This article describes the design, construction, and properties of an anthropomorphic thorax phantom with a moving surrogate tumor. This novel phantom permits detection of dose both inside and outside a moving tumor and within the substitute lung tissue material. A 3D printer generated the thorax shell composed of a chest wall, spinal column, and posterior regions of the phantom. Images of a computed tomography scan of the thorax from a patient with lung cancer provided the template for the 3D printing. The plastic phantom is segmented into two materials representing the muscle and bones, and its geometry closely matches a patient. A surrogate spherical plastic tumor controlled by a 3D linear stage simulates a lung tumor’s trajectory during normal breathing. Sawdust emulates the lung tissue in terms of average and distribution in Hounsfield numbers. The sawdust also provides a forgiving medium that permits tumor motion and sandwiching of radiochromic film inside the mobile surrogate plastic tumor for dosimetry. A custom cork casing shields the film and tumor and eliminates film bending during extended scans. The phantom, lung tissue surrogate, and radiochromic film are exposed to a seven field plan based on an ECLIPSE plan for 6 MV photons from a Trilogy machine delivering 230 cGy to the isocenter. The dose collected in a sagittal plane is compared to the calculated plan. Gamma analysis finds 8.8% and 5.5% gamma failure rates for measurements of large amplitude trajectory and static measurements relative to the large amplitude plan, respectively. These particular gamma analysis results were achieved using parameters of 3% dose and 3 mm, for regions receiving doses 〉150 cGy. The plan assumes a stationary detection grid unlike the moving radiochromic film and tissues. This difference was experimentally observed and motivated calculated dose distributions that incorporated the phase of the tumor periodic motion. These calculations modestly improve agreement between the measured and intended doses.
Electrical Engineering, Measurement and Control Technology