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  • 1
    Publication Date: 2010-11-06
    Description: The stromal microenvironment of tumors, which is a mixture of hematopoietic and mesenchymal cells, suppresses immune control of tumor growth. A stromal cell type that was first identified in human cancers expresses fibroblast activation protein-alpha (FAP). We created a transgenic mouse in which FAP-expressing cells can be ablated. Depletion of FAP-expressing cells, which made up only 2% of all tumor cells in established Lewis lung carcinomas, caused rapid hypoxic necrosis of both cancer and stromal cells in immunogenic tumors by a process involving interferon-gamma and tumor necrosis factor-alpha. Depleting FAP-expressing cells in a subcutaneous model of pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma also permitted immunological control of growth. Therefore, FAP-expressing cells are a nonredundant, immune-suppressive component of the tumor microenvironment.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Notes: 〈/span〉Kraman, Matthew -- Bambrough, Paul J -- Arnold, James N -- Roberts, Edward W -- Magiera, Lukasz -- Jones, James O -- Gopinathan, Aarthi -- Tuveson, David A -- Fearon, Douglas T -- Cancer Research UK/United Kingdom -- Wellcome Trust/United Kingdom -- New York, N.Y. -- Science. 2010 Nov 5;330(6005):827-30. doi: 10.1126/science.1195300.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Author address: 〈/span〉Wellcome Trust Immunology Unit, Department of Medicine, University of Cambridge, Medical Research Council Centre, Hills Road, Cambridge CB2 2QH, UK.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Record origin:〈/span〉 〈a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21051638" target="_blank"〉PubMed〈/a〉
    Keywords: Animals ; Antigens, Neoplasm/immunology ; Cancer Vaccines/administration & dosage/immunology ; Carcinoma, Lewis Lung/*immunology/pathology/therapy ; Carcinoma, Pancreatic Ductal/*immunology/pathology ; Cell Hypoxia ; Cell Line, Tumor ; Cell Survival ; Gelatinases/*metabolism ; *Immune Tolerance ; Interferon-gamma/immunology/metabolism ; Membrane Proteins/*metabolism ; Mice ; Mice, Transgenic ; Necrosis ; Neoplasm Transplantation ; Serine Endopeptidases/*metabolism ; Stromal Cells/*immunology/metabolism ; Tumor Microenvironment/*immunology ; Tumor Necrosis Factor-alpha/immunology/metabolism
    Print ISSN: 0036-8075
    Electronic ISSN: 1095-9203
    Topics: Biology , Chemistry and Pharmacology , Computer Science , Medicine , Natural Sciences in General , Physics
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  • 2
    Publication Date: 2016-03-17
    Description: Lung metastasis is the lethal determinant in many cancers and a number of lines of evidence point to monocytes and macrophages having key roles in its development. Yet little is known about the immediate fate of incoming tumour cells as they colonize this tissue, and even less known about how they make first contact with the immune system. Primary tumours liberate circulating tumour cells (CTCs) into the blood and we have developed a stable intravital two-photon lung imaging model in mice for direct observation of the arrival of CTCs and subsequent host interaction. Here we show dynamic generation of tumour microparticles in shear flow in the capillaries within minutes of CTC entry. Rather than dispersing under flow, many of these microparticles remain attached to the lung vasculature or independently migrate along the inner walls of vessels. Using fluorescent lineage reporters and flow cytometry, we observed 'waves' of distinct myeloid cell subsets that load differentially and sequentially with this CTC-derived material. Many of these tumour-ingesting myeloid cells collectively accumulated in the lung interstitium along with the successful metastatic cells and, as previously understood, promote the development of successful metastases from surviving tumour cells. Although the numbers of these cells rise globally in the lung with metastatic exposure and ingesting myeloid cells undergo phenotypic changes associated with microparticle ingestion, a consistently sparse population of resident conventional dendritic cells, among the last cells to interact with CTCs, confer anti-metastatic protection. This work reveals that CTC fragmentation generates immune-interacting intermediates, and defines a competitive relationship between phagocyte populations for tumour loading during metastatic cell seeding.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Notes: 〈/span〉Headley, Mark B -- Bins, Adriaan -- Nip, Alyssa -- Roberts, Edward W -- Looney, Mark R -- Gerard, Audrey -- Krummel, Matthew F -- P01 HL024136/HL/NHLBI NIH HHS/ -- R21 CA167601/CA/NCI NIH HHS/ -- R21CA167601/CA/NCI NIH HHS/ -- U54 CA163123/CA/NCI NIH HHS/ -- England -- Nature. 2016 Mar 24;531(7595):513-7. doi: 10.1038/nature16985. Epub 2016 Mar 16.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Author address: 〈/span〉Department of Pathology, University of California, San Francisco, 513 Parnassus Ave, HSW512, San Francisco, California 94143-0511, USA. ; Department of Medical Oncology, Academic Medical Center Amsterdam, Meibergdreef, 91105AZ Amsterdam, The Netherlands. ; Departments of Medicine and Laboratory Medicine, University of California, San Francisco, 513 Parnassus Avenue, HSW512, California 94143-0511, USA.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Record origin:〈/span〉 〈a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26982733" target="_blank"〉PubMed〈/a〉
    Keywords: Animals ; Capillaries/pathology ; Cell Line, Tumor ; Cell Lineage ; *Cell Movement ; Dendritic Cells/cytology/immunology ; Female ; Genes, Reporter/genetics ; Humans ; Lung/blood supply/cytology/*immunology/*pathology ; Lung Neoplasms/*immunology/pathology/*secondary ; Male ; Melanoma, Experimental/immunology/pathology ; Mice ; Microscopy, Confocal ; Myeloid Cells/cytology ; Neoplasm Metastasis/*immunology/*pathology ; Neoplastic Cells, Circulating/pathology
    Print ISSN: 0028-0836
    Electronic ISSN: 1476-4687
    Topics: Biology , Chemistry and Pharmacology , Medicine , Natural Sciences in General , Physics
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  • 3
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    [s.l.] : Nature Publishing Group
    Nature 175 (1955), S. 348-349 
    ISSN: 1476-4687
    Source: Nature Archives 1869 - 2009
    Topics: Biology , Chemistry and Pharmacology , Medicine , Natural Sciences in General , Physics
    Notes: [Auszug] During experiments whereby small samples of refractory materials were heated in a wire-wound mullite tube furnace in a moisture-free town's-gas atmosphere at temperatures varying from 1,100 to 1,600 C, the samples were found to be coated with a deposit of graphite which was composed entirely of ...
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 4
    Publication Date: 2013-08-31
    Description: The performance of dry-lubricated, angular contact ball bearings in vacuum at a temperature of 20 degrees K has been investigated, and is compared with the in-vacuo performance at room temperatures. Bearings were lubricated using dry-lubricant techniques which have been previously established for space applications involving operations at or near room temperature. Comparative tests were undertaken using three lubricants: molybdenum disulphide, lead, and PTFE. Results obtained using the three lubricants are presented.
    Keywords: MECHANICAL ENGINEERING
    Type: NASA, Marshall Space Flight Center, The 23rd Aerospace Mechanisms Symposium; p 319-333
    Format: application/pdf
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  • 5
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    In:  CASI
    Publication Date: 2013-08-31
    Description: It is shown that the tribological quality of MoS2 lubricant films formed by magnetron sputtering is determined by the choice of sputtering conditions. By selecting the appropriate conditions, films of extremely high lubricity and endurance (in vacuum), which are well suited to many space applications, are obtained. Such MoS2 films, when applied to precision ball hearings, give rise to the lowest torques (for the given test conditions) yet seen in our laboratory. While a remarkably good performance is obtained in vacuum, tests in air show a marked deterioration in lubricating qualities. It is demonstrated that this is attributable to the adsorption of water vapor on MoS2 surfaces and that the degree of deterioration is related to the partial pressure of water vapor present. Analysis of results indicates that the factors relevant to obtaining optimum films are deposition rate and film composition.
    Keywords: NONMETALLIC MATERIALS
    Type: NASA. Lewis Research Center The 20th Aerospace Mechanics Symposium; p 103-119
    Format: application/pdf
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  • 6
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    Springer
    Journal of materials science 10 (1975), S. 1242-1243 
    ISSN: 1573-4803
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Mechanical Engineering, Materials Science, Production Engineering, Mining and Metallurgy, Traffic Engineering, Precision Mechanics
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 7
    ISSN: 1573-4803
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Mechanical Engineering, Materials Science, Production Engineering, Mining and Metallurgy, Traffic Engineering, Precision Mechanics
    Notes: Abstract A mechanism for the nitridation of silicon powder is proposed, based on an interpretation of the microstructure of partially reacted compacts. It is observed that the reaction does not occur at the solid-state interface between the silicon and the nitride product layer. Both silicon and nitrogen are transported through this layer and the removal of silicon results in the formation of pores in the silicon crystals at the nitride-silicon interface. The nitridation reaction takes place within these pores, which subsequently migrate into the silicon grains, and within the original voidage of the compact.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 8
    Publication Date: 2013-08-31
    Description: This paper describes the development of dry-lubricated linear bearings for use on the Michelson interferometer for passive atmospheric sounding (MIPAS). Two candidate bearing systems were developed and tested. In the first, use was made of linear roller (needle) bearings equipped with a pulley-and-cable arrangement to prevent cage drift and to minimize roller slip. The second design was of a roller-guided bearing system in which guidance was provided by all bearings rolling along guide rods. The paper focuses on the development of these linear bearings systems and describes the approach taken in terms of bearing design, lubrication methods, screening programs, and thermal-vacuum testing. Development difficulties are highlighted and the solutions ultimately adopted are described.
    Keywords: MECHANICAL ENGINEERING
    Type: NASA. Lewis Research Center, The 28th Aerospace Mechanisms Symposium; p 245-264; NASA-CP-3260
    Format: application/pdf
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  • 9
    Publication Date: 2019-06-28
    Description: Report presents the summation of results obtained in the testing of fuels of various compositions and characteristics in the altitude laboratory. The data upon which this report is based has had an important influence upon the writing of specifications for the various grades of aviation fuels.
    Type: NACA-TR-47
    Format: application/pdf
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  • 10
    Publication Date: 2014-08-20
    Description: Fibroblastic reticular cells (FRCs), through their expression of CC chemokine ligand (CCL)19 and CCL21, attract and retain T cells in lymph nodes (LNs), but whether this function applies to both resting and activated T cells has not been examined. Here we describe a model for conditionally depleting FRCs from LNs...
    Print ISSN: 0027-8424
    Electronic ISSN: 1091-6490
    Topics: Biology , Medicine , Natural Sciences in General
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