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  • 1
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    Springer
    In:  Bull., Polar Proj. OP-O3A4, Research Techniques for High Pressure and High Temperature, New York, Springer, vol. 20, no. XVI:, pp. 217-250, (ISBN: 3-540-23712-7)
    Publication Date: 1971
    Keywords: Textbook of physics ; Laboratory measurements ; Stress ; ERYBACKI
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  • 2
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    American Association for the Advancement of Science (AAAS)
    Publication Date: 1993-04-30
    Description: Despite its acknowledged importance, the role of water in the genesis of subduction zone volcanism is poorly understood. Amphibole dehydration in subducting oceanic crust at a single pressure is assumed to generate the water required for melting, but experimental constraints on the reaction are limited, and little attention has been paid to reactions involving other hydrous minerals. Experiments on an oceanic basalt at pressure-temperature conditions relevant to subducting slabs demonstrate that amphibole dehydration is spread over a depth interval of at least 20 kilometers. Reactions involving other hydrous minerals, including mica, epidote, chloritoid, and lawsonite, also release water over a wide depth interval, and in some subduction zones these phases may transport water to deep levels in the mantle.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Notes: 〈/span〉Pawley, A R -- Holloway, J R -- New York, N.Y. -- Science. 1993 Apr 30;260(5108):664-7.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Record origin:〈/span〉 〈a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/17812226" target="_blank"〉PubMed〈/a〉
    Print ISSN: 0036-8075
    Electronic ISSN: 1095-9203
    Topics: Biology , Chemistry and Pharmacology , Computer Science , Medicine , Natural Sciences in General , Physics
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  • 3
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    American Association for the Advancement of Science (AAAS)
    Publication Date: 1997-04-11
    Description: The H2O-saturated solidus of a model mantle composition (Kilborne Hole peridotite nodule, KLB-1) was determined to be just above 1000°C from 5 to 11 gigapascals. Given reasonable H2O abundances in Earth's mantle, an H2O-rich fluid could exist only in a region defined by the wet solidus and thermal stability limits of hydrous minerals, at depths between 90 and 330 kilometers. The experimental partial melts monotonously became more mafic with increasing pressure from andesitic composition at 1 gigapascal to more mafic than the starting peridotite at 10 gigapascals. Because the chemistry of the experimental partial melts is similar to that of kimberlites, it is suggested that kimberlites may be derived by low-temperature melting of an H2O-rich mantle at depths of 150 to 300 kilometers.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Notes: 〈/span〉Kawamoto -- Holloway -- New York, N.Y. -- Science. 1997 Apr 11;276(5310):240-3.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Author address: 〈/span〉T. Kawamoto, Department of Geology, Arizona State University, Tempe, AZ 85287, USA. J. R. Holloway, Departments of Geology and Chemistry, Arizona State University, Tempe, AZ 85287, USA.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Record origin:〈/span〉 〈a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/9092469" target="_blank"〉PubMed〈/a〉
    Print ISSN: 0036-8075
    Electronic ISSN: 1095-9203
    Topics: Biology , Chemistry and Pharmacology , Computer Science , Medicine , Natural Sciences in General , Physics
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  • 4
    Publication Date: 1993-08-20
    Description: Stishovite, the highest pressure polymorph of silicon dioxide, may be an important mineral in some regions of the Earth's mantle. Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy has been used to determine the hydrogen content of synthetic stishovite. The concentration of hydrogen depends on the aluminum content of the sample and reaches a maximum of 549 +/- 23 hydrogen atoms per 10(6) silicon atoms for an Al(2)O(3) content of 1.51 percent by weight. Stishovite could be a storage site for water in deep subducting slabs and in regions of the mantle that are too hot for hydrous minerals to be stable.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Notes: 〈/span〉Pawley, A R -- McMillan, P F -- Holloway, J R -- New York, N.Y. -- Science. 1993 Aug 20;261(5124):1024-6.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Record origin:〈/span〉 〈a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/17739622" target="_blank"〉PubMed〈/a〉
    Print ISSN: 0036-8075
    Electronic ISSN: 1095-9203
    Topics: Biology , Chemistry and Pharmacology , Computer Science , Medicine , Natural Sciences in General , Physics
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  • 5
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    [s.l.] : Nature Publishing Group
    Nature 369 (1994), S. 43-45 
    ISSN: 1476-4687
    Source: Nature Archives 1869 - 2009
    Topics: Biology , Chemistry and Pharmacology , Medicine , Natural Sciences in General , Physics
    Notes: [Auszug] The preparation and properties of oxynitride glasses have recently been reviewed1 4. The syntheses of such glasses have been performed either by quenching fused mixtures of oxides and nitrides1 4, or by reacting NH3 with molten oxides9. Under these conditions, the nitrogen content has been limited ...
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 6
    ISSN: 1476-4687
    Source: Nature Archives 1869 - 2009
    Topics: Biology , Chemistry and Pharmacology , Medicine , Natural Sciences in General , Physics
    Notes: [Auszug] Fig. 1 Geological map, northern Victoria Land, Antarctica. Portions adapted from refs 19, 32, 33. Previous workers had established the presence of a narrow trough, 20-25 km wide, extending from the northern coast southwards to upper Mariner Glacier, which contains a lithologically-variable suite ...
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 7
    Publication Date: 2011-08-18
    Description: The Raman spectra of albite glasses with 4.5 and 6.6 weight percent water have been obtained, and are compared with that of a dry sample. The hydrous glasses show bands near 3600/cm due to O-H stretching, and a previously unreported weak band near 1600/cm due to bending of molecular H2O. Other weak spectral features are discussed, and the effect of dissolved water on the aluminosilicate framework vibrations is considered.
    Keywords: GEOPHYSICS
    Type: Geochimica et Cosmochimica Acta (ISSN 0016-7037); 47; 1937-194
    Format: text
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  • 8
    Publication Date: 2011-08-19
    Description: The solubility of CO2, CO, CH4, H2, and H2O in melts of NaAlSi3O8 composition was measured at the mantle conditions of pressure (10-20 Kb) and temperature (1200 C). The melt volatiles were found to have dramatically lower H2/H2O and higher CO/CO2 ratios than the fluid, due to large variations in relative solubilities of volatile species in the melt. Partial melting of source regions of either high or low oxygen fugacity (fO2) will result in magmas with intermediate fO2. This means that volcanic gases can be either more, or less reducing than their source regions and that a volcanic gas composition cannot be used to directly estimate either the fO2 or the volatile composition of the source region. The results suggest that volcanic gases will usually lie in the 'neutral' range, with the fO2 values near those of the quartz-fayalite-magnetite buffer. These gases are predominately H2O with minor CO2, CO, CH4, and H2. These conclusions should apply to earth, Mars, and Venus mantles, in which the magmas produced by partial melting have moderate silica contents, but will probably not apply to very low silica magmas, such as kimberlites, because of the very high solubility of CO2 in those magmas.
    Keywords: LUNAR AND PLANETARY EXPLORATION
    Type: Journal of Geophysical Research (ISSN 0148-0227); 91; D505-D50
    Format: text
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  • 9
    Publication Date: 2014-10-08
    Description: The composition of early planetary atmospheres and biospheres which is a knowledge of the relationship between mantle volatiles and volcanic gases was analyzed. In the case of Earth it appears that volcanic rocks and gases are relatively oxidized compared to the upper mantle. In the case of the C-O-H volatiles, (H2O, CO2, CO, CH4, H2) the volcanic gases are enriched in H2O and CO2 while the volatiles in the mantle may be dominated by H2O, H2 and possibly CH4. An experimental technique was perfected for phase equilibrium studies in the 5-30 kbar range which allows accurate control of volatile species activities in the fluid phase. The system was used to measure the relative solubilities of H2O, CO2, CO, CH4 and H2 in magmas at 10 kbar pressure. It is found that mantle magmas will selectively screen volatiles from planetary surfaces, forcing volcanic gases towards the neutral QFM oxidation state where H2O is the dominant species.
    Keywords: LUNAR AND PLANETARY EXPLORATION
    Type: NASA, Washington Repts. of Planetary Geol. and Geophys. Program; p 229-231
    Format: text
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  • 10
    Publication Date: 2011-08-18
    Description: The high pressure reaction orthopyroxene + clinopyroxene + spinel to garnet + olivine is applicable to the mantle of Mars. Experimental reversals of this reaction in the system CaO-MgO-FeO-Al2O3-SiO2 have been made in the range 1000-1200 C using the bulk composition proposed by Morgan and Anders (1980). At 1000 C, 1100 C, and 1200 C the garnet-out equilibrium is bracketed at 10.8 + or - 0.5, 12.6 + or - 0.5, and 15.2 + or - 0.5 kbars, respectively. A dP/dT slope of 14.0 bar/K at 1000 C increasing to 26.0 bar/K at 1200 C has been inferred. Depending on bulk composition, the mantle of Mars is inferred to have a phase assemblage of either olivine + clinopyroxene + orthopyroxene + garnet or olivine + clinopyroxene + garnet + spinel. In the second, the partial melts will not be buffered by olivine and orthopyroxene and will have markedly lower silica activities than those of the terrestrial mantle.
    Keywords: LUNAR AND PLANETARY EXPLORATION
    Type: Lunar and Planetary Science Conference; March 15-19, 1982; Houston, TX
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