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  • 1
    Publication Date: 1994-04-29
    Description: In a search for genes that regulate circadian rhythms in mammals, the progeny of mice treated with N-ethyl-N-nitrosourea (ENU) were screened for circadian clock mutations. A semidominant mutation, Clock, that lengthens circadian period and abolishes persistence of rhythmicity was identified. Clock segregated as a single gene that mapped to the midportion of mouse chromosome 5, a region syntenic to human chromosome 4. The power of ENU mutagenesis combined with the ability to clone murine genes by map position provides a generally applicable approach to study complex behavior in mammals.〈br /〉〈br /〉〈a href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3839659/" target="_blank"〉〈img src="https://static.pubmed.gov/portal/portal3rc.fcgi/4089621/img/3977009" border="0"〉〈/a〉   〈a href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3839659/" target="_blank"〉This paper as free author manuscript - peer-reviewed and accepted for publication〈/a〉〈br /〉〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Notes: 〈/span〉Vitaterna, M H -- King, D P -- Chang, A M -- Kornhauser, J M -- Lowrey, P L -- McDonald, J D -- Dove, W F -- Pinto, L H -- Turek, F W -- Takahashi, J S -- P30-CA07175/CA/NCI NIH HHS/ -- R01-DK40493/DK/NIDDK NIH HHS/ -- T32 NS071040/NS/NINDS NIH HHS/ -- Howard Hughes Medical Institute/ -- etc. -- New York, N.Y. -- Science. 1994 Apr 29;264(5159):719-25.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Author address: 〈/span〉Department of Neurobiology and Physiology, Northwestern University, Evanston, IL 60208.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Record origin:〈/span〉 〈a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/8171325" target="_blank"〉PubMed〈/a〉
    Keywords: Animals ; *Chromosome Mapping ; Chromosomes, Human, Pair 4 ; Circadian Rhythm/*genetics ; Ethylnitrosourea ; Female ; *Genes ; Genotype ; Humans ; Male ; Mice ; Mice, Inbred C57BL ; *Mutagenesis ; Phenotype
    Print ISSN: 0036-8075
    Electronic ISSN: 1095-9203
    Topics: Biology , Chemistry and Pharmacology , Computer Science , Medicine , Natural Sciences in General , Physics
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  • 2
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    American Association for the Advancement of Science (AAAS)
    Publication Date: 1994-06-17
    Description: Modern molecular genetic and genomic approaches are revolutionizing the study of behavior in the mouse. "Reverse genetics" (from gene to phenotype) with targeted gene transfer provides a powerful tool to dissect behavior and has been used successfully to study the effects of null mutations in genes implicated in the regulation of long-term potentiation and spatial learning in mice. In addition, "forward genetics" (from phenotype to gene) with high-efficiency mutagenesis in the mouse can uncover unknown genes and has been used to isolate a behavioral mutant of the circadian system. With the recent availability of high-density genetic maps and physical mapping resources, positional cloning of virtually any mutation is now feasible in the mouse. Together, these approaches permit a molecular analysis of both known and previously unknown genes regulating behavior.〈br /〉〈br /〉〈a href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3830945/" target="_blank"〉〈img src="https://static.pubmed.gov/portal/portal3rc.fcgi/4089621/img/3977009" border="0"〉〈/a〉   〈a href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3830945/" target="_blank"〉This paper as free author manuscript - peer-reviewed and accepted for publication〈/a〉〈br /〉〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Notes: 〈/span〉Takahashi, J S -- Pinto, L H -- Vitaterna, M H -- EY08467/EY/NEI NIH HHS/ -- MH39592/MH/NIMH NIH HHS/ -- MH49241/MH/NIMH NIH HHS/ -- Howard Hughes Medical Institute/ -- etc. -- New York, N.Y. -- Science. 1994 Jun 17;264(5166):1724-33.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Author address: 〈/span〉Department of Neurobiology and Physiology, Northwestern University, Evanston, IL 60208.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Record origin:〈/span〉 〈a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/8209253" target="_blank"〉PubMed〈/a〉
    Keywords: Animals ; *Behavior, Animal ; Circadian Rhythm/genetics ; Female ; *Genetic Techniques ; Genetics, Behavioral/*methods ; Learning ; Long-Term Potentiation ; Male ; Mice ; Mice, Inbred Strains ; Mice, Knockout ; Mutagenesis
    Print ISSN: 0036-8075
    Electronic ISSN: 1095-9203
    Topics: Biology , Chemistry and Pharmacology , Computer Science , Medicine , Natural Sciences in General , Physics
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  • 3
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    American Association for the Advancement of Science (AAAS)
    Publication Date: 1983-03-04
    Description: The mutant mouse pearl, characterized by its hypopigmentation, has a specific functional defect in a sensory system--the retina. The intact pearl mouse has reduced sensitivity in the dark-adapted condition. Normal sensitivity is restored by isolation and superfusion of the retina with bicarbonate-buffered Ringer solution, suggesting that the retinal expression of the pearl mutation depends on a diffusible substance. The pearl phenotype is described as a possible model for human congenital stationary night blindness.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Notes: 〈/span〉Balkema, G W -- Mangini, N J -- Pinto, L H -- R01EY02536/EY/NEI NIH HHS/ -- New York, N.Y. -- Science. 1983 Mar 4;219(4588):1085-7.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Record origin:〈/span〉 〈a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/6600521" target="_blank"〉PubMed〈/a〉
    Keywords: Animals ; Dark Adaptation ; *Disease Models, Animal ; Mice ; Mice, Mutant Strains/*physiology ; Night Blindness/*genetics/physiopathology ; Retina/physiopathology ; Vision, Ocular/*physiology
    Print ISSN: 0036-8075
    Electronic ISSN: 1095-9203
    Topics: Biology , Chemistry and Pharmacology , Computer Science , Medicine , Natural Sciences in General , Physics
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  • 4
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    American Association for the Advancement of Science (AAAS)
    Publication Date: 1978-12-08
    Description: Rapid transient changes in axial transmission of near infrared light through the outer segments of retinal rods of Bufo marinus are induced by illumination. The reasons for these changes are not clear. The changes in optical transmission may be useful in the study of photoreceptor function. However, the study of photoreceptor functions through the use of indicator dyes may be confounded by the intrinsic light-induced changes of optical properties of the photoreceptor cells.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Notes: 〈/span〉Harary, H H -- Brown, J E -- Pinto, L H -- New York, N.Y. -- Science. 1978 Dec 8;202(4372):1083-5.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Record origin:〈/span〉 〈a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/102035" target="_blank"〉PubMed〈/a〉
    Keywords: Animals ; Bufo marinus ; Dose-Response Relationship, Radiation ; In Vitro Techniques ; Infrared Rays ; *Light ; Photoreceptor Cells/physiology/*radiation effects
    Print ISSN: 0036-8075
    Electronic ISSN: 1095-9203
    Topics: Biology , Chemistry and Pharmacology , Computer Science , Medicine , Natural Sciences in General , Physics
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  • 5
    ISSN: 1432-1351
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology , Medicine
    Notes: Summary Intracellular recordings were made from squid photoreceptors using micropipettes filled with 4 M potassium acetate. Resting potentials were about −55 mV, and light stimuli induced membrane voltage to become more positive (depolarized). For an intense stimulus there was a transient peak depolarization that declined to a plateau; membrane potential exceeded 0 V during the peak depolarization. The magnitude of the light response was decreased either by passing steady depolarizing current through the recording pipette or by bathing the retina in low Na+ sea water. The waveform of the response to an intense stimulus was altered by bathing the retina in low Ca++ sea water or intracellular injection of EGTA; for both of these treatments, the decline from the transient peak depolarization to the plateau was lessened and the responses became more “square”. Squid photoreceptors were found to be very sensitive to hypoxia. These results, taken together, are consistent with the interpretations that (1) the majority of the light-induced current is carried by Na+, and (2) a rise in (Ca++)in is a step in the mechanism underlying the decline from the peak transient depolarization to the plateau.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 6
    ISSN: 1432-1424
    Keywords: Influenza virus M2 ion channel ; Amantadine block ; pH activation ; M2 ion channel reconstitution ; Planar bilayers
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology , Chemistry and Pharmacology
    Notes: Abstract M2, an integral membrane protein of influenza A virus, was purified from either influenza A virus-infected CV-1 cells or from Spodoptera frugiperda (Sf9) cells infected with a recombinant-M2 baculovirus. The purified protein, when incorporated into phospholipid bilayer membranes, produced ion-permeable channels with the following characteristics: (1) The channels appeared in bursts during which unit conductances of diverse magnitudes (25–500 pS) were observed. (2) The most probable open state was usually the lowest unit conductance (25–90 pS). (3) The channels were selective for cations; t Na = 0.75 when 150 mm NaCl bathed both sides of the membrane. (4) Amantadine reduced the probability of opening of the high conductance state and also the conductance of the most probable state. (5) Reducing pH increased the mean current through the open channel as well as the conductance of the most probable state. (6) The sequence of selectivity for group IA monovalent cations was Rb 〉 K 〉 Cs ∼ Na 〉 Li. The pH activation, amantadine block and ion selectivity of the M2 protein ion channel in bilayers are consistent with those observed on expression of the M2 protein in oocytes of Xenopus laevis as well as for those predicted for the proposed role of an ion channel in the uncoating process of influenza virus. The finding that the M2 protein has intrinsic ion channel activity supports the hypothesis that it has ion channel activity in the influenza virus particle.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 7
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    Palo Alto, Calif. : Annual Reviews
    ISSN: 0084-6589
    Source: Annual Reviews Electronic Back Volume Collection 1932-2001ff
    Topics: Biology , Physics
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 8
    Publication Date: 2013-01-23
    Description: The influenza A virus M2 proton channel (A/M2) is the target of the antiviral drugs amantadine and rimantadine, whose use has been discontinued due to widespread drug resistance. Among the handful of drug-resistant mutants, S31N is found in more than 95% of the currently circulating viruses and shows greatly decreased...
    Print ISSN: 0027-8424
    Electronic ISSN: 1091-6490
    Topics: Biology , Medicine , Natural Sciences in General
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