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  • 1
    Publication Date: 2015-09-30
    Description: Although natural products have been a particularly rich source of human medicines, activity-based screening results in a very high rate of rediscovery of known molecules. Based on the large number of natural product biosynthetic genes in microbial genomes, many have proposed “genome mining” as an alternative approach for discovery efforts;...
    Print ISSN: 0027-8424
    Electronic ISSN: 1091-6490
    Topics: Biology , Medicine , Natural Sciences in General
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  • 2
    Publication Date: 2019
    Description: 〈p〉Understanding the remarkable excitonic effects and controlling the exciton binding energies in two-dimensional (2D) semiconductors are crucial in unlocking their full potential for use in future photonic and optoelectronic devices. Here, we demonstrate large excitonic effects and gate-tunable exciton binding energies in single-layer rhenium diselenide (ReSe〈sub〉2〈/sub〉) on a back-gated graphene device. We used scanning tunneling spectroscopy and differential reflectance spectroscopy to measure the quasiparticle electronic and optical bandgap of single-layer ReSe〈sub〉2〈/sub〉, respectively, yielding a large exciton binding energy of 520 meV. Further, we achieved continuous tuning of the electronic bandgap and exciton binding energy of monolayer ReSe〈sub〉2〈/sub〉 by hundreds of milli–electron volts through electrostatic gating, attributed to tunable Coulomb interactions arising from the gate-controlled free carriers in graphene. Our findings open a new avenue for controlling the bandgap renormalization and exciton binding energies in 2D semiconductors for a wide range of technological applications.〈/p〉
    Electronic ISSN: 2375-2548
    Topics: Natural Sciences in General
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  • 3
    Publication Date: 2011-05-18
    Description: Although microfluidics has shown exciting potential, its broad applications are significantly limited by drawbacks of the materials used to make them. In this work, we present a convenient strategy for fabricating whole-Teflon microfluidic chips with integrated valves that show outstanding inertness to various chemicals and extreme resistance against all solvents. Compared with other microfluidic materials [e.g., poly(dimethylsiloxane) (PDMS)] the whole-Teflon chip has a few more advantages, such as no absorption of small molecules, little adsorption of biomolecules onto channel walls, and no leaching of residue molecules from the material bulk into the solution in the channel. Various biological cells have been cultured in the whole-Teflon channel. Adherent cells can attach to the channel bottom, spread, and proliferate well in the channels (with similar proliferation rate to the cells in PDMS channels with the same dimensions). The moderately good gas permeability of the Teflon materials makes it suitable to culture cells inside the microchannels for a long time.
    Print ISSN: 0027-8424
    Electronic ISSN: 1091-6490
    Topics: Biology , Medicine , Natural Sciences in General
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  • 4
    Publication Date: 2011-09-22
    Description: The Communications/Navigation Outage Forecasting System (C/NOFS) satellite observed large-scale density depletions at postmidnight and early morning local times in the Northern Hemisphere summer during solar minimum conditions. Using electric field data obtained from the vector electric field instrument (VEFI) as input, the assimilative physics-based model (PBMOD) qualitatively reproduced more than 70% of the large-scale density depletions observed by the Planar Langmuir Probe (PLP) onboard C/NOFS. In contrast, the use of a climatological specification of plasma drifts in the model produces no plasma depletions at night. Results from a one-month statistical study, we found that the large-scale depletion structures most often occur near longitudes of 60°, 140°, and 330°, suggesting that these depletions may be associated with nonmigrating atmospheric tides, although the generation mechanisms of eastward electric fields at postmidnight local times are still uncertain. In this paper, densities obtained from both assimilation and climatology for the entire month of June 2008 are compared with PLP data from C/NOFS and the Challenging Minisatellite Payload (CHAMP), as well as special sensor ionospheric plasma drift/scintillation meter (SSIES) measurements from the Defense Meteorological Satellite Program (DMSP) satellites. Our statistical study has shown that, on average, the densities obtained by the PBMOD when it assimilates VEFI electric fields agree better with observed background densities than when PBMOD uses climatological electric fields.
    Print ISSN: 0148-0227
    Topics: Geosciences , Physics
    Published by Wiley on behalf of American Geophysical Union (AGU).
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  • 5
    Publication Date: 2011-12-20
    Description: Modeled and observed solar diffuse fluxes at the surface usually have unacceptably large discrepancies. It is necessary to address and resolve these discrepancies in order to accurately calculate a reliable aerosol direct radiative forcing (DRF). We present and compare two methods of deriving dust aerosol optical properties from the MFRSR (Multi-Filter Rotating Shadowband Radiometer) observations and the AERONET products. The single-scattering albedo (SSA) values from MFRSR are found to be 10% less than those from the AERONET. This difference is mainly due to the different imaginary part of refractive index retrieved by the MFRSR compared to AERONET. These two sets of dust aerosol optical properties are used in the SBDART model to simulate the shortwave fluxes that are compared with the surface observations to perform the radiative closure experiment. The diffuse simulations using the AERONET-derived aerosol SSA may have significant discrepancies compared with the observed diffuse irradiances. The DRFs at the top of atmosphere (TOA) simulated with the MFRSR-derived aerosol optical properties are positive while the DRFs with the AERONET are negative. The sign of the DRFs at the surface and in the atmosphere using the MFRSR is the same as those using the AERONET while the magnitudes from the MFRSR are much larger. It indicates that dust aerosols with higher absorption as derived from the MFRSR heat the aerosol layer but cool the surface much more than those based on the AERONET, which may have an important impact on the boundary layer processes.
    Print ISSN: 0094-8276
    Electronic ISSN: 1944-8007
    Topics: Geosciences , Physics
    Published by Wiley on behalf of American Geophysical Union (AGU).
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  • 6
    Publication Date: 2016-08-23
    Description: Electron measurements from the MagEIS instruments on Van Allen Probes, for kinetic energies ∼100 to 400 keV, show characteristic dynamical features of the innermost ( ) radiation belt: rapid injections, slow decay, and structured energy spectra. There are also periods of steady or slowly increasing intensity and of fast decay following injections. Local time asymmetry, with higher intensity near dawn, is interpreted as evidence for drift shell distortion by a convection electric field of magnitude ∼0.4 mV/m during geomagnetically quiet times. Fast fluctuations in the electric field, on the drift time scale, cause inward diffusion. Assuming they are proportional to changes in K p , the resulting diffusion coefficient is sufficient to replenish trapped electrons lost by atmospheric scattering. Major electric field increases cause injections by inward electron transport. An injection associated with the June 2015 magnetic storm is consistent with an enhanced field magnitude ∼5 mV/m. Subsequent drift echoes cause spectral structure.
    Print ISSN: 0148-0227
    Topics: Geosciences , Physics
    Published by Wiley on behalf of American Geophysical Union (AGU).
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  • 7
    Publication Date: 2016-05-26
    Description: In this study, we present a microspectroscopic investigation on the quasi-transverse optical phonon modes Q(TO) in some self-generated aluminum nitride (AlN) grains grown on sapphire using hydride vapor phase epitaxy. Using X-ray diffraction and transmission electron microscope, these grains were confirmed to be embedded in (0001)-AlN ( c -AlN) epitaxial matrix with an appearance plane of ( 10 1 ¯ 1 ) ( s -plane). Two beam bright field images further showed that the AlN grains were free of dislocation. In-plane phonon anisotropy of the AlN grains was discussed in detail using angular-dependent polarized Raman spectroscopy. The dependence of pure Raman phonons intensity on rotation angle agrees well with the calculation. The Q(TO) phonon intensity exhibited similar behavior to that of A 1 (TO) phonon, which can be explained by Loudon's formula. However, the observed frequency fluctuation for the Q(TO) phonon differs from that of the pure phonon modes, which cannot be directly understood from the classic Loudon's formula. A modified Loudon's formula appropriate to non-normal incidence was presented to explain the observed Q(TO) phonon frequency fluctuation. Combining with the angular-dependent Raman spectra, we proposed that a small inclination of s -plane along with the various in-plane orientations in c -AlN matrix lead to the frequency fluctuation of Q(TO) in these embedded semipolar AlN grains.
    Print ISSN: 0021-8979
    Electronic ISSN: 1089-7550
    Topics: Physics
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  • 8
    Publication Date: 2016-05-20
    Description: Three putative regulatory genes, namely ttmRI, ttmRII and ttmRIII , which are present in the tetramycin ( ttm ) biosynthetic gene cluster, were found in Streptomyces ahygroscopicus . Disruption of ttmRI, ttmRII or ttmRIII reduced tetramycin production, and their complementation restored production to varying degrees. Gene expression analysis of the wild-type (WT) and mutant strains through reverse transcriptase–polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) of the ttm gene cluster showed that the expression levels of most of the biosynthetic genes were reduced in ttmRI , ttmRII and ttmRIII . Electrophoretic mobility shift assays demonstrated that TtmRI, TtmRII and TtmRIII bound the promoters of several genes in the ttm gene cluster. This study found that these three proteins are a group of positive regulators that activate the transcription of the ttm gene cluster in S. ahygroscopicus . In addition, ttmRII had a reduced degree of grey pigmentation. Thus, TtmRII has a pleiotropic regulatory function in the tetramycin biosynthetic pathway and in development.
    Keywords: Physiology & Biochemistry
    Print ISSN: 0378-1097
    Electronic ISSN: 1574-6968
    Topics: Biology
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  • 9
    Publication Date: 2016-06-02
    Description: Semidwarfism is an important agronomic trait in rice breeding programs. The semidwarf mutant gene Sdt97 was previously described. However, the molecular mechanism underlying the mutant is yet to be elucidated. In this study, we identified the mutant gene by a map-based cloning method. Using a residual heterozygous line (RHL) population, Sdt97 was mapped to the long arm of chromosome 6 in the interval of nearly 60 kb between STS marker N6 and SNP marker N16 within the PAC clone P0453H04. Sequencing of the candidate genes in the target region revealed that a base transversion from G to C occurred in the 5' untranslated region of Sdt97 . qRT-PCR results confirmed that the transversion induced an obvious change in the expression pattern of Sdt97 at different growth and developmental stages. Plants transgenic for Sdt97 resulted in the restoration of semidwarfism of the mutant phenotype, or displayed a greater dwarf phenotype than the mutant. Our results indicate that a point mutation in the 5' untranslated region of Sdt97 confers semidwarfism in rice. Functional analysis of Sdt97 will open a new field of study for rice semidwarfism, and also expand our knowledge of the molecular mechanism of semidwarfism in rice.
    Electronic ISSN: 2160-1836
    Topics: Biology
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  • 10
    Publication Date: 2018-10-26
    Description: The spatial organization of chromatin is pivotal for regulating genome functions. We report an imaging method for tracing chromatin organization with kilobase- and nanometer-scale resolution, unveiling chromatin conformation across topologically associating domains (TADs) in thousands of individual cells. Our imaging data revealed TAD-like structures with globular conformation and sharp domain boundaries in single cells. The boundaries varied from cell to cell, occurring with nonzero probabilities at all genomic positions but preferentially at CCCTC-binding factor (CTCF)- and cohesin-binding sites. Notably, cohesin depletion, which abolished TADs at the population-average level, did not diminish TAD-like structures in single cells but eliminated preferential domain boundary positions. Moreover, we observed widespread, cooperative, multiway chromatin interactions, which remained after cohesin depletion. These results provide critical insight into the mechanisms underlying chromatin domain and hub formation.
    Keywords: Biochemistry, Cell Biology, Online Only
    Print ISSN: 0036-8075
    Electronic ISSN: 1095-9203
    Topics: Biology , Chemistry and Pharmacology , Geosciences , Computer Science , Medicine , Natural Sciences in General , Physics
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