoxical increase in PPARgamma phosphorylation at serine 273 and worsened insulin resistance. Unbiased proteomic studies show that extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK) kinases are activated in these knockout animals. Here we show that ERK directly phosphorylates serine 273 of PPARgamma in a robust manner and that Cdk5 suppresses ERKs through direct action on a novel site in MAP kinase/ERK kinase (MEK). Importantly, pharmacological inhibition of MEK and ERK markedly improves insulin resistance in both obese wild-type and ob/ob mice, and also completely reverses the deleterious effects of the Cdk5 ablation. These data show that an ERK/Cdk5 axis controls PPARgamma function and suggest that MEK/ERK inhibitors may hold promise for the treatment of type 2 diabetes.〈br /〉〈br /〉〈a href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4297557/" target="_blank"〉〈img src="https://static.pubmed.gov/portal/portal3rc.fcgi/4089621/img/3977009" border="0"〉〈/a〉   〈a href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4297557/" target="_blank"〉This paper as free author manuscript - peer-reviewed and accepted for publication〈/a〉〈br /〉〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Notes: 〈/span〉Banks, Alexander S -- McAllister, Fiona E -- Camporez, Joao Paulo G -- Zushin, Peter-James H -- Jurczak, Michael J -- Laznik-Bogoslavski, Dina -- Shulman, Gerald I -- Gygi, Steven P -- Spiegelman, Bruce M -- DK31405/DK/NIDDK NIH HHS/ -- DK93638/DK/NIDDK NIH HHS/ -- K01 DK093638/DK/NIDDK NIH HHS/ -- R01 DK031405/DK/NIDDK NIH HHS/ -- England -- Nature. 2015 Jan 15;517(7534):391-5. doi: 10.1038/nature13887. Epub 2014 Nov 17.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Author address: 〈/span〉Division of Endocrinology, Diabetes and Hypertension, Brigham and Women's Hospital and Harvard Medical School, Boston, Massachusetts 02115, USA. ; Department of Cell Biology, Harvard Medical School, Boston, Massachusetts 02115, USA. ; Yale Mouse Metabolic Phenotyping Center and Departments of Internal Medicine and Cellular and Molecular Physiology, Yale University School of Medicine, New Haven, Connecticut 06510, USA. ; Dana-Farber Cancer Institute, Boston, Massachusetts 02115, USA. ; 1] Department of Cell Biology, Harvard Medical School, Boston, Massachusetts 02115, USA [2] Dana-Farber Cancer Institute, Boston, Massachusetts 02115, USA.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Record origin:〈/span〉 〈a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25409143" target="_blank"〉PubMed〈/a〉
    Keywords: Adipocytes/enzymology/metabolism ; Adipose Tissue/cytology/enzymology/metabolism ; Animals ; Cell Proliferation ; Cells, Cultured ; Cyclin-Dependent Kinase 5/deficiency/*metabolism ; Diabetes Mellitus/*metabolism ; Diet, High-Fat ; Extracellular Signal-Regulated MAP Kinases/*metabolism ; Humans ; Insulin Resistance ; MAP Kinase Kinase 2/antagonists & inhibitors/metabolism ; MAP Kinase Signaling System ; Male ; Mice ; Mice, Inbred C57BL ; Mice, Obese ; PPAR gamma/chemistry/*metabolism ; Phosphorylation
    Print ISSN: 0028-0836
    Electronic ISSN: 1476-4687
    Topics: Biology , Chemistry and Pharmacology , Medicine , Natural Sciences in General , Physics
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