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    Publication Date: 2014-09-19
    Description: Age at menarche is a marker of timing of puberty in females. It varies widely between individuals, is a heritable trait and is associated with risks for obesity, type 2 diabetes, cardiovascular disease, breast cancer and all-cause mortality. Studies of rare human disorders of puberty and animal models point to a complex hypothalamic-pituitary-hormonal regulation, but the mechanisms that determine pubertal timing and underlie its links to disease risk remain unclear. Here, using genome-wide and custom-genotyping arrays in up to 182,416 women of European descent from 57 studies, we found robust evidence (P 〈 5 x 10(-8)) for 123 signals at 106 genomic loci associated with age at menarche. Many loci were associated with other pubertal traits in both sexes, and there was substantial overlap with genes implicated in body mass index and various diseases, including rare disorders of puberty. Menarche signals were enriched in imprinted regions, with three loci (DLK1-WDR25, MKRN3-MAGEL2 and KCNK9) demonstrating parent-of-origin-specific associations concordant with known parental expression patterns. Pathway analyses implicated nuclear hormone receptors, particularly retinoic acid and gamma-aminobutyric acid-B2 receptor signalling, among novel mechanisms that regulate pubertal timing in humans. Our findings suggest a genetic architecture involving at least hundreds of common variants in the coordinated timing of the pubertal transition.〈br /〉〈br /〉〈a href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4185210/" target="_blank"〉〈img src="https://static.pubmed.gov/portal/portal3rc.fcgi/4089621/img/3977009" border="0"〉〈/a〉   〈a href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4185210/" target="_blank"〉This paper as free author manuscript - peer-reviewed and accepted for publication〈/a〉〈br /〉〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Notes: 〈/span〉Perry, John R B -- Day, Felix -- Elks, Cathy E -- Sulem, Patrick -- Thompson, Deborah J -- Ferreira, Teresa -- He, Chunyan -- Chasman, Daniel I -- Esko, Tonu -- Thorleifsson, Gudmar -- Albrecht, Eva -- Ang, Wei Q -- Corre, Tanguy -- Cousminer, Diana L -- Feenstra, Bjarke -- Franceschini, Nora -- Ganna, Andrea -- Johnson, Andrew D -- Kjellqvist, Sanela -- Lunetta, Kathryn L -- McMahon, George -- Nolte, Ilja M -- Paternoster, Lavinia -- Porcu, Eleonora -- Smith, Albert V -- Stolk, Lisette -- Teumer, Alexander -- Tsernikova, Natalia -- Tikkanen, Emmi -- Ulivi, Sheila -- Wagner, Erin K -- Amin, Najaf -- Bierut, Laura J -- Byrne, Enda M -- Hottenga, Jouke-Jan -- Koller, Daniel L -- Mangino, Massimo -- Pers, Tune H -- Yerges-Armstrong, Laura M -- Hua Zhao, Jing -- Andrulis, Irene L -- Anton-Culver, Hoda -- Atsma, Femke -- Bandinelli, Stefania -- Beckmann, Matthias W -- Benitez, Javier -- Blomqvist, Carl -- Bojesen, Stig E -- Bolla, Manjeet K -- Bonanni, Bernardo -- Brauch, Hiltrud -- Brenner, Hermann -- Buring, Julie E -- Chang-Claude, Jenny -- Chanock, Stephen -- Chen, Jinhui -- Chenevix-Trench, Georgia -- Collee, J Margriet -- Couch, Fergus J -- Couper, David -- Coviello, Andrea D -- Cox, Angela -- Czene, Kamila -- D'adamo, Adamo Pio -- Davey Smith, George -- De Vivo, Immaculata -- Demerath, Ellen W -- Dennis, Joe -- Devilee, Peter -- Dieffenbach, Aida K -- Dunning, Alison M -- Eiriksdottir, Gudny -- Eriksson, Johan G -- Fasching, Peter A -- Ferrucci, Luigi -- Flesch-Janys, Dieter -- Flyger, Henrik -- Foroud, Tatiana -- Franke, Lude -- Garcia, Melissa E -- Garcia-Closas, Montserrat -- Geller, Frank -- de Geus, Eco E J -- Giles, Graham G -- Gudbjartsson, Daniel F -- Gudnason, Vilmundur -- Guenel, Pascal -- Guo, Suiqun -- Hall, Per -- Hamann, Ute -- Haring, Robin -- Hartman, Catharina A -- Heath, Andrew C -- Hofman, Albert -- Hooning, Maartje J -- Hopper, John L -- Hu, Frank B -- Hunter, David J -- Karasik, David -- Kiel, Douglas P -- Knight, Julia A -- Kosma, Veli-Matti -- Kutalik, Zoltan -- Lai, Sandra -- Lambrechts, Diether -- Lindblom, Annika -- Magi, Reedik -- Magnusson, Patrik K -- Mannermaa, Arto -- Martin, Nicholas G -- Masson, Gisli -- McArdle, Patrick F -- McArdle, Wendy L -- Melbye, Mads -- Michailidou, Kyriaki -- Mihailov, Evelin -- Milani, Lili -- Milne, Roger L -- Nevanlinna, Heli -- Neven, Patrick -- Nohr, Ellen A -- Oldehinkel, Albertine J -- Oostra, Ben A -- Palotie, Aarno -- Peacock, Munro -- Pedersen, Nancy L -- Peterlongo, Paolo -- Peto, Julian -- Pharoah, Paul D P -- Postma, Dirkje S -- Pouta, Anneli -- Pylkas, Katri -- Radice, Paolo -- Ring, Susan -- Rivadeneira, Fernando -- Robino, Antonietta -- Rose, Lynda M -- Rudolph, Anja -- Salomaa, Veikko -- Sanna, Serena -- Schlessinger, David -- Schmidt, Marjanka K -- Southey, Mellissa C -- Sovio, Ulla -- Stampfer, Meir J -- Stockl, Doris -- Storniolo, Anna M -- Timpson, Nicholas J -- Tyrer, Jonathan -- Visser, Jenny A -- Vollenweider, Peter -- Volzke, Henry -- Waeber, Gerard -- Waldenberger, Melanie -- Wallaschofski, Henri -- Wang, Qin -- Willemsen, Gonneke -- Winqvist, Robert -- Wolffenbuttel, Bruce H R -- Wright, Margaret J -- Australian Ovarian Cancer Study -- GENICA Network -- kConFab -- LifeLines Cohort Study -- InterAct Consortium -- Early Growth Genetics (EGG) Consortium -- Boomsma, Dorret I -- Econs, Michael J -- Khaw, Kay-Tee -- Loos, Ruth J F -- McCarthy, Mark I -- Montgomery, Grant W -- Rice, John P -- Streeten, Elizabeth A -- Thorsteinsdottir, Unnur -- van Duijn, Cornelia M -- Alizadeh, Behrooz Z -- Bergmann, Sven -- Boerwinkle, Eric -- Boyd, Heather A -- Crisponi, Laura -- Gasparini, Paolo -- Gieger, Christian -- Harris, Tamara B -- Ingelsson, Erik -- Jarvelin, Marjo-Riitta -- Kraft, Peter -- Lawlor, Debbie -- Metspalu, Andres -- Pennell, Craig E -- Ridker, Paul M -- Snieder, Harold -- Sorensen, Thorkild I A -- Spector, Tim D -- Strachan, David P -- Uitterlinden, Andre G -- Wareham, Nicholas J -- Widen, Elisabeth -- Zygmunt, Marek -- Murray, Anna -- Easton, Douglas F -- Stefansson, Kari -- Murabito, Joanne M -- Ong, Ken K -- 098381/Wellcome Trust/United Kingdom -- 10118/Cancer Research UK/United Kingdom -- G0701863/Medical Research Council/United Kingdom -- G1000143/Medical Research Council/United Kingdom -- G9815508/Medical Research Council/United Kingdom -- MC_U106179471/Medical Research Council/United Kingdom -- MC_U106179472/Medical Research Council/United Kingdom -- MC_UU_12013/1/Medical Research Council/United Kingdom -- MC_UU_12013/3/Medical Research Council/United Kingdom -- MC_UU_12015/1/Medical Research Council/United Kingdom -- MC_UU_12015/2/Medical Research Council/United Kingdom -- MR/J012165/1/Medical Research Council/United Kingdom -- P50 CA116201/CA/NCI NIH HHS/ -- R01 AG041517/AG/NIA NIH HHS/ -- UL1 TR001108/TR/NCATS NIH HHS/ -- England -- Nature. 2014 Oct 2;514(7520):92-7. doi: 10.1038/nature13545. Epub 2014 Jul 23.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Author address: 〈/span〉1] MRC Epidemiology Unit, University of Cambridge School of Clinical Medicine, Box 285 Institute of Metabolic Science, Cambridge Biomedical Campus, Cambridge CB2 0QQ, UK. [2] University of Exeter Medical School, University of Exeter, Exeter EX1 2LU, UK. [3] Wellcome Trust Centre for Human Genetics, University of Oxford, Oxford OX3 7BN, UK. [4] Department of Twin Research and Genetic Epidemiology, King's College London, London SE1 7EH, UK. [5]. ; 1] MRC Epidemiology Unit, University of Cambridge School of Clinical Medicine, Box 285 Institute of Metabolic Science, Cambridge Biomedical Campus, Cambridge CB2 0QQ, UK. [2]. ; 1] deCODE Genetics, Reykjavik IS-101, Iceland. [2]. ; Centre for Cancer Genetic Epidemiology, Department of Public Health and Primary Care, University of Cambridge, Cambridge CB1 8RN, UK. ; Wellcome Trust Centre for Human Genetics, University of Oxford, Oxford OX3 7BN, UK. ; 1] Department of Epidemiology, Indiana University Richard M Fairbanks School of Public Health, Indianapolis, Indiana 46202, USA. [2] Indiana University Melvin and Bren Simon Cancer Center, Indianapolis, Indiana 46202, USA. ; 1] Division of Preventive Medicine, Brigham and Women's Hospital, Boston, Massachusetts 02215, USA. [2] Harvard Medical School, Boston, Massachusetts 02115, USA. ; 1] Estonian Genome Center, University of Tartu, Tartu, 51010, Estonia. [2] Divisions of Endocrinology and Genetics and Center for Basic and Translational Obesity Research, Boston Children's Hospital, Boston, Massachusetts 02115, USA. [3] Broad Institute of the Massachusetts Institute of Technology and Harvard University, 140 Cambridge, Massachusetts 02142, USA. [4] Department of Genetics, Harvard Medical School, Boston, Massachusetts 02115, USA. ; deCODE Genetics, Reykjavik IS-101, Iceland. ; Institute of Genetic Epidemiology, Helmholtz Zentrum Munchen - German Research Center for Environmental Health, D-85764 Neuherberg, Germany. ; School of Women's and Infants' Health, The University of Western Australia, WA-6009, Australia. ; 1] Department of Medical Genetics, University of Lausanne, CH-1005 Lausanne, Switzerland. [2] Swiss Institute of Bioinformatics, CH-1015 Lausanne, Switzerland. ; Institute for Molecular Medicine Finland (FIMM), University of Helsinki, FI-00014, Finland. ; Department of Epidemiology Research, Statens Serum Institut, DK-2300 Copenhagen, Denmark. ; Department of Epidemiology, University of North Carolina, Chapel Hill, North Carolina 27599-7400, USA. ; Department of Medical Epidemiology and Biostatistics, Karolinska Institutet, 17177 Stockholm, Sweden. ; NHLBI's and Boston University's Framingham Heart Study, Framingham, Massachusetts 01702-5827, USA. ; Science for Life Laboratory, Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Box 1031, 17121 Solna, Sweden. ; 1] NHLBI's and Boston University's Framingham Heart Study, Framingham, Massachusetts 01702-5827, USA. [2] Boston University School of Public Health, Department of Biostatistics, Boston, Massachusetts 02118, USA. ; 1] MRC Integrative Epidemiology Unit, University of Bristol, Bristol BS8 2BN, UK. [2] School of Social and Community Medicine, University of Bristol, Oakfield House, Oakfield Grove, Bristol BS8 2BN, UK. ; Department of Epidemiology, University of Groningen, University Medical Center Groningen, 9700 RB Groningen, The Netherlands. ; MRC Integrative Epidemiology Unit, University of Bristol, Bristol BS8 2BN, UK. ; 1] Institute of Genetics and Biomedical Research, National Research Council, Cagliari, 09042 Sardinia, Italy. [2] University of Sassari, Department of Biomedical Sciences, 07100 Sassari, Italy. ; 1] Icelandic Heart Association, IS-201 Kopavogur, Iceland. [2] University of Iceland, IS-101 Reykjavik, Iceland. ; 1] Department of Internal Medicine, Erasmus MC, 3015 GE Rotterdam, the Netherlands. [2] Netherlands Consortium on Health Aging and National Genomics Initiative, 2300 RC Leiden, the Netherlands. ; Interfaculty Institute for Genetics and Functional Genomics, University Medicine Greifswald, D-17475 Greifswald, Germany. ; 1] Estonian Genome Center, University of Tartu, Tartu, 51010, Estonia. [2] Department of Biotechnology, University of Tartu, 51010 Tartu, Estonia. ; 1] Institute for Molecular Medicine Finland (FIMM), University of Helsinki, FI-00014, Finland. [2] Hjelt Institute, University of Helsinki, FI-00014, Finland. ; Institute for Maternal and Child Health - IRCCS "Burlo Garofolo", 34137 Trieste, Italy. ; Genetic Epidemiology Unit Department of Epidemiology, Erasmus MC, 3015 GE, Rotterdam, the Netherlands. ; Department of Psychiatry, Washington University, St Louis, Missouri 63110, USA. ; 1] The University of Queensland, Queensland Brain Institute, St Lucia, Queensland 4072, Australia. [2] QIMR Berghofer Medical Research Institute, Brisbane, Queensland 4006, Australia. ; Department of Biological Psychology, VU University Amsterdam, van der Boechorststraat 1, 1081 BT, Amsterdam, The Netherlands. ; Department of Medical and Molecular Genetics, Indiana University School of Medicine, Indianapolis, Indiana 46202-3082, USA. ; Department of Twin Research and Genetic Epidemiology, King's College London, London SE1 7EH, UK. ; 1] Divisions of Endocrinology and Genetics and Center for Basic and Translational Obesity Research, Boston Children's Hospital, Boston, Massachusetts 02115, USA. [2] Broad Institute of the Massachusetts Institute of Technology and Harvard University, 140 Cambridge, Massachusetts 02142, USA. [3] Medical and Population Genetics, Broad Institute, Cambridge, Massachusetts 02142, USA. [4] Center for Biological Sequence Analysis, Department of Systems Biology, Technical 142 University of Denmark, DK-2800 Lyngby, Denmark. ; Program in Personalized and Genomic Medicine, and Department of Medicine, Division of Endocrinology, Diabetes and Nutrition, University of Maryland School of Medicine, Baltimore, Maryland 21201, USA. ; MRC Epidemiology Unit, University of Cambridge School of Clinical Medicine, Box 285 Institute of Metabolic Science, Cambridge Biomedical Campus, Cambridge CB2 0QQ, UK. ; 1] Ontario Cancer Genetics Network, Lunenfeld-Tanenbaum Research Institute of Mount Sinai Hospital, Toronto, Ontario M5G 1X5, Canada. [2] Department of Molecular Genetics, University of Toronto, Toronto, Ontario M5S 1A8, Canada. ; Department of Epidemiology, University of California Irvine, Irvine, California 92697-7550, USA. ; Sanquin Research, 6525 GA Nijmegen, The Netherlands. ; 1] Tuscany Regional Health Agency, Florence, Italy, I.O.T. and Department of Medical and Surgical Critical Care, University of Florence, 50134 Florence, Italy. [2] Geriatric Unit, Azienda Sanitaria di Firenze, 50122 Florence, Italy. ; University Breast Center Franconia, Department of Gynecology and Obstetrics, University Hospital Erlangen, Friedrich-Alexander University Erlangen-Nuremberg, Comprehensive Cancer Center Erlangen-EMN, D-91054 Erlangen, Germany. ; 1] Human Genetics Group, Human Cancer Genetics Program, Spanish National Cancer Research Centre (CNIO), E-28029 Madrid, Spain. [2] Centro de Investigacion en Red de Enfermedades Raras (CIBERER), E-46010 Valencia, Spain. ; Department of Oncology, University of Helsinki and Helsinki University Central Hospital, FI-00100 Helsinki, Finland. ; 1] Copenhagen General Population Study, Herlev Hospital, Copenhagen University Hospital, University of Copenhagen, DK-2100 Copenhagen, Denmark. [2] Department of Clinical Biochemistry, Herlev Hospital, Copenhagen University Hospital, University of Copenhagen, DK-2100 Copenhagen, Denmark. ; Division of Cancer Prevention and Genetics, Istituto Europeo di Oncologia (IEO), 20139 Milan, Italy. ; 1] DrMargarete Fischer-Bosch-Institute of Clinical Pharmacology, D-70376 Stuttgart, Germany. [2] University of Tubingen, D-72074 Tubingen, Germany. ; 1] Division of Clinical Epidemiology and Aging Research, German Cancer Research Center (DKFZ), D-69120 Heidelberg, Germany. [2] German Cancer Consortium (DKTK), D-69120 Heidelberg, Germany. ; Division of Cancer Epidemiology, German Cancer Research Center (DKFZ), D-69120 Heidelberg, Germany. ; Division of Cancer Epidemiology and Genetics, National Cancer Institute, Bethesda, Maryland 20892, USA. ; 1] Departments of Anatomy and Neurological Surgery, Indiana University school of Medicine, Indianapolis, Indiana 46202, USA. [2] Stark Neuroscience Research Center, Indiana University school of Medicine, Indianapolis, Indiana 46202, USA. ; Department of Genetics, QIMR Berghofer Medical Research Institute, Brisbane, Queensland 4006 Australia. ; Department of Clinical Genetics, Erasmus University Medical Center, 3000 CA Rotterdam, The Netherlands. ; Department of Laboratory Medicine and Pathology, Mayo Clinic, Rochester, Minnesota 55905, USA. ; Department of Biostatistics, University of North Carolina, Chapel Hill, North Carolina 27599-7420, USA. ; Boston University School of Medicine, Department of Medicine, Sections of Preventive Medicine and Endocrinology, Boston, Massachusetts 02118, USA. ; Sheffield Cancer Research Centre, Department of Oncology, University of Sheffield, Sheffield S10 2RX, UK. ; 1] Institute for Maternal and Child Health - IRCCS "Burlo Garofolo", 34137 Trieste, Italy. [2] Department of Clinical Medical Sciences, Surgical and Health, University of Trieste, 34149 Trieste, Italy. ; 1] Department of Epidemiology, Harvard School of Public Health, Boston, Massachusetts 02115, USA. [2] Channing Division of Network Medicine, Department of Medicine, Brigham and Women's Hospital and Harvard Medical School, Boston, Massachusetts 02115, USA. ; Division of Epidemiology and Community Health, School of Public Health, University of Minnesota, Minneapolis, Minnesota 55455, USA. ; Department of Human Genetics &Department of Pathology, Leiden University Medical Center, 2300 RC Leiden, The Netherlands. ; Centre for Cancer Genetic Epidemiology, Department of Oncology, University of Cambridge CB1 8RN, UK. ; Icelandic Heart Association, IS-201 Kopavogur, Iceland. ; 1] National Institute for Health and Welfare, P.O. Box 30, FI-00271 Helsinki, Finland. [2] Department of General Practice and Primary health Care, University of Helsinki, FI-00014 Helsinki, Finland. [3] Helsinki University Central Hospital, Unit of General Practice, FI-00029 HUS Helsinki, Finland. [4] Folkhalsan Research Centre, FI-00290 Helsinki, Finland. ; Longitudinal Studies Section, Clinical Research Branch, Gerontology Research Center, National Institute on Aging, Baltimore, Maryland 20892, USA. ; Department of Cancer Epidemiology/Clinical Cancer Registry and Institute for Medical Biometrics and Epidemiology, University Clinic Hamburg-Eppendorf, D-20246 Hamburg, Germany. ; Department of Breast Surgery, Herlev Hospital, Copenhagen University Hospital, DK-2100 Copenhagen, Denmark. ; Department of Genetics, University of Groningen, University Medical Centre Groningen, P.O. Box 72, 9700 AB Groningen, The Netherlands. ; National Insitute on Aging, National Institutes of Health, Baltimore, Maryland 20892, USA. ; 1] Division of Genetics and Epidemiology, Institute of Cancer Research, Sutton, Surrey SM2 5NG, UK. [2] Breakthrough Breast Cancer Research Centre, Division of Breast Cancer Research, The Institute of Cancer Research, London SW3 6JB, UK. ; 1] Department of Biological Psychology, VU University Amsterdam, van der Boechorststraat 1, 1081 BT, Amsterdam, The Netherlands. [2] EMGO + Institute for Health and Care Research, VU University Medical Centre, Van der Boechorststraat 7, 1081 Bt, Amsterdam, The Netherlands. ; 1] Cancer Epidemiology Centre, Cancer Council Victoria, Melbourne, Victoria 3004, Australia. [2] Centre for Epidemiology and Biostatistics, Melbourne School of Population and Global Health, The University of Melbourne, Melbourne, Victoria 3010, Australia. ; 1] deCODE Genetics, Reykjavik IS-101, Iceland. [2] Faculty of Medicine, University of Iceland, IS-101 Reykjavik, Iceland. ; 1] Inserm (National Institute of Health and Medical Research), CESP (Center for Research in Epidemiology and Population Health), U1018, Environmental Epidemiology of Cancer, F-94807 Villejuif, France. [2] University Paris-Sud, UMRS 1018, F-94807 Villejuif, France. ; Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Southern Medical University, 510515 Guangzhou, China. ; Molecular Genetics of Breast Cancer, Deutsches Krebsforschungszentrum (DKFZ), D-69120 Heidelberg, Germany. ; Institute of Clinical Chemistry and Laboratory Medicine, University Medicine Greifswald, D-17475 Greifswald, Germany. ; Department of Psychiatry, University of Groningen, University Medical Center Groningen, P.O. Box 72, 9700 AB Groningen, The Netherlands. ; Washington University, Department of Psychiatry, St Louis, Missouri 63110, USA. ; Department of Epidemiology, Erasmus MC, PO Box 2040, 3000 CA Rotterdam, the Netherlands. ; Department of Medical Oncology, Erasmus University Medical Center, P.O. Box 2040, 3000 CA Rotterdam, The Netherlands. ; Centre for Epidemiology and Biostatistics, Melbourne School of Population and Global Health, The University of Melbourne, Melbourne, Victoria 3010, Australia. ; 1] Department of Epidemiology, Harvard School of Public Health, Boston, Massachusetts 02115, USA. [2] Channing Division of Network Medicine, Department of Medicine, Brigham and Women's Hospital and Harvard Medical School, Boston, Massachusetts 02115, USA. [3] Department of Nutrition, Harvard School of Public Health, Boston, Massachusetts 02115, USA. ; 1] Broad Institute of the Massachusetts Institute of Technology and Harvard University, 140 Cambridge, Massachusetts 02142, USA. [2] Department of Epidemiology, Harvard School of Public Health, Boston, Massachusetts 02115, USA. [3] Channing Division of Network Medicine, Department of Medicine, Brigham and Women's Hospital and Harvard Medical School, Boston, Massachusetts 02115, USA. ; 1] Harvard Medical School, Boston, Massachusetts 02115, USA. [2] Hebrew SeniorLife Institute for Aging Research, Boston, Massachusetts 02131, USA. ; 1] Hebrew SeniorLife Institute for Aging Research, Boston, Massachusetts 02131, USA. [2] Department of Medicine, Beth Israel Deaconess Medical Center and Harvard Medical School, Boston, Massachusetts 02115, USA. ; 1] Lunenfeld-Tanenbaum Research Institute of Mount Sinai Hospital, Toronto, Ontario M5G 1X5, Canada. [2] Division of Epidemiology, Dalla Lana School of Public Health, University of Toronto, Toronto, Ontario M5T 3M7, Canada. ; 1] School of Medicine, Institute of Clinical Medicine, Pathology and Forensic Medicine, University of Eastern Finland, P.O. Box 1627, FI-70211 Kuopio, Finland. [2] Imaging Center, Department of Clinical Pathology, Kuopio University Hospital, P.O. Box 100, FI-70029 Kuopio, Finland. ; Institute of Genetics and Biomedical Research, National Research Council, Cagliari, 09042 Sardinia, Italy. ; 1] Vesalius Research Center (VRC), VIB, 3000 Leuven, Belgium. [2] Laboratory for Translational Genetics, Department of Oncology, University of Leuven, 3000 Leuven, Belgium. ; Department of Molecular Medicine and Surgery, Karolinska Institutet, SE-171 77 Stockholm, Sweden. ; Estonian Genome Center, University of Tartu, Tartu, 51010, Estonia. ; School of Social and Community Medicine, University of Bristol, Oakfield House, Oakfield Grove, Bristol BS8 2BN, UK. ; 1] Department of Epidemiology Research, Statens Serum Institut, DK-2300 Copenhagen, Denmark. [2] Department of Medicine, Stanford School of Medicine, Stanford, California 94305-5101, USA. ; Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, University of Helsinki and Helsinki University Central Hospital, P.O. Box 100, FI-00029 HUS Helsinki, Finland. ; KULeuven (University of Leuven), Department of Oncology, Multidisciplinary Breast Center, University Hospitals Leuven, 3000 Leuven, Belgium. ; Research Unit of Obstetrics &Gynecology, Institute of Clinical Research, University of Southern Denmark, DK-5000 Odense C, Denmark. ; Interdisciplinary Center Psychopathology and Emotion Regulation, University of Groningen, University Medical Center Groningen, P.O. Box 30.001, 9700 RB Groningen, The Netherlands. ; 1] Institute for Molecular Medicine Finland (FIMM), University of Helsinki, FI-00014, Finland. [2] Analytic and Translational Genetics Unit, Department of Medicine, Massachusetts General Hospital, Boston, Massachusetts 02114, USA. [3] Program in Medical and Population Genetics, Broad Institute, Cambridge, Massachusetts 02142, USA. [4] Psychiatric &Neurodevelopmental Genetics Unit, Department of Psychiatry, Massachusetts General Hospital, Boston, Massachusetts 02114, USA. ; Department of Medicine, Indiana University School of Medicine, Indianapolis, Indiana 46202, USA. ; IFOM, Fondazione Istituto FIRC di Oncologia Molecolare, 20139 Milan, Italy. ; Non-communicable Disease Epidemiology Department, London School of Hygiene and Tropical Medicine, London WC1E 7HT, UK. ; University Groningen, University Medical Center Groningen, Department Pulmonary Medicine and Tuberculosis, GRIAC Research Institute, P.O. Box 30.001, NL-9700 RB Groningen, The Netherlands. ; 1] National Institute for Health and Welfare, P.O. Box 30, FI-00271 Helsinki, Finland. [2] Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Oulu University Hospital, P.O. Box 10, FI-90029 OYS Oulu, Finland. ; Laboratory of Cancer Genetics and Tumor Biology, Department of Clinical Chemistry and Biocenter Oulu, University of Oulu, Oulu University Hospital/NordLab Oulu, P.O. Box 3000, FI-90014 Oulu, Finland. ; Unit of Molecular Bases of Genetic Risk and Genetic Testing, Department of Preventive and Predictive Medicine, Fondazione IRCCS Istituto Nazionale dei Tumori (INT), 20133 Milan, Italy. ; 1] Department of Internal Medicine, Erasmus MC, 3015 GE Rotterdam, the Netherlands. [2] Netherlands Consortium on Health Aging and National Genomics Initiative, 2300 RC Leiden, the Netherlands. [3] Department of Epidemiology, Erasmus MC, PO Box 2040, 3000 CA Rotterdam, the Netherlands. ; Division of Preventive Medicine, Brigham and Women's Hospital, Boston, Massachusetts 02215, USA. ; National Institute for Health and Welfare, P.O. Box 30, FI-00271 Helsinki, Finland. ; National Institute on Aging, Intramural Research Program, Baltimore, Maryland 21224-6825, USA. ; Netherlands Cancer Institute, Antoni van Leeuwenhoek hospital, Postbus 90203, 1006 BE Amsterdam, The Netherlands. ; Department of Pathology, The University of Melbourne, Melbourne, Victoria 3010, Australia. ; 1] Department of Epidemiology and Biostatistics, MRC Health Protection Agency (HPA) Centre for Environment and Health, School of Public Health, Imperial College London, London W2 1PG, UK. [2] Department of Obstetrics and Gynaecology, University of Cambridge, Cambridge CB2 0SW, UK. ; 1] Institute of Epidemiology II, Helmholtz Zentrum Munchen - German Research Center for Environmental Health, D-8576 Neuherberg, Germany. [2] Department of Obstetrics and Gynaecology, Campus Grosshadern, Ludwig-Maximilians-University, D-81377 Munich, Germany. ; Department of Internal Medicine, Erasmus MC, 3015 GE Rotterdam, the Netherlands. ; Department of Internal Medicine, Lausanne University Hospital, CH-1015 Lausanne, Switzerland. ; 1] Institute for Community Medicine, University Medicine Greifswald, D-17475 Greifswald, Germany. [2] DZHK (German Centre for Cardiovascular Research), partner site Greifswald, D-17475 Greifswald, Germany. ; Research Unit of Molecular Epidemiology, Helmholtz Zentrum Munchen - German Research Center for Environmental Health, D-8576 Neuherberg, Germany. ; 1] Institute of Clinical Chemistry and Laboratory Medicine, University Medicine Greifswald, D-17475 Greifswald, Germany. [2] DZHK (German Centre for Cardiovascular Research), partner site Greifswald, D-17475 Greifswald, Germany. ; Department of Endocrinology, University of Groningen, University Medical Centre Groningen, P.O. Box 72, 9700 AB Groningen, The Netherlands. ; Queensland Insitute of Medical Research, Brisbane, Queensland 4029, Australia. ; 1] Department of Medical and Molecular Genetics, Indiana University School of Medicine, Indianapolis, Indiana 46202-3082, USA. [2] Department of Medicine, Indiana University School of Medicine, Indianapolis, Indiana 46202, USA. ; Department of Public Health and Primary Care, Institute of Public Health, University of Cambridge, Cambridge CB2 0QQ, UK. ; 1] MRC Epidemiology Unit, University of Cambridge School of Clinical Medicine, Box 285 Institute of Metabolic Science, Cambridge Biomedical Campus, Cambridge CB2 0QQ, UK. [2] Genetics of Obesity and Related Metabolic Traits Program, The Charles Bronfman Institute for Personalized Medicine, The Mindich Child Health and Development Institute, Department of Preventive Medicine, Icahn School of Medicine at Mount Sinai, 1 Gustave L Levy Place, Box 1003, New York, New York 10029, USA. ; 1] Wellcome Trust Centre for Human Genetics, University of Oxford, Oxford OX3 7BN, UK. [2] NIHR Oxford Biomedical Research Centre, Churchill Hospital, Oxford OX3 7LE, UK. [3] Oxford Centre for Diabetes, Endocrinology, &Metabolism, University of Oxford, Churchill Hospital, Oxford OX3 7LJ, UK. ; 1] Program in Personalized and Genomic Medicine, and Department of Medicine, Division of Endocrinology, Diabetes and Nutrition, University of Maryland School of Medicine, Baltimore, Maryland 21201, USA. [2] Geriatric Research and Education Clinical Center (GRECC) - Veterans Administration Medical Center, Baltimore, Maryland 21201, USA. ; 1] Netherlands Consortium on Health Aging and National Genomics Initiative, 2300 RC Leiden, the Netherlands. [2] Genetic Epidemiology Unit Department of Epidemiology, Erasmus MC, 3015 GE, Rotterdam, the Netherlands. [3] Centre of Medical Systems Biology, PO Box 9600, 2300 RC Leiden, the Netherlands. ; Human Genetics Center and Divof Epidemiology, University of Houston, P.O. Box 20186, Texas 77025 USA. ; Department of Medical Sciences, Molecular Epidemiology and Science for Life Laboratory, Uppsala University, Box 256, 751 05 Uppsala, Sweden. ; 1] Department of Epidemiology and Biostatistics, MRC Health Protection Agency (HPA) Centre for Environment and Health, School of Public Health, Imperial College London, London W2 1PG, UK. [2] Institute of Health Sciences, University of Oulu, P.O. Box 5000, FI-90014 Oulu, Finland. [3] Biocenter Oulu, University of Oulu, P.O. Box 5000, Aapistie 5A, FI-90014 Oulu, Finland. [4] Department of Children and Young People and Families, National Institute for Health and Welfare, Aapistie 1, Box 310, FI-90101 Oulu, Finland. [5] Unit of Primary Care, Oulu University Hospital, Kajaanintie 50, P.O. Box 20, FI-90220 Oulu, 90029 OYS, Finland. ; 1] Department of Epidemiology, Harvard School of Public Health, Boston, Massachusetts 02115, USA. [2] Department of Biostatistics, Harvard School of Public Health, Boston, Massachusetts 02115, USA. ; 1] Novo Nordisk Foundation Center for Basic Metabolic Research, Faculty of Health and Medical Sciences, University of Copenhagen, DK-2200, Denmark. [2] Institute of Preventive Medicine, Bispebjerg and Frederiksberg Hospitals, The Capital Region, Copenhagen, DK-2000 Frederiksberg, Denmark. ; Division of Population Health Sciences and Education, St George's, University of London, Cranmer Terrace, London SW17 0RE, UK. ; Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, University Medicine Greifswald, D-17475 Greifswald, Germany. ; University of Exeter Medical School, University of Exeter, Exeter EX1 2LU, UK. ; 1] deCODE Genetics, Reykjavik IS-101, Iceland. [2] Faculty of Medicine, University of Iceland, IS-101 Reykjavik, Iceland. [3]. ; 1] NHLBI's and Boston University's Framingham Heart Study, Framingham, Massachusetts 01702-5827, USA. [2] Boston University School of Medicine, Department of Medicine, Section of General Internal Medicine, Boston, Massachusetts 02118, USA. [3]. ; 1] MRC Epidemiology Unit, University of Cambridge School of Clinical Medicine, Box 285 Institute of Metabolic Science, Cambridge Biomedical Campus, Cambridge CB2 0QQ, UK. [2] Department of Paediatrics, University of Cambridge, Cambridge CB2 0QQ, UK. [3].〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Record origin:〈/span〉 〈a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25231870" target="_blank"〉PubMed〈/a〉
    Keywords: Adolescent ; Age Factors ; *Alleles ; Body Mass Index ; Breast Neoplasms/genetics ; Cardiovascular Diseases/genetics ; Child ; Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2/genetics ; Europe/ethnology ; Female ; Genetic Loci/*genetics ; Genome-Wide Association Study ; Genomic Imprinting/genetics ; Humans ; Hypothalamo-Hypophyseal System/physiology ; Intercellular Signaling Peptides and Proteins/genetics ; Male ; Membrane Proteins/genetics ; Menarche/*genetics ; Obesity/genetics ; Ovary/physiology ; *Parents ; Polymorphism, Single Nucleotide/genetics ; Potassium Channels, Tandem Pore Domain/genetics ; Proteins/genetics ; Quantitative Trait Loci/genetics ; Receptors, GABA-B/metabolism ; Receptors, Retinoic Acid/metabolism ; Ribonucleoproteins/genetics
    Print ISSN: 0028-0836
    Electronic ISSN: 1476-4687
    Topics: Biology , Chemistry and Pharmacology , Medicine , Natural Sciences in General , Physics
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  • 2
    Publication Date: 2004-11-30
    Description: 〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Notes: 〈/span〉Spielman, A -- Andreadis, T G -- Apperson, C S -- Cornel, A J -- Day, J F -- Edman, J D -- Fish, D -- Harrington, L C -- Kiszewski, A E -- Lampman, R -- Lanzaro, G C -- Matuschka, F-R -- Munstermann, L E -- Nasci, R S -- Norris, D E -- Novak, R J -- Pollack, R J -- Reisen, W K -- Reiter, P -- Savage, H M -- Tabachnick, W J -- Wesson, D M -- New York, N.Y. -- Science. 2004 Nov 26;306(5701):1473-5; author reply 1473-5.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Record origin:〈/span〉 〈a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/15567836" target="_blank"〉PubMed〈/a〉
    Keywords: Animals ; Culex/genetics/physiology/*virology ; *Disease Outbreaks ; Europe/epidemiology ; Feeding Behavior ; Humans ; Insect Vectors/genetics/physiology/*virology ; North America/epidemiology ; West Nile Fever/*epidemiology/transmission/virology ; West Nile virus/pathogenicity
    Print ISSN: 0036-8075
    Electronic ISSN: 1095-9203
    Topics: Biology , Chemistry and Pharmacology , Computer Science , Medicine , Natural Sciences in General , Physics
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  • 3
    Publication Date: 2016-11-18
    Description: Rare earth element (REE)-rich breccia pipes (600,000 t @ 12% rare earth oxides) are preserved along the margins of the 136-million metric ton (Mt) Pea Ridge magnetite-apatite deposit, within Mesoproterozoic (~1.47 Ga) volcanic-plutonic rocks of the St. Francois Mountains terrane in southeastern Missouri, United States. The breccia pipes cut the rhyolite-hosted magnetite deposit and contain clasts of nearly all local bedrock and mineralized lithologies. Grains of monazite and xenotime were extracted from breccia pipe samples for SHRIMP U-Pb geochronology; both minerals were also dated in one polished thin section. Monazite forms two morphologies: (1) matrix granular grains composed of numerous small (〈50 μ m) crystallites intergrown with rare xenotime, thorite, apatite, and magnetite; and (2) coarse euhedral, glassy, bright-yellow grains similar to typical igneous or metamorphic monazite. Trace element abundances (including REE patterns) were determined on selected grains of monazite (both morphologies) and xenotime. Zircon grains from two samples of host rhyolite and two late felsic dikes collected underground at Pea Ridge were also dated. Additional geochronology done on breccia pipe minerals includes Re-Os on fine-grained molybdenite and 40 Ar/ 39 Ar on muscovite, biotite, and K-feldspar. Ages (±2 errors) obtained by SHRIMP U-Pb analysis are as follows: (1) zircon from the two host rhyolite samples have ages of 1473.6 ± 8.0 and 1472.7 ± 5.6 Ma; most zircon in late felsic dikes is interpreted as xenocrystic (age range ca. 1522–1455 Ma); a population of rare spongy zircon is likely of igneous origin and yields an age of 1441 ± 9 Ma; (2) pale-yellow granular monazite—1464.9 ± 3.3 Ma (no dated xenotime); (3) reddish matrix granular monazite—1462.0 ± 3.5 Ma and associated xenotime—1453 ± 11 Ma; (4) coarse glassy-yellow monazite—1464.8 ± 2.1, 1461.7 ± 3.7 Ma, with rims at 1447.2 ± 4.7 Ma; and (5) matrix monazite (in situ)—1464.1 ± 3.6 and 1454.6 ± 9.6 Ma, and matrix xenotime (in situ)—1468.0 ± 8.0 Ma. Two slightly older ages of cores are about 1478 Ma. The young age of rims on the coarse glassy monazite coincides with an Re-Os age of 1440.6 ± 9.2 Ma determined in this study for molybdenite intergrown with quartz and allanite, and with the age of monazite inclusions in apatite from the magnetite ore ( Neymark et al., 2016 ). A 40 Ar/ 39 Ar age of 1473 ± 1 Ma was obtained for muscovite from a breccia pipe sample. Geochronology and trace element geochemical data suggest that the granular matrix monazite and xenotime (in polygonal texture), and cores of coarse glassy monazite precipitated from hydrothermal fluids during breccia pipes formation at about 1465 Ma. The second episode of mineral growth at ca. 1443 Ma may be related to faulting and fluid flow that rebrecciated the pipes. The ca. 10-m.y. gap between the ages of host volcanic rocks and breccia pipe monazite and xenotime suggests that breccia pipe mineral formation cannot be related to the felsic magmatism represented by the rhyolitic volcanic rocks, and hence is linked to a different magmatic-hydrothermal system.
    Print ISSN: 0361-0128
    Topics: Geosciences
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  • 4
    Publication Date: 2016-11-18
    Description: Iron oxide-apatite and iron oxide-copper-gold deposits occur within ~1.48 to 1.47 Ga volcanic rocks of the St. Francois Mountains terrane near a regional boundary separating crustal blocks having contrasting depleted-mantle Sm-Nd model ages (T DM ). Major and trace element analyses and Nd and Pb isotope data were obtained to characterize the Pea Ridge deposit, improve identification of exploration targets, and better understand the regional distribution of mineralization with respect to crustal blocks. The Pea Ridge deposit is spatially associated with felsic volcanic rocks and plutons. Mafic to intermediate-composition rocks are volumetrically minor. Data for major element variations are commonly scattered and strongly suggest element mobility. Ratios of relatively immobile elements indicate that the felsic rocks are evolved subalkaline dacite and rhyolite; the mafic rocks are basalt to basaltic andesite. Granites and rhyolites display geochemical features typical of rocks produced by subduction. Rare earth element (REE) variations for the rhyolites are diagnostic of rocks affected by hydrothermal alteration and associated REE mineralization. The magnetite-rich rocks and REE-rich breccias show similar REE and mantle-normalized trace element patterns. Nd isotope compositions (age corrected) show that: (1) host rhyolites have Nd from 3.44 to 4.25 and T DM from 1.51 to 1.59 Ga; (2) magnetite ore and specular hematite rocks display Nd from 3.04 to 4.21 and T DM from 1.6 to 1.51 Ga, and Nd from 2.23 to 2.81, respectively; (3) REE-rich breccias have Nd from 3.04 to 4.11 and T DM from 1.6 to 1.51 Ga; and (4) mafic to intermediate-composition rocks range in Nd from 2.35 to 3.66 and in T DM from 1.66 to 1.56. The Nd values of the magnetite and specular hematite samples show that the REE mineralization is magmatic; no evidence exists for major overprinting by younger, crustal meteoric fluids, or by externally derived Nd. Host rocks, breccias, and magnetite ore shared a common origin from a similar source. Lead isotope ratios are diverse: (1) host rhyolite has 206 Pb/ 204 Pb from 24.261 to 50.091; (2) Pea Ridge and regional galenas have 206 Pb/ 204 Pb from 16.030 to 33.548; (3) REE-rich breccia, magnetite ore, and specular hematite rock are more radiogenic than galena; (4) REE-rich breccias have high 206 Pb/ 204 Pb (38.122–1277.61) compared to host rhyolites; and (5) REE-rich breccias are more radiogenic than magnetite ore and specular-hematite rock, having 206 Pb/ 204 Pb up to 230.65. Radiogenic 207 Pb/ 206 Pb age estimates suggest the following: (1) rhyolitic host rocks have ages of ~1.50 Ga, (2) magnetite ore is ~1.44 Ga, and (3) REE-rich breccias are ~1.48 Ga. These estimates are broadly consistent and genetically link the host rhyolite, REE-rich breccia, and magnetite ore as being contemporaneous. Alteration style and mineralogical or textural distinctions among the magnetite-rich rocks and REE-rich breccias do not correlate with different isotopic sources. In our model, magmatic fluids leached metals from the coeval felsic rocks (rhyolites), which provided the metal source reflected in the compositions of the REE-rich breccias and mineralized rocks. This model allows for the likelihood of contributions from other genetically related felsic and intermediate to more mafic rocks stored deeper in the crust. The deposit thus records an origin as a magmatic-hydrothermal system that was not affected by Nd and Pb remobilization processes, particularly if these processes also triggered mixing with externally sourced metal-bearing fluids. The Pea Ridge deposit was part of a single, widespread, homogeneous mixing system that produced a uniform isotopic composition, thus representing an excellent example of an igneous-dominated system that generated coeval magmatism and REE mineralization. Geochemical features suggest that components in the Pea Ridge deposit originated from sources in an orogenic margin. Basaltic magmatism produced by mantle decompression melting provided heat for extracting melts from the middle or lower crust. Continual addition of mafic magmas to the base of the subcontinental lithosphere, in a back-arc setting, remelted calc-alkaline rocks enriched in metals that were stored in the crust. The St. Francois Mountains terrane is adjacent to the regional T DM line (defined at a value of 1.55 Ga) that separates ~1600 Ma basement to the west, from younger basements to the east. Data for Pea Ridge straddle the T DM values proposed for the line. The Sm-Nd isotope system has been closed since formation of the deposit and the original igneous signatures have not been affected by cycles of alteration or superimposed mineralizing events. No evidence exists for externally derived Nd or Sm. The source region for metals within the Pea Ridge deposit had a moderate compositional variation and the REE-rich breccias and mineralized rocks are generally isotopically homogeneous. The Pea Ridge deposit thus constitutes a distinctive isotopic target for use as a model in identifying other mineralized systems that may share the same metal source in the St. Francois Mountains terrane and elsewhere in the eastern Granite-Rhyolite province.
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    Topics: Geosciences
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  • 5
    Publication Date: 2012-08-21
    Description: Sweet sorghum ( Sorghum bicolor (L.) Moench) is widely recognized as a highly promising biomass energy crop with particular potential to complement sugarcane production in diversified cropping systems. Agronomic assessments have led to identification of four cultivars well suited for such sugarcane-based production systems in southern Louisiana. Sweet sorghum biofuel production systems are currently being developed, and research producing large sample numbers requiring ethanol yield assessment is anticipated. Fiber analysis approaches developed for forage evaluation appear to be useful for screening such large numbers of samples for relative ethanol yield. Chemical composition, forage fiber characteristics, digestibility, and ethanol production of sweet sorghum bagasse from the four cultivars were assessed. Measures of detergent fiber, lignin, and digestibility were highly correlated with ethanol production ( P  〈 0.01). The best linear regression models accounted for about 80% of the variation among cultivars in ethanol production. Bagasse from the cultivar Dale produced more ethanol per gram of material than any of the other cultivars. This superior ethanol production was apparently associated with less lignin in stems of Dale. Forage evaluation measures including detergent fiber analyses, in vitro digestibility, and an in vitro gas production technique successfully identified the cultivar superior in ethanol yield indicating their usefulness for screening sweet sorghum samples for potential ethanol production in research programs generating large sample numbers from evaluations of germ plasm or agronomic treatments. These screening procedures reduce time and expense of alternatives such as hexose sugar assessment for calculating theoretical ethanol yield.
    Print ISSN: 1757-1693
    Electronic ISSN: 1757-1707
    Topics: Energy, Environment Protection, Nuclear Power Engineering
    Published by Wiley
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  • 6
    Publication Date: 2015-05-29
    Description: The study of vocal communication in animal models provides key insight to the neurogenetic basis for speech and communication disorders. Current methods for vocal analysis suffer from a lack of standardization, creating ambiguity in cross-laboratory and cross-species comparisons. Here, we present VoICE (Vocal Inventory Clustering Engine), an approach to grouping vocal elements by creating a high dimensionality dataset through scoring spectral similarity between all vocalizations within a recording session. This dataset is then subjected to hierarchical clustering, generating a dendrogram that is pruned into meaningful vocalization “types” by an automated algorithm. When applied to birdsong, a key model for vocal learning, VoICE captures the known deterioration in acoustic properties that follows deafening, including altered sequencing. In a mammalian neurodevelopmental model, we uncover a reduced vocal repertoire of mice lacking the autism susceptibility gene, Cntnap2. VoICE will be useful to the scientific community as it can standardize vocalization analyses across species and laboratories. Scientific Reports 5 doi: 10.1038/srep10237
    Electronic ISSN: 2045-2322
    Topics: Natural Sciences in General
    Published by Springer Nature
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  • 7
    Publication Date: 2014-11-15
    Description: A bstract The Middle Permian tetrapod fauna of the South African Beaufort Group is taxonomically diverse and includes representatives of all major therapsid groups, including the earliest records of Eutheriodontia. In the Middle Permian, eutheriodonts are represented mainly by large therocephalians, which made up a large proportion of the vertebrate predators in these faunas. Here we describe the skull and partial skeleton of a large therocephalian from the uppermost Tapinocephalus Assemblage Zone (AZ) of South Africa. A combination of features, including the short snout, presence of three to four upper postcanines and presence of teeth on the pterygoid processes, indicates that the new specimen belongs to the earliest-diverging therocephalian family, Lycosuchidae. The presence of a well-developed midline ridge on the ventral surface of the vomer indicates that the new specimen can be referred to Simorhinella baini , a species previously represented only by a tiny juvenile skull. The new specimen forms the basis for a taxonomic re-evaluation of the Lycosuchidae as well as of the geographic and stratigraphic range of the family. We recognize two valid species within the Lycosuchidae: the type species Lycosuchus vanderrieti represented by five specimens and Simorhinella baini represented by two specimens, with an additional 22 specimens currently identifiable as Lycosuchidae incertae sedis . Lycosuchid specimens range throughout the Tapinocephalus and Pristerognathus AZs; specimens of Simorhinella are restricted to the Tapinocephalus AZ, whereas Lycosuchus specimens are documented in both the Tapinocephalus and Pristerognathus AZs.
    Print ISSN: 0022-3360
    Electronic ISSN: 1937-2337
    Topics: Geosciences
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  • 8
    Publication Date: 2013-09-18
    Description: Transcriptional profiling is a useful strategy to study development and disease. Approaches to isolate RNA from specific cell types, or from specific cellular compartments, would extend the power of this strategy. Previous work has shown that isolation of genetically tagged ribosomes (translating ribosome affinity purification; TRAP) is an effective means...
    Print ISSN: 0027-8424
    Electronic ISSN: 1091-6490
    Topics: Biology , Medicine , Natural Sciences in General
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  • 9
    Publication Date: 2013-04-26
    Description: We have used the Two-Micron All-Sky Survey and the Wide-field Infrared Survey Explorer to look for ultracool dwarfs that are part of multiple systems containing main-sequence stars. We cross-matched L dwarf candidates from the surveys with Hipparcos and Gliese stars, finding two new systems. The first system, G255-34AB, is an L2 dwarf companion to a K8 star, at a distance of 36 pc. We estimate its bolometric luminosity as log L /L  = –3.78 ± 0.045 and T eff  = 2080 ± 260 K. The second system, GJ499ABC, is a triple, with an L5 dwarf as a companion to a binary with an M4 and K5 star. These two new systems bring the number of L dwarf plus main-sequence star multiple systems to 24, which we discuss. We consider the binary fraction for L dwarfs and main-sequence stars, and further assess possible unresolved multiplicity within the full companion sample. This analysis shows that some of the L dwarfs in this sample might actually be unresolved binaries themselves, since their M J appears to be brighter than the expected for their spectral types.
    Print ISSN: 0035-8711
    Electronic ISSN: 1365-2966
    Topics: Physics
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  • 10
    Publication Date: 2014-03-01
    Description: We report the discovery of a peculiar L dwarf from the United Kingdom Infrared Deep Sky Survey Large Area Survey, ULAS J222711–004547. The very red infrared photometry (MKO J – K  = 2.79 ± 0.06, WISE W 1– W 2 = 0.65 ± 0.05) of ULAS J222711–004547 makes it one of the reddest brown dwarfs discovered so far. We obtained a moderate resolution spectrum of this target using the XSHOOTER spectrograph on the Very Large Telescope, and we classify it as L7pec, confirming its very red nature. Comparison to theoretical models suggests that the object could be a low-gravity L dwarf with a solar or higher than solar metallicity. Nonetheless, the match of such fits to the spectral energy distribution is rather poor, and this and other less red peculiar L dwarfs pose new challenges for the modelling of ultracool atmospheres, especially to the understanding of the effects of condensates and their sensitivity to gravity and metallicity. We determined the proper motion of ULAS J222711–004547 using the data available in the literature, and we find that its kinematics do not suggest membership of any of the known young associations. We show that applying a simple de-reddening curve to its spectrum allows it to resemble the spectra of the L7 spectroscopic standards without any spectral features that distinguish it as a low-metallicity or low-gravity dwarf. Given the negligible interstellar reddening of the field containing our target, we conclude that the reddening of the spectrum is mostly due to an excess of dust in the photosphere of the target. De-reddening the spectrum using extinction curves for different dust species gives surprisingly good results and suggests a characteristic grain size of ~0.5 μm. We show that by increasing the optical depth, the same extinction curves allow the spectrum of ULAS J222711–004547 to resemble the spectra of unusually blue L dwarfs and even slightly metal-poor L dwarfs. Grains of similar size also yield very good fits when de-reddening other unusually red L dwarfs in the L5–L7.5 range. These results suggest that the diversity in near-infrared colours and spectra seen in late L dwarfs could be due to differences in the optical thickness of the dust cloud deck.
    Print ISSN: 0035-8711
    Electronic ISSN: 1365-2966
    Topics: Physics
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