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  • 1
    Publication Date: 2018-04-13
    Description: We present a gradiometer based on matter-wave interference of alkaline-earth-metal atoms, namely 88 Sr. The coherent manipulation of the atomic external degrees of freedom is obtained by large-momentum-transfer Bragg diffraction, driven by laser fields detuned away from the narrow 1 S 0 – 3 P 1 intercombination transition. We use a well-controlled artificial gradient, realized by changing the relative frequencies of the Bragg pulses during the interferometer sequence, in order to characterize the sensitivity of the gradiometer. The sensitivity reaches 1.5 × 10 −5 s −2 for an interferometer time of 20 ms, limited only by geometrical constraints. We observed extremely low sensitivity of the gradiometric phase to magnetic field gradients, approaching a value 10 4 times lower than the sensitivity of alkali-atom based gradiometers, limited by the interferometer sensitivity. An efficient double-launch techni...
    Electronic ISSN: 1367-2630
    Topics: Physics
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  • 2
    Publication Date: 2015-04-16
    Description: Cavity-length dependence of the property of optically pumped GaN-based vertical-cavity surface-emitting lasers (VCSELs) with two dielectric distributed Bragg reflectors was investigated. The cavity lengths were well controlled by employing etching with inductively coupled plasma and chemical mechanical polishing. It was found that the lasing characteristics including threshold, slope efficiency and spontaneous emission coupling factor were substantially improved with reducing the cavity length. In comparison with the device pumped by a 400 nm pulsed laser, the lasing spectrum was featured by a red shift and simultaneous broadening with increasing the pumping energy of a 355 nm pulsed laser. Moreover, the lasing threshold was much higher when pumped by a 355 nm pulsed laser. These were explained by taking into account of the significant heating effect under 355 nm pumping. Our results demonstrate that a short cavity length and good heat-dissipation are essential to GaN-based VCSELs. Scientific Reports 5 doi: 10.1038/srep09600
    Electronic ISSN: 2045-2322
    Topics: Natural Sciences in General
    Published by Springer Nature
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  • 3
    Publication Date: 2013-04-25
    Description: Motivation: Most biological processes are mediated by the protein–protein interactions. Determination of the protein–protein structures and insight into their interactions are vital to understand the mechanisms of protein functions. Currently, compared with the isolated protein structures, only a small fraction of protein–protein structures are experimentally solved. Therefore, the computational docking methods play an increasing role in predicting the structures and interactions of protein–protein complexes. The scoring function of protein–protein interactions is the key responsible for the accuracy of the computational docking. Previous scoring functions were mostly developed by optimizing the binding affinity which determines the stability of the protein–protein complex, but they are often lack of the consideration of specificity which determines the discrimination of native protein–protein complex against competitive ones. Results: We developed a scoring function (named as SPA-PP, specificity and affinity of the protein–protein interactions) by incorporating both the specificity and affinity into the optimization strategy. The testing results and comparisons with other scoring functions show that SPA-PP performs remarkably on both predictions of binding pose and binding affinity. Thus, SPA-PP is a promising quantification of protein–protein interactions, which can be implemented into the protein docking tools and applied for the predictions of protein–protein structure and affinity. Availability: The algorithm is implemented in C language, and the code can be downloaded from http://dl.dropbox.com/u/1865642/Optimization.cpp . Contact: jin.wang.1@stonybrook.edu Supplementary information: Supplementary data are available at Bioinformatics online.
    Print ISSN: 1367-4803
    Electronic ISSN: 1460-2059
    Topics: Biology , Computer Science , Medicine
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  • 4
    Publication Date: 2013-11-06
    Description: The brain map project aims to map out the neuron connections of the human brain. Even with all of the wirings mapped out, the global and physical understandings of the function and behavior are still challenging. Hopfield quantified the learning and memory process of symmetrically connected neural networks globally through...
    Print ISSN: 0027-8424
    Electronic ISSN: 1091-6490
    Topics: Biology , Medicine , Natural Sciences in General
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  • 5
    Publication Date: 2013-02-02
    Description: Mutations in ZIC3 cause human X-linked heterotaxy and isolated cardiovascular malformations. A mouse model with targeted deletion of Zic3 demonstrates an early role for Zic3 in gastrulation, CNS, cardiac and left–right axial development. The observation of multiple malformations in Zic3 null mice and the relatively broad expression pattern of Zic3 suggest its important roles in multiple developmental processes. Here, we report that Zic3 is primarily required in epiblast derivatives to affect left–right patterning and its expression in epiblast is necessary for proper transcriptional control of embryonic cardiac development. However, cardiac malformations in Zic3 deficiency occur not because Zic3 is intrinsically required in the heart but rather because it functions early in the establishment of left–right body axis. In addition, we provide evidence supporting a role for Zic3 specifically in the perinodal region of the posterior lateral plate mesoderm for the establishment of laterality. These data delineate the spatial requirement of Zic3 during left–right patterning in the mammalian embryo, and provide basis for further understanding the molecular mechanisms underlying the complex interaction of Zic3 with signaling pathways involved in the early establishment of laterality.
    Print ISSN: 0964-6906
    Electronic ISSN: 1460-2083
    Topics: Biology , Medicine
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  • 6
    Publication Date: 2015-06-18
    Description: A sequential procedure of hydraulic tomographical inversion is applied to characterize at high resolution the spatial heterogeneity of hydraulic conductivity and specific storage at the field test site Stegemühle, Germany. The shallow aquifer at this site is examined by five short- term multi-level pumping tests with 30 pumping-observation pairs between two wells. Utilizing travel time diagnostics of the recorded pressure response curves, fast eikonal based inversion is shown to deliver insight into the sedimentary structures. Thus, the structural information from the generated travel time tomogram is exploited to constrain full calibration of the pressure response curves. Based on lateral extrapolation from the measured inter-well profile, a three-dimensional reconstruction of the aquifer is obtained. It is demonstrated that calibration of spatially variable specific storage in addition to hydraulic conductivity can improve the fitting of the model while the structural features are only slightly changed. At the field site, two tracer tests with uranine and sodium-naphthionate were also performed and their concentrations were monitored for two months. The measured tracer breakthrough curves are employed for independent validation of the hydraulic tomographical reconstruction. It is demonstrated that major features of the observed solute transport can be reproduced, and structures relevant for macro-dispersive tracer spreading could be resolved. However, for the mildly heterogeneous aquifer, the tracer breakthrough curves can also be approximated by a simplified homogeneous model with higher dispersivity. Therefore improved validation results that capture specific characteristics of the breakthrough curves would require additional hydraulic measurements. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
    Print ISSN: 0043-1397
    Electronic ISSN: 1944-7973
    Topics: Architecture, Civil Engineering, Surveying , Geography
    Published by Wiley on behalf of American Geophysical Union (AGU).
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  • 7
    Publication Date: 2018-06-26
    Description: Author(s): L. Hu, L. Q. Yu, P. Xiong, X. L. Wang, J. H. Zhao, L. F. Wang, Z. Huang, and W. B. Wu The electronic phase separation (EPS) of optimally doped La 2 / 3 Ca 1 / 3 Mn O 3 (LCMO) thin films under various degrees of anisotropic strain is investigated by static magnetotransport and dynamic relaxation measurements. Three LCMO films were grown simultaneously on (001) NdGa O 3 substrates by pulsed laser ... [Phys. Rev. B 97, 214428] Published Mon Jun 25, 2018
    Keywords: Magnetism
    Print ISSN: 1098-0121
    Electronic ISSN: 1095-3795
    Topics: Physics
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  • 8
    Publication Date: 2014-06-16
    Description: Two families of third-order iterative methods for finding multiple roots of nonlinear equations are developed in this paper. Mild conditions are given to assure the cubic convergence of two iteration schemes (I) and (II). The presented families include many third-order methods for finding multiple roots, such as the known Dong's methods and Neta's method. Some new concrete iterative methods are provided. Each member of the two families requires two evaluations of the function and one of its first derivative per iteration. All these methods require the knowledge of the multiplicity. The obtained methods are also compared in their performance with various other iteration methods via numerical examples, and it is observed that these have better performance than the modified Newton method, and demonstrate at least equal performance to iterative methods of the same order.
    Print ISSN: 1110-757X
    Electronic ISSN: 1687-0042
    Topics: Mathematics
    Published by Hindawi
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  • 9
    Publication Date: 2014-06-26
    Description: We have used whole genome paired-end Illumina sequence data to identify tandem duplications in 20 isofemale lines of Drosophila yakuba and 20 isofemale lines of D. simulans and performed genome wide validation with PacBio long molecule sequencing. We identify 1,415 tandem duplications that are segregating in D. yakuba as well as 975 duplications in D. simulans , indicating greater variation in D. yakuba . Additionally, we observe high rates of secondary deletions at duplicated sites, with 8% of duplicated sites in D. simulans and 17% of sites in D. yakuba modified with deletions. These secondary deletions are consistent with the action of the large loop mismatch repair system acting to remove polymorphic tandem duplication, resulting in rapid dynamics of gain and loss in duplicated alleles and a richer substrate of genetic novelty than has been previously reported. Most duplications are present in only single strains, suggesting that deleterious impacts are common. Drosophila simulans shows larger numbers of whole gene duplications in comparison to larger proportions of gene fragments in D. yakuba . Drosophila simulans displays an excess of high-frequency variants on the X chromosome, consistent with adaptive evolution through duplications on the D. simulans X or demographic forces driving duplicates to high frequency. We identify 78 chimeric genes in D. yakuba and 38 chimeric genes in D. simulans , as well as 143 cases of recruited noncoding sequence in D. yakuba and 96 in D. simulans , in agreement with rates of chimeric gene origination in D. melanogaster . Together, these results suggest that tandem duplications often result in complex variation beyond whole gene duplications that offers a rich substrate of standing variation that is likely to contribute both to detrimental phenotypes and disease, as well as to adaptive evolutionary change.
    Print ISSN: 0737-4038
    Electronic ISSN: 1537-1719
    Topics: Biology
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  • 10
    Publication Date: 2014-03-21
    Description: The aPKCι blocking agent ATM negatively regulates EMT and invasion of hepatocellular carcinoma Cell Death and Disease 5, e1129 (March 2014). doi:10.1038/cddis.2014.91 Authors: C Q Ma, Y Yang, J M Wang, G S Du, Q Shen, Y Liu, J Zhang, J L Hu, P Zhu, W P Qi, Y W Qian & Y Fu
    Keywords: epithelial-to-mesenchymal transitionaPKCιhepatocellular carcinomaaurothiomalatetargeted drug
    Electronic ISSN: 2041-4889
    Topics: Biology , Medicine
    Published by Springer Nature
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