# ALBERT

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• 1
Unknown
Nature Publishing Group (NPG)
Publication Date: 2014-09-19
Keywords: Adolescent ; Age Factors ; *Alleles ; Body Mass Index ; Breast Neoplasms/genetics ; Cardiovascular Diseases/genetics ; Child ; Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2/genetics ; Europe/ethnology ; Female ; Genetic Loci/*genetics ; Genome-Wide Association Study ; Genomic Imprinting/genetics ; Humans ; Hypothalamo-Hypophyseal System/physiology ; Intercellular Signaling Peptides and Proteins/genetics ; Male ; Membrane Proteins/genetics ; Menarche/*genetics ; Obesity/genetics ; Ovary/physiology ; *Parents ; Polymorphism, Single Nucleotide/genetics ; Potassium Channels, Tandem Pore Domain/genetics ; Proteins/genetics ; Quantitative Trait Loci/genetics ; Receptors, GABA-B/metabolism ; Receptors, Retinoic Acid/metabolism ; Ribonucleoproteins/genetics
Print ISSN: 0028-0836
Electronic ISSN: 1476-4687
Topics: Biology , Chemistry and Pharmacology , Medicine , Natural Sciences in General , Physics
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• 2
Unknown
American Association for the Advancement of Science (AAAS)
Publication Date: 1981-09-11
Description: Most rhabdomeres in the eye of the fly (Musca domestica) are fluorescent. One kind of fluorescent emission emanates from a photoproduct of the visual pigment, other kinds may be ascribed to photostable pigments. These phenomena provide not only a means of spectrally mapping the retina but also a new spectroscopic tool for analyzing the primary visual processes in vivo.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Notes: 〈/span〉Franceschini, N -- Kirschfeld, K -- Minke, B -- New York, N.Y. -- Science. 1981 Sep 11;213(4513):1264-7.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Record origin:〈/span〉 〈a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/7268434" target="_blank"〉PubMed〈/a〉
Keywords: Animals ; Diptera ; Fluorescence ; Photoreceptor Cells/*physiology ; Pigment Epithelium of Eye/physiology ; Retina/physiology ; Rhodopsin/physiology ; Spectrometry, Fluorescence ; Spectrum Analysis
Print ISSN: 0036-8075
Electronic ISSN: 1095-9203
Topics: Biology , Chemistry and Pharmacology , Computer Science , Medicine , Natural Sciences in General , Physics
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• 3
Unknown
American Association for the Advancement of Science (AAAS)
Publication Date: 1984-08-24
Description: Illumination of fly photoreceptors in the presence of the fluorescent dye Lucifer yellow initiates incorporation of the dye, which stains each cell down to its synaptic terminal. Unilluminated cells do not become stained. Experiments on animals in vivo show that selected cells can be stained without loss of viability. "Induced endocytosis" provides a plausible mechanism underlying this phenomenon.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Notes: 〈/span〉Wilcox, M -- Franceschini, N -- New York, N.Y. -- Science. 1984 Aug 24;225(4664):851-4.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Record origin:〈/span〉 〈a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/6206565" target="_blank"〉PubMed〈/a〉
Keywords: Animals ; Axons/metabolism ; Cell Survival ; Endocytosis ; Extracellular Space ; Female ; Fluorescent Dyes/*metabolism ; Houseflies/metabolism/*radiation effects ; Isoquinolines/*metabolism ; *Light ; Photoreceptor Cells/*metabolism/radiation effects ; Retina/metabolism/radiation effects ; Staining and Labeling ; Synapses/metabolism
Print ISSN: 0036-8075
Electronic ISSN: 1095-9203
Topics: Biology , Chemistry and Pharmacology , Computer Science , Medicine , Natural Sciences in General , Physics
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• 4
Unknown
Nature Publishing Group (NPG)
Publication Date: 2015-07-02
Keywords: Biological Evolution ; Blood Pressure/genetics ; Body Height/*genetics ; Cholesterol, LDL/genetics ; *Cognition ; Cohort Studies ; Educational Status ; Female ; Forced Expiratory Volume/genetics ; Genome, Human/genetics ; *Homozygote ; Humans ; Lung Volume Measurements ; Male ; Phenotype
Print ISSN: 0028-0836
Electronic ISSN: 1476-4687
Topics: Biology , Chemistry and Pharmacology , Medicine , Natural Sciences in General , Physics
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• 5
Electronic Resource
Springer
Biological cybernetics 21 (1976), S. 181-203
ISSN: 1432-0770
Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
Topics: Biology , Computer Science , Physics
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• 6
Electronic Resource
Springer
European biophysics journal 10 (1983), S. 81-92
ISSN: 1432-1017
Keywords: Fly visual pigment ; sensitizing pigment
Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
Topics: Biology , Physics
Notes: Abstract Many lines of evidence suggest that the ultraviolet (uv) sensitivity found in the most common photoreceptor class in the fly is due to a sensitizing pigment which transmits the energy of absorbed light quanta to the visual pigment (Kirschfeld et al. 1977). It is shown that the uv extinction of the rhabdomeres has a vibrational fine structure corresponding to that found in the receptors' spectral sensitivity (Gemperlein et al. 1980). The uv extinction is greatly reduced when flies are reared on a carotenoid-deficient diet, in which case the vibrational fine structure in sensitivity is also lost. Properties (extinction, fluorescence) of several groups of substances that could represent the sensitizing pigment are illustrated.
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• 7
Electronic Resource
Springer
European biophysics journal 3 (1977), S. 191-194
ISSN: 1432-1017
Keywords: Photoreceptors ; Photostable pigments ; Dichroism ; Antenna pigment
Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
Topics: Biology , Physics
Notes: Abstract In the majority of ommatidia of the fly, the membrane of the central rhabdomere contains — besides the rhodopsin — a photostable pigment. Due to its selective absorption in the blue spectral range, this pigment (possibly a carotene) could modify the spectral sensitivity of the central receptor cells. It furthermore may change the fluidity of the microvillus membrane and hence affect the alignment of rhodopsin molecules. Indirect evidence for a possible role of the photostable pigment as an “antenna”-pigment for rhodopsin is discussed.
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• 8
Electronic Resource
Springer
Biological cybernetics 9 (1971), S. 159-182
ISSN: 1432-0770
Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
Topics: Biology , Computer Science , Physics
Notes: Summary In the compound eyes of the fruitflyDrosophila, the dioptric system of each ommatidium is able to form virtual images of the receptor terminals (rhabdomere tips) throughout the whole depth of the eye. It is shown (§ 3) that 3 characteristic superposition phenomena occur for images formed by distinct ommatidia (Figs. 3b and 5). The most remarkable superposition appears at the point where the optical axes of all ommatidia converge (center of curvature of the eye). At this level, highly magnified virtual and erect images of corresponding rhabdomeres are superimposed, giving rise to adeep pseudopupil (Fig. 9). Since in the ommatidia ofDrosophila the rhabdome shows a pattern of 7 distal endings (Fig. 8a), the resultingdeep pseudopupil consists of 7 light spots with a similar pattern (Figs. 8b, 7, 11). Conversely thedeep pseudopupil of compound eyes which have fused rhabdomes consists of a single light spot (Fig. 19). Such pseudopupils can be best observed either with antidromic or with orthodromic illumination of the eye, according to the specific transmission or reflection properties of the rhabdomes. Thedeep pseudopupil of Dipterans is not to be confused with thecorneal pseudopupil (Fig. 13 a) and especially not with thereduced corneal pseudopupil observed with a reduced aperture of the microscope (Fig. 13 b), in spite of the remarkable similarity of these phenomena regarding the asymmetry and the dimension of their pattern (comp. Figs. 7 and 13b). Thereduced corneal pseudopupil consists of 7 facets whereas thedeep pseudopupil consists of 7 virtual images of the receptor endings. From the results of Kirschfeld (1967), the appearance of areduced corneal pseudopupil like Fig. 13 b on the eye ofDrosophila proves that 7 receptors located in 7 neighbouring ommatidia look in the same direction in space (Fig. 14). The existence of such an optical arrangement favors the view that the eye ofDrosophila, like that ofMusca, belongs to the “neural superposition type”. A comparative study between thedeep pseudopupil and thereduced corneal pseudopupil leads to the following geometric relation, which is specific of theDrosophila eye and probably of all compound eyes of the “neural superposition type”: $$\frac{D}{e} = \frac{R}{{f'}},$$ , whereD is the diameter of a facet,e the distance between the centers of two neighbouring rhabdomere endings,R the radius of curvature of the eye, andf′ the focal length (in air) of a corneal lens. Other types of pseudopupils, commonly appearing as dark spots in compound eyes, are explained on a basis similar to thedeep pseudopupil of Drosophila (§5). In fact, the dioptric system of an ommatidium can give virtual images not only of its distal receptor endings but of the whole intensity distribution (i.e. the whole “luminous structure”) which is present in its internal focal plane. If this structure is simple, thedeep pseudopupil, resulting from superpositions of virtual images, is likewise simple (Figs. 16 and 17). If the “luminous structure” is complex, as for example in the eye of the butterflyVanessa (Fig. 18a schematized in Fig. 18c), then thedeep pseudopupil shows the same complexity (Fig. 18 b and d). In compound eyes which lack screening pigment between their crystalline cones, one can seesecondary pupils of the 1st and 2nd order as described by Exner. Again they may be explained by superpositions of virtual images in the depth of the eye, according to Fig. 20. Moreover, thedeep pseudopupil of the “optical superposition eye” may be due to the fact that the more distal converging system of an ommatidium forms virtual images not of the rhabdome endings themselves but of real images of these endings (Fig. 21). Although the phenomenon of thedeep pseudopupil is not perceived by the animal, it is of interest for the experimenter who can use it: 1) to study the light receptors easily in the eye of live and intact animals, 2) to measure the physiological divergence angle between adjoining ommatidia, 3) to study the movement of the visual axis and the retinomotor adaptation of the receptors, and 4) to stimulate simultaneously manycorresponding receptors belonging to different ommatidia. The advantages of thisin vivo technique are discussed in § 6.3.
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• 9
Electronic Resource
Springer
Biological cybernetics 5 (1968), S. 47-52
ISSN: 1432-0770
Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
Topics: Biology , Computer Science , Physics
Notes: Summary Optical characteristics of the dioptric system in the ommatidia of Musca have been analysed by use of “antidromic illumination” of the eye. The results indicate that the distal endings of the rhabdomers terminate near the focal plane of the dioptrics and that the quality of the lens is high enough to resolve some details of their shape. — Using optical methods it has been possible to confirm directly that the optical axes of 7 individual rhabdomers from 7 different ommatidia all converge to a common point in the distant surroundings. This is a characteristic for compound eyes of the “neural superposition” type. — The results are discussed on the basis of the hypothesis that the Musca eye is composed of two functionally different subsystems: One system (D) with high absolute sensitivity and low spatial resolution consisting of the sense cells no. 1 to 6, and a second system (H) with high spatial resolution and low absolute sensitivity composed of cells no. 7 and 8.
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• 10
Electronic Resource
Springer
Biological cybernetics 6 (1969), S. 13-22
ISSN: 1432-0770
Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
Topics: Biology , Computer Science , Physics
Notes: Summary In the ommatidia of Musca, the light flux transmitted by each one of the rhabdomeres of sense cells no. 1 to 6 decreases as a function of time if light falls onto these rhabdomeres. With a similar time course the light flux reflected from these rhabdomeres increases. These changes take place within a few seconds following illumination. The results have been established in the intact animal using changes in the appearance of the pseudopupil as indicator and also in surviving preparations of the eye with direct inspection of the rhabdomeres. The changes are interpreted as a consequence of interactions between pigment granules in the sense cells and electromagnetic fields induced outside the rhabdomeres by light travelling on the inside: In the dark adapted situation the granules are quite distant from the rhabdomeres, the interaction is negligible. During light adaptation the granules move close to the rhabdomeres, and as a consequence, total reflection of the light in the rhabdomere is frustrated. The relatively rapid changes in the optical characteristics of the rhabdomeres are explained by the fact that the distance, the granules have to move in order to switch from one condition to the other is in principle on the order of the wavelength of light. The results indicate, that the changes in the position of the granules are induced by the excitation of the respective sense cells themselves, for instance by the degree of their depolarisation. No interaction between the sense cells of one ommatidium nor between those of different ommatidia could be found. The function of the movement of the pigment granules is interpreted as a means to protect the sense cells no. 1 to 6 against strong illumination. — Movement of pigment granules is not induced in sense cells no. 7 and 8 with light intensities which give maximal response in sense cells no. 1 to 6.
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