Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
Mechanical Engineering, Materials Science, Production Engineering, Mining and Metallurgy, Traffic Engineering, Precision Mechanics
Abstract This study examines crack front length and constraint loss effects on cleavage fracture toughness in ferritic steels at temperatures in the ductile-to-brittle transition region. A local approach for fracture at the micro-scale of the material based on the Weibull stress is coupled with very detailed three-dimensional models of deep-notch bend specimens. A new non-dimensional function g(M) derived from the Weibull stress density describes the overall constraint level in a specimen. This function remains identical for all geometrically similar specimens regardless of their absolute sizes, and thus provides a computationally simple approach to construct (three-dimensional) fracture driving force curves σw vs. J, for each absolute size of interest. Proposed modifications of the conventional, two-parameter Weibull stress expression for cumulative failure probability introduce a new threshold parameter σw−min. This parameter has a simple calibration procedure requiring no additional experimental data. The use of a toughness scaling model including σw−min〉0 increases the deformation level at which the CVN size specimen loses constraint compared to a 1T SE(B) specimen, which improves the agreement of computational predictions and experimental estimations. Finally the effects of specimen size and constraint loss on the cleavage fracture reference temperature T 0 as determined using the new standard ASTM E1921 are investigated using Monte Carlo simulation together with the new toughness scaling model.
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