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  • 1
    Publication Date: 2000-08-26
    Description: Chromosomal translocations that encode fusion oncoproteins have been observed consistently in leukemias/lymphomas and sarcomas but not in carcinomas, the most common human cancers. Here, we report that t(2;3)(q13;p25), a translocation identified in a subset of human thyroid follicular carcinomas, results in fusion of the DNA binding domains of the thyroid transcription factor PAX8 to domains A to F of the peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor (PPAR) gamma1. PAX8-PPARgamma1 mRNA and protein were detected in 5 of 8 thyroid follicular carcinomas but not in 20 follicular adenomas, 10 papillary carcinomas, or 10 multinodular hyperplasias. PAX8-PPARgamma1 inhibited thiazolidinedione-induced transactivation by PPARgamma1 in a dominant negative manner. The experiments demonstrate an oncogenic role for PPARgamma and suggest that PAX8-PPARgamma1 may be useful in the diagnosis and treatment of thyroid carcinoma.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Notes: 〈/span〉Kroll, T G -- Sarraf, P -- Pecciarini, L -- Chen, C J -- Mueller, E -- Spiegelman, B M -- Fletcher, J A -- CA75425/CA/NCI NIH HHS/ -- New York, N.Y. -- Science. 2000 Aug 25;289(5483):1357-60.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Author address: 〈/span〉Department of Pathology, Brigham and Women's Hospital, 75 Francis Street, Boston, MA 02115, USA. tkroll@rics.bwh.harvard.edu〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Record origin:〈/span〉 〈a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/10958784" target="_blank"〉PubMed〈/a〉
    Keywords: Adenocarcinoma, Follicular/*genetics/metabolism ; Adenoma/genetics/metabolism ; Adult ; Aged ; Carcinoma, Papillary/genetics/metabolism ; Cell Line ; Cell Nucleus/metabolism ; Child ; DNA-Binding Proteins/chemistry/genetics/pharmacology/*physiology ; Humans ; Middle Aged ; *Nuclear Proteins ; Oncogene Proteins, Fusion/chemistry/genetics/*physiology ; Paired Box Transcription Factors ; Receptors, Cytoplasmic and Nuclear/chemistry/genetics/*physiology ; Response Elements ; Thiazoles/pharmacology ; *Thiazolidinediones ; Thyroid Neoplasms/*genetics/metabolism ; Trans-Activators/chemistry/genetics/pharmacology/*physiology ; Transcription Factors/chemistry/genetics/pharmacology/*physiology ; Transcription, Genetic ; Transcriptional Activation ; Translocation, Genetic
    Print ISSN: 0036-8075
    Electronic ISSN: 1095-9203
    Topics: Biology , Chemistry and Pharmacology , Computer Science , Medicine , Natural Sciences in General , Physics
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  • 2
    Publication Date: 2008-07-25
    Description: Inadequate physical activity is linked to many chronic diseases. But the mechanisms that tie muscle activity to health are unclear. The transcriptional coactivator PGC1alpha has recently been shown to regulate several exercise-associated aspects of muscle function. We propose that this protein controls muscle plasticity, suppresses a broad inflammatory response and mediates the beneficial effects of exercise.〈br /〉〈br /〉〈a href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC2587487/" target="_blank"〉〈img src="https://static.pubmed.gov/portal/portal3rc.fcgi/4089621/img/3977009" border="0"〉〈/a〉   〈a href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC2587487/" target="_blank"〉This paper as free author manuscript - peer-reviewed and accepted for publication〈/a〉〈br /〉〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Notes: 〈/span〉Handschin, Christoph -- Spiegelman, Bruce M -- R01 DK054477/DK/NIDDK NIH HHS/ -- R01 DK054477-09A1/DK/NIDDK NIH HHS/ -- England -- Nature. 2008 Jul 24;454(7203):463-9. doi: 10.1038/nature07206.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Author address: 〈/span〉Institute of Physiology and Zurich Center for Integrative Human Physiology (ZIHP), University of Zurich, CH-8057 Zurich, Switzerland. christoph.handschin@access.uzh.ch〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Record origin:〈/span〉 〈a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/18650917" target="_blank"〉PubMed〈/a〉
    Keywords: Animals ; Chronic Disease ; Exercise/*physiology ; Humans ; Inflammation/genetics/*metabolism ; Muscle, Skeletal/metabolism/physiology ; Obesity/genetics/immunology/physiopathology ; Transcription Factors/genetics/*metabolism
    Print ISSN: 0028-0836
    Electronic ISSN: 1476-4687
    Topics: Biology , Chemistry and Pharmacology , Medicine , Natural Sciences in General , Physics
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  • 3
    Publication Date: 2009-07-31
    Description: Brown adipose cells are specialized to dissipate chemical energy in the form of heat, as a physiological defence against cold and obesity. PRDM16 (PR domain containing 16) is a 140 kDa zinc finger protein that robustly induces brown fat determination and differentiation. Recent data suggests that brown fat cells arise in vivo from a Myf5-positive, myoblastic lineage by the action of PRDM16 (ref. 3); however, the molecular mechanisms responsible for this developmental switch is unclear. Here we show that PRDM16 forms a transcriptional complex with the active form of C/EBP-beta (also known as LAP), acting as a critical molecular unit that controls the cell fate switch from myoblastic precursors to brown fat cells. Forced expression of PRDM16 and C/EBP-beta is sufficient to induce a fully functional brown fat program in naive fibroblastic cells, including skin fibroblasts from mouse and man. Transplantation of fibroblasts expressing these two factors into mice gives rise to an ectopic fat pad with the morphological and biochemical characteristics of brown fat. Like endogenous brown fat, this synthetic brown fat tissue acts as a sink for glucose uptake, as determined by positron emission tomography with fluorodeoxyglucose. These data indicate that the PRDM16-C/EBP-beta complex initiates brown fat formation from myoblastic precursors, and may provide opportunities for the development of new therapeutics for obesity and type-2 diabetes.〈br /〉〈br /〉〈a href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC2754867/" target="_blank"〉〈img src="https://static.pubmed.gov/portal/portal3rc.fcgi/4089621/img/3977009" border="0"〉〈/a〉   〈a href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC2754867/" target="_blank"〉This paper as free author manuscript - peer-reviewed and accepted for publication〈/a〉〈br /〉〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Notes: 〈/span〉Kajimura, Shingo -- Seale, Patrick -- Kubota, Kazuishi -- Lunsford, Elaine -- Frangioni, John V -- Gygi, Steven P -- Spiegelman, Bruce M -- DK081605/DK/NIDDK NIH HHS/ -- DK31405/DK/NIDDK NIH HHS/ -- GM67945/GM/NIGMS NIH HHS/ -- HG3456/HG/NHGRI NIH HHS/ -- K99 DK087853/DK/NIDDK NIH HHS/ -- R37 DK031405/DK/NIDDK NIH HHS/ -- R37 DK031405-28/DK/NIDDK NIH HHS/ -- S10-RR-023010/RR/NCRR NIH HHS/ -- England -- Nature. 2009 Aug 27;460(7259):1154-8. doi: 10.1038/nature08262. Epub 2009 Jul 29.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Author address: 〈/span〉Dana-Farber Cancer Institute, Harvard Medical School, 44 Binney Street, Boston, Massachusetts 02115, USA.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Record origin:〈/span〉 〈a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19641492" target="_blank"〉PubMed〈/a〉
    Keywords: Adipose Tissue, Brown/*cytology/*metabolism ; Animals ; CCAAT-Enhancer-Binding Protein-beta/genetics/*metabolism ; Cell Differentiation ; Cell Line ; Cells, Cultured ; Choristoma/metabolism ; DNA-Binding Proteins/genetics/*metabolism ; Fibroblasts/cytology/metabolism ; Glucose/metabolism ; Humans ; Male ; Mice ; Mice, Inbred C57BL ; Multiprotein Complexes ; Myoblasts/*cytology/*metabolism ; Skin/cytology ; Transcription Factors/genetics/*metabolism
    Print ISSN: 0028-0836
    Electronic ISSN: 1476-4687
    Topics: Biology , Chemistry and Pharmacology , Medicine , Natural Sciences in General , Physics
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  • 4
    Publication Date: 2010-07-24
    Description: Obesity induced in mice by high-fat feeding activates the protein kinase Cdk5 (cyclin-dependent kinase 5) in adipose tissues. This results in phosphorylation of the nuclear receptor PPARgamma (peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma), a dominant regulator of adipogenesis and fat cell gene expression, at serine 273. This modification of PPARgamma does not alter its adipogenic capacity, but leads to dysregulation of a large number of genes whose expression is altered in obesity, including a reduction in the expression of the insulin-sensitizing adipokine, adiponectin. The phosphorylation of PPARgamma by Cdk5 is blocked by anti-diabetic PPARgamma ligands, such as rosiglitazone and MRL24. This inhibition works both in vivo and in vitro, and is completely independent of classical receptor transcriptional agonism. Similarly, inhibition of PPARgamma phosphorylation in obese patients by rosiglitazone is very tightly associated with the anti-diabetic effects of this drug. All these findings strongly suggest that Cdk5-mediated phosphorylation of PPARgamma may be involved in the pathogenesis of insulin-resistance, and present an opportunity for development of an improved generation of anti-diabetic drugs through PPARgamma.〈br /〉〈br /〉〈a href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC2987584/" target="_blank"〉〈img src="https://static.pubmed.gov/portal/portal3rc.fcgi/4089621/img/3977009" border="0"〉〈/a〉   〈a href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC2987584/" target="_blank"〉This paper as free author manuscript - peer-reviewed and accepted for publication〈/a〉〈br /〉〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Notes: 〈/span〉Choi, Jang Hyun -- Banks, Alexander S -- Estall, Jennifer L -- Kajimura, Shingo -- Bostrom, Pontus -- Laznik, Dina -- Ruas, Jorge L -- Chalmers, Michael J -- Kamenecka, Theodore M -- Bluher, Matthias -- Griffin, Patrick R -- Spiegelman, Bruce M -- DK087853/DK/NIDDK NIH HHS/ -- DK31405/DK/NIDDK NIH HHS/ -- K99 DK087853/DK/NIDDK NIH HHS/ -- R01 GM084041/GM/NIGMS NIH HHS/ -- R01 GM084041-03/GM/NIGMS NIH HHS/ -- R01-GM084041/GM/NIGMS NIH HHS/ -- R37 DK031405/DK/NIDDK NIH HHS/ -- R37 DK031405-30/DK/NIDDK NIH HHS/ -- S10 RR027270/RR/NCRR NIH HHS/ -- U54 MH084512/MH/NIMH NIH HHS/ -- U54 MH084512-020010/MH/NIMH NIH HHS/ -- U54-MH084512/MH/NIMH NIH HHS/ -- Intramural NIH HHS/ -- England -- Nature. 2010 Jul 22;466(7305):451-6. doi: 10.1038/nature09291.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Author address: 〈/span〉Department of Cancer Biology and Division of Metabolism and Chronic Disease, Dana-Farber Cancer Institute, Boston, Massachusetts 02115, USA.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Record origin:〈/span〉 〈a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/20651683" target="_blank"〉PubMed〈/a〉
    Keywords: Adipose Tissue/drug effects/metabolism/physiopathology ; Amino Acid Sequence ; Animals ; Cell Line ; Cyclin-Dependent Kinase 5/*antagonists & inhibitors/genetics/metabolism ; Diabetes Mellitus, Experimental/complications/*drug therapy/metabolism ; Dietary Fats/pharmacology ; Humans ; Insulin/metabolism ; Ligands ; Mice ; Models, Molecular ; Obesity/chemically induced/complications/*metabolism/physiopathology ; PPAR gamma/agonists/*metabolism ; Phosphorylation/drug effects ; Phosphoserine/metabolism ; Protein Conformation ; Thiazolidinediones/*pharmacology/therapeutic use
    Print ISSN: 0028-0836
    Electronic ISSN: 1476-4687
    Topics: Biology , Chemistry and Pharmacology , Medicine , Natural Sciences in General , Physics
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  • 5
    Publication Date: 2008-02-22
    Description: Ischaemia of the heart, brain and limbs is a leading cause of morbidity and mortality worldwide. Hypoxia stimulates the secretion of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) and other angiogenic factors, leading to neovascularization and protection against ischaemic injury. Here we show that the transcriptional coactivator PGC-1alpha (peroxisome-proliferator-activated receptor-gamma coactivator-1alpha), a potent metabolic sensor and regulator, is induced by a lack of nutrients and oxygen, and PGC-1alpha powerfully regulates VEGF expression and angiogenesis in cultured muscle cells and skeletal muscle in vivo. PGC-1alpha-/- mice show a striking failure to reconstitute blood flow in a normal manner to the limb after an ischaemic insult, whereas transgenic expression of PGC-1alpha in skeletal muscle is protective. Surprisingly, the induction of VEGF by PGC-1alpha does not involve the canonical hypoxia response pathway and hypoxia inducible factor (HIF). Instead, PGC-1alpha coactivates the orphan nuclear receptor ERR-alpha (oestrogen-related receptor-alpha) on conserved binding sites found in the promoter and in a cluster within the first intron of the VEGF gene. Thus, PGC-1alpha and ERR-alpha, major regulators of mitochondrial function in response to exercise and other stimuli, also control a novel angiogenic pathway that delivers needed oxygen and substrates. PGC-1alpha may provide a novel therapeutic target for treating ischaemic diseases.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Notes: 〈/span〉Arany, Zoltan -- Foo, Shi-Yin -- Ma, Yanhong -- Ruas, Jorge L -- Bommi-Reddy, Archana -- Girnun, Geoffrey -- Cooper, Marcus -- Laznik, Dina -- Chinsomboon, Jessica -- Rangwala, Shamina M -- Baek, Kwan Hyuck -- Rosenzweig, Anthony -- Spiegelman, Bruce M -- P30 DK040561/DK/NIDDK NIH HHS/ -- P30 DK040561-12/DK/NIDDK NIH HHS/ -- R01 DK054477/DK/NIDDK NIH HHS/ -- England -- Nature. 2008 Feb 21;451(7181):1008-12. doi: 10.1038/nature06613.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Author address: 〈/span〉Dana-Farber Cancer Institute and Department of Cell Biology, Harvard Medical School, Boston, Massachusetts 02115, USA. zarany1@partners.org〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Record origin:〈/span〉 〈a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/18288196" target="_blank"〉PubMed〈/a〉
    Keywords: Animals ; Cell Hypoxia ; Cells, Cultured ; Gene Expression Regulation ; Hypoxia-Inducible Factor 1/metabolism ; Ischemia/*metabolism ; Mice ; Mice, Transgenic ; Muscle, Skeletal/metabolism ; *Neovascularization, Physiologic ; Oxygen/metabolism ; Receptors, Estrogen/metabolism ; Trans-Activators/deficiency/genetics/*metabolism ; Transcription Factors ; Transgenes/genetics ; Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor A/*metabolism
    Print ISSN: 0028-0836
    Electronic ISSN: 1476-4687
    Topics: Biology , Chemistry and Pharmacology , Medicine , Natural Sciences in General , Physics
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  • 6
    Publication Date: 1989-06-23
    Description: Adipsin is a serine protease that is secreted by adipocytes into the bloodstream; it is deficient in several animal models of obesity, representing a striking example of defective gene expression in this disorder. Recombinant mouse adipsin was purified and its biochemical and enzymatic properties were studied in order to elucidate the function of this protein. Activated adipsin has little or no proteolytic activity toward most substrates but has the same activity as human complement factor D, cleaving complement factor B when it is complexed with activated complement component C3. Like authentic factor D, adipsin can activate the alternative pathway of complement, resulting in red blood cell lysis. Decreased (58 to 80 percent) complement factor D activity, relative to lean controls, was observed as a common feature of several experimental models of obesity, including the ob/ob, db/db, and monosodium glutamate (MSG)-injected mouse and the fa/fa rat. These results suggest that adipsin and the alternative pathway of complement may play an unexpected but important role in the regulation of systemic energy balance in vivo.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Notes: 〈/span〉Rosen, B S -- Cook, K S -- Yaglom, J -- Groves, D L -- Volanakis, J E -- Damm, D -- White, T -- Spiegelman, B M -- DK31403/DK/NIDDK NIH HHS/ -- DK34605/DK/NIDDK NIH HHS/ -- New York, N.Y. -- Science. 1989 Jun 23;244(4911):1483-7.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Author address: 〈/span〉Dana-Farber Cancer Institute, Boston, MA.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Record origin:〈/span〉 〈a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/2734615" target="_blank"〉PubMed〈/a〉
    Keywords: Adipose Tissue/metabolism ; Amino Acid Sequence ; Animals ; Cell Line ; Complement Activating Enzymes/*metabolism ; Complement Factor D/*metabolism ; Complement Pathway, Alternative ; Cricetinae ; DNA/genetics ; Gene Expression Regulation ; Humans ; Immunoblotting ; Mice ; Molecular Sequence Data ; Obesity/genetics/*immunology/metabolism ; RNA, Messenger/metabolism ; Recombinant Proteins ; Serine Endopeptidases/genetics/isolation & purification/*metabolism ; Substrate Specificity ; Transfection
    Print ISSN: 0036-8075
    Electronic ISSN: 1095-9203
    Topics: Biology , Chemistry and Pharmacology , Computer Science , Medicine , Natural Sciences in General , Physics
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  • 7
    Publication Date: 1993-01-01
    Description: Tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-alpha) has been shown to have certain catabolic effects on fat cells and whole animals. An induction of TNF-alpha messenger RNA expression was observed in adipose tissue from four different rodent models of obesity and diabetes. TNF-alpha protein was also elevated locally and systemically. Neutralization of TNF-alpha in obese fa/fa rats caused a significant increase in the peripheral uptake of glucose in response to insulin. These results indicate a role for TNF-alpha in obesity and particularly in the insulin resistance and diabetes that often accompany obesity.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Notes: 〈/span〉Hotamisligil, G S -- Shargill, N S -- Spiegelman, B M -- DK 42539/DK/NIDDK NIH HHS/ -- New York, N.Y. -- Science. 1993 Jan 1;259(5091):87-91.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Author address: 〈/span〉Dana-Farber Cancer Institute, Boston, MA.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Record origin:〈/span〉 〈a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/7678183" target="_blank"〉PubMed〈/a〉
    Keywords: 3T3 Cells ; Adipose Tissue/physiology/*physiopathology ; Animals ; Blood Glucose/metabolism ; Blotting, Northern ; Diabetes Mellitus, Experimental/physiopathology ; Glucose Clamp Technique ; Homeostasis ; Immunoglobulin G/genetics/pharmacology ; Insulin/pharmacology ; Insulin Infusion Systems ; Insulin Resistance/*genetics ; Male ; Mice ; Mice, Obese ; Obesity/chemically induced/*genetics/*physiopathology ; RNA/genetics/isolation & purification ; RNA, Messenger/*biosynthesis/isolation & purification ; Rats ; Rats, Zucker ; Receptors, Cell Surface/genetics/physiology ; Receptors, Tumor Necrosis Factor ; Recombinant Fusion Proteins/pharmacology ; Reference Values ; Sodium Glutamate ; Tumor Necrosis Factor-alpha/biosynthesis/*genetics
    Print ISSN: 0036-8075
    Electronic ISSN: 1095-9203
    Topics: Biology , Chemistry and Pharmacology , Computer Science , Medicine , Natural Sciences in General , Physics
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  • 8
    Publication Date: 2008-08-23
    Description: Brown fat can increase energy expenditure and protect against obesity through a specialized program of uncoupled respiration. Here we show by in vivo fate mapping that brown, but not white, fat cells arise from precursors that express Myf5, a gene previously thought to be expressed only in the myogenic lineage. We also demonstrate that the transcriptional regulator PRDM16 (PRD1-BF1-RIZ1 homologous domain containing 16) controls a bidirectional cell fate switch between skeletal myoblasts and brown fat cells. Loss of PRDM16 from brown fat precursors causes a loss of brown fat characteristics and promotes muscle differentiation. Conversely, ectopic expression of PRDM16 in myoblasts induces their differentiation into brown fat cells. PRDM16 stimulates brown adipogenesis by binding to PPAR-gamma (peroxisome-proliferator-activated receptor-gamma) and activating its transcriptional function. Finally, Prdm16-deficient brown fat displays an abnormal morphology, reduced thermogenic gene expression and elevated expression of muscle-specific genes. Taken together, these data indicate that PRDM16 specifies the brown fat lineage from a progenitor that expresses myoblast markers and is not involved in white adipogenesis.〈br /〉〈br /〉〈a href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC2583329/" target="_blank"〉〈img src="https://static.pubmed.gov/portal/portal3rc.fcgi/4089621/img/3977009" border="0"〉〈/a〉   〈a href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC2583329/" target="_blank"〉This paper as free author manuscript - peer-reviewed and accepted for publication〈/a〉〈br /〉〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Notes: 〈/span〉Seale, Patrick -- Bjork, Bryan -- Yang, Wenli -- Kajimura, Shingo -- Chin, Sherry -- Kuang, Shihuan -- Scime, Anthony -- Devarakonda, Srikripa -- Conroe, Heather M -- Erdjument-Bromage, Hediye -- Tempst, Paul -- Rudnicki, Michael A -- Beier, David R -- Spiegelman, Bruce M -- R01 AR044031/AR/NIAMS NIH HHS/ -- R01 AR044031-11/AR/NIAMS NIH HHS/ -- R37 DK031405/DK/NIDDK NIH HHS/ -- R37 DK031405-27/DK/NIDDK NIH HHS/ -- England -- Nature. 2008 Aug 21;454(7207):961-7. doi: 10.1038/nature07182.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Author address: 〈/span〉Dana-Farber Cancer Institute and the Department of Cell Biology, Harvard Medical School, 1 Jimmy Fund Way, Boston, Massachusetts 02115, USA.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Record origin:〈/span〉 〈a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/18719582" target="_blank"〉PubMed〈/a〉
    Keywords: Adipocytes, Brown/cytology/*metabolism ; Adipocytes, White/metabolism ; Adipose Tissue, Brown/cytology ; Animals ; COS Cells ; *Cell Differentiation/genetics ; Cell Line ; Cercopithecus aethiops ; DNA-Binding Proteins/genetics/*metabolism ; *Gene Expression Regulation, Developmental ; Male ; Mice ; Muscle Development/genetics ; Muscle, Skeletal/cytology/growth & development/*metabolism ; Myogenic Regulatory Factor 5/genetics ; PPAR gamma/genetics ; Transcription Factors/genetics/*metabolism
    Print ISSN: 0028-0836
    Electronic ISSN: 1476-4687
    Topics: Biology , Chemistry and Pharmacology , Medicine , Natural Sciences in General , Physics
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  • 9
    Publication Date: 2011-09-06
    Description: PPARgamma is the functioning receptor for the thiazolidinedione (TZD) class of antidiabetes drugs including rosiglitazone and pioglitazone. These drugs are full classical agonists for this nuclear receptor, but recent data have shown that many PPARgamma-based drugs have a separate biochemical activity, blocking the obesity-linked phosphorylation of PPARgamma by Cdk5. Here we describe novel synthetic compounds that have a unique mode of binding to PPARgamma, completely lack classical transcriptional agonism and block the Cdk5-mediated phosphorylation in cultured adipocytes and in insulin-resistant mice. Moreover, one such compound, SR1664, has potent antidiabetic activity while not causing the fluid retention and weight gain that are serious side effects of many of the PPARgamma drugs. Unlike TZDs, SR1664 also does not interfere with bone formation in culture. These data illustrate that new classes of antidiabetes drugs can be developed by specifically targeting the Cdk5-mediated phosphorylation of PPARgamma.〈br /〉〈br /〉〈a href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3179551/" target="_blank"〉〈img src="https://static.pubmed.gov/portal/portal3rc.fcgi/4089621/img/3977009" border="0"〉〈/a〉   〈a href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3179551/" target="_blank"〉This paper as free author manuscript - peer-reviewed and accepted for publication〈/a〉〈br /〉〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Notes: 〈/span〉Choi, Jang Hyun -- Banks, Alexander S -- Kamenecka, Theodore M -- Busby, Scott A -- Chalmers, Michael J -- Kumar, Naresh -- Kuruvilla, Dana S -- Shin, Youseung -- He, Yuanjun -- Bruning, John B -- Marciano, David P -- Cameron, Michael D -- Laznik, Dina -- Jurczak, Michael J -- Schurer, Stephan C -- Vidovic, Dusica -- Shulman, Gerald I -- Spiegelman, Bruce M -- Griffin, Patrick R -- 1RC4DK090861/DK/NIDDK NIH HHS/ -- DK31405/DK/NIDDK NIH HHS/ -- R01 DK040936/DK/NIDDK NIH HHS/ -- R01 GM084041/GM/NIGMS NIH HHS/ -- R01 GM084041-03/GM/NIGMS NIH HHS/ -- R01-GM084041/GM/NIGMS NIH HHS/ -- R37 DK031405/DK/NIDDK NIH HHS/ -- R37 DK031405-30/DK/NIDDK NIH HHS/ -- R37 DK031405-31/DK/NIDDK NIH HHS/ -- RC4 DK090861/DK/NIDDK NIH HHS/ -- RC4 DK090861-01/DK/NIDDK NIH HHS/ -- S10 RR027270/RR/NCRR NIH HHS/ -- U24 DK059635/DK/NIDDK NIH HHS/ -- U54 MH074404/MH/NIMH NIH HHS/ -- U54 MH074404-01/MH/NIMH NIH HHS/ -- U54-MH074404/MH/NIMH NIH HHS/ -- Howard Hughes Medical Institute/ -- Intramural NIH HHS/ -- England -- Nature. 2011 Sep 4;477(7365):477-81. doi: 10.1038/nature10383.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Author address: 〈/span〉Department of Cancer Biology and Division of Metabolism and Chronic Disease, Dana-Farber Cancer Institute and Department of Cell Biology, Harvard Medical School, Boston, Massachusetts 02115, USA.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Record origin:〈/span〉 〈a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21892191" target="_blank"〉PubMed〈/a〉
    Keywords: 3T3-L1 Cells ; Adipocytes/drug effects/metabolism ; Adipose Tissue, White/drug effects/metabolism ; Animals ; Biphenyl Compounds/chemistry/pharmacology ; Body Fluids/drug effects ; COS Cells ; Cercopithecus aethiops ; Cyclin-Dependent Kinase 5/*antagonists & inhibitors ; Dietary Fats/pharmacology ; Disease Models, Animal ; Dose-Response Relationship, Drug ; HEK293 Cells ; Humans ; Hypoglycemic Agents/adverse effects/chemistry/*pharmacology ; Ligands ; Male ; Mice ; Mice, Inbred C57BL ; Mice, Obese ; Models, Molecular ; Obesity/chemically induced/metabolism ; Osteogenesis/drug effects ; PPAR gamma/agonists/chemistry/*metabolism ; Phosphorylation/drug effects ; Phosphoserine/metabolism ; Thiazolidinediones/adverse effects/pharmacology ; Transcription, Genetic/drug effects ; Tumor Necrosis Factor-alpha/pharmacology ; Weight Gain/drug effects
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    Electronic ISSN: 1476-4687
    Topics: Biology , Chemistry and Pharmacology , Medicine , Natural Sciences in General , Physics
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  • 10
    Publication Date: 2014-11-20
    Description: Obesity-linked insulin resistance is a major precursor to the development of type 2 diabetes. Previous work has shown that phosphorylation of PPARgamma (peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma) at serine 273 by cyclin-dependent kinase 5 (Cdk5) stimulates diabetogenic gene expression in adipose tissues. Inhibition of this modification is a key therapeutic mechanism for anti-diabetic drugs that bind PPARgamma, such as the thiazolidinediones and PPARgamma partial agonists or non-agonists. For a better understanding of the importance of this obesity-linked PPARgamma phosphorylation, we created mice that ablated Cdk5 specifically in adipose tissues. These mice have both a paradoxical increase in PPARgamma phosphorylation at serine 273 and worsened insulin resistance. Unbiased proteomic studies show that extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK) kinases are activated in these knockout animals. Here we show that ERK directly phosphorylates serine 273 of PPARgamma in a robust manner and that Cdk5 suppresses ERKs through direct action on a novel site in MAP kinase/ERK kinase (MEK). Importantly, pharmacological inhibition of MEK and ERK markedly improves insulin resistance in both obese wild-type and ob/ob mice, and also completely reverses the deleterious effects of the Cdk5 ablation. These data show that an ERK/Cdk5 axis controls PPARgamma function and suggest that MEK/ERK inhibitors may hold promise for the treatment of type 2 diabetes.〈br /〉〈br /〉〈a href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4297557/" target="_blank"〉〈img src="https://static.pubmed.gov/portal/portal3rc.fcgi/4089621/img/3977009" border="0"〉〈/a〉   〈a href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4297557/" target="_blank"〉This paper as free author manuscript - peer-reviewed and accepted for publication〈/a〉〈br /〉〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Notes: 〈/span〉Banks, Alexander S -- McAllister, Fiona E -- Camporez, Joao Paulo G -- Zushin, Peter-James H -- Jurczak, Michael J -- Laznik-Bogoslavski, Dina -- Shulman, Gerald I -- Gygi, Steven P -- Spiegelman, Bruce M -- DK31405/DK/NIDDK NIH HHS/ -- DK93638/DK/NIDDK NIH HHS/ -- K01 DK093638/DK/NIDDK NIH HHS/ -- R01 DK031405/DK/NIDDK NIH HHS/ -- England -- Nature. 2015 Jan 15;517(7534):391-5. doi: 10.1038/nature13887. Epub 2014 Nov 17.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Author address: 〈/span〉Division of Endocrinology, Diabetes and Hypertension, Brigham and Women's Hospital and Harvard Medical School, Boston, Massachusetts 02115, USA. ; Department of Cell Biology, Harvard Medical School, Boston, Massachusetts 02115, USA. ; Yale Mouse Metabolic Phenotyping Center and Departments of Internal Medicine and Cellular and Molecular Physiology, Yale University School of Medicine, New Haven, Connecticut 06510, USA. ; Dana-Farber Cancer Institute, Boston, Massachusetts 02115, USA. ; 1] Department of Cell Biology, Harvard Medical School, Boston, Massachusetts 02115, USA [2] Dana-Farber Cancer Institute, Boston, Massachusetts 02115, USA.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Record origin:〈/span〉 〈a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25409143" target="_blank"〉PubMed〈/a〉
    Keywords: Adipocytes/enzymology/metabolism ; Adipose Tissue/cytology/enzymology/metabolism ; Animals ; Cell Proliferation ; Cells, Cultured ; Cyclin-Dependent Kinase 5/deficiency/*metabolism ; Diabetes Mellitus/*metabolism ; Diet, High-Fat ; Extracellular Signal-Regulated MAP Kinases/*metabolism ; Humans ; Insulin Resistance ; MAP Kinase Kinase 2/antagonists & inhibitors/metabolism ; MAP Kinase Signaling System ; Male ; Mice ; Mice, Inbred C57BL ; Mice, Obese ; PPAR gamma/chemistry/*metabolism ; Phosphorylation
    Print ISSN: 0028-0836
    Electronic ISSN: 1476-4687
    Topics: Biology , Chemistry and Pharmacology , Medicine , Natural Sciences in General , Physics
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