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  • 1
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    PANGAEA
    In:  Supplement to: Bakker, Dorothee C E; Pfeil, Benjamin; Smith, Karl; Hankin, Steven; Olsen, Are; Alin, Simone R; Cosca, Catherine E; Harasawa, Sumiko; Kozyr, Alexander; Nojiri, Yukihiro; O'Brien, Kevin M; Schuster, Ute; Telszewski, Maciej; Tilbrook, Bronte; Wada, Chisato; Akl, John; Barbero, Leticia; Bates, Nicolas R; Boutin, Jacqueline; Bozec, Yann; Cai, Wei-Jun; Castle, Robert D; Chavez, Francisco P; Chen, Lei; Chierici, Melissa; Currie, Kim I; de Baar, Hein J W; Evans, Wiley; Feely, Richard A; Fransson, Agneta; Gao, Zhongyong; Hales, Burke; Hardman-Mountford, Nicolas J; Hoppema, Mario; Huang, Wei-Jen; Hunt, Christopher W; Huss, Betty; Ichikawa, Tadafumi; Johannessen, Truls; Jones, Elizabeth M; Jones, Steve D; Jutterstrøm, Sara; Kitidis, Vassilis; Körtzinger, Arne; Landschützer, Peter; Lauvset, Siv K; Lefèvre, Nathalie; Manke, Ansley; Mathis, Jeremy T; Merlivat, Liliane; Metzl, Nicolas; Murata, Akihiko; Newberger, Timothy; Omar, Abdirahman M; Ono, Tsuneo; Park, Geun-Ha; Paterson, Kristina; Pierrot, Denis; Ríos, Aida F; Sabine, Christopher L; Saito, Shu; Salisbury, Joe; Sarma, Vedula V S S; Schlitzer, Reiner; Sieger, Rainer; Skjelvan, Ingunn; Steinhoff, Tobias; Sullivan, Kevin; Sun, Heng; Sutton, Adrienne; Suzuki, Toru; Sweeney, Colm; Takahashi, Taro; Tjiputra, Jerry; Tsurushima, Nobuo; van Heuven, Steven; Vandemark, Doug; Vlahos, Penny; Wallace, Douglas WR; Wanninkhof, Rik; Watson, Andrew J (2014): An update to the Surface Ocean CO2 Atlas (SOCAT version 2). Earth System Science Data, 6(1), 69-90, https://doi.org/10.5194/essd-6-69-2014
    Publication Date: 2020-01-18
    Description: The Surface Ocean CO2 Atlas (SOCAT), an activity of the international marine carbon research community, provides access to synthesis and gridded fCO2 (fugacity of carbon dioxide) products for the surface oceans. Version 2 of SOCAT is an update of the previous release (version 1) with more data (increased from 6.3 million to 10.1 million surface water fCO2 values) and extended data coverage (from 1968-2007 to 1968-2011). The quality control criteria, while identical in both versions, have been applied more strictly in version 2 than in version 1. The SOCAT website (http://www.socat.info/) has links to quality control comments, metadata, individual data set files, and synthesis and gridded data products. Interactive online tools allow visitors to explore the richness of the data. Applications of SOCAT include process studies, quantification of the ocean carbon sink and its spatial, seasonal, year-to-year and longerterm variation, as well as initialisation or validation of ocean carbon models and coupled climate-carbon models.
    Type: Dataset
    Format: application/zip, 2669 datasets
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  • 2
    Publication Date: 2017-01-04
    Description: Author Posting. © American Geophysical Union, 2008. This article is posted here by permission of American Geophysical Union for personal use, not for redistribution. The definitive version was published in Global Biogeochemical Cycles 22 (2008): GB4027, doi:10.1029/2007GB003167.
    Description: Observational studies report a rapid decline of ocean CO2 uptake in the temperate North Atlantic during the last decade. We analyze these findings using ocean physical-biological numerical simulations forced with interannually varying atmospheric conditions for the period 1979–2004. In the simulations, surface ocean water mass properties and CO2 system variables exhibit substantial multiannual variability on sub-basin scales in response to wind-driven reorganization in ocean circulation and surface warming/cooling. The simulated temporal evolution of the ocean CO2 system is broadly consistent with reported observational trends and is influenced substantially by the phase of the North Atlantic Oscillation (NAO). Many of the observational estimates cover a period after 1995 of mostly negative or weakly positive NAO conditions, which are characterized in the simulations by reduced North Atlantic Current transport of subtropical waters into the eastern basin and by a decline in CO2 uptake. We suggest therefore that air-sea CO2 uptake may rebound in the eastern temperate North Atlantic during future periods of more positive NAO, similar to the patterns found in our model for the sustained positive NAO period in the early 1990s. Thus, our analysis indicates that the recent rapid shifts in CO2 flux reflect decadal perturbations superimposed on more gradual secular trends. The simulations highlight the need for long-term ocean carbon observations and modeling to fully resolve multiannual variability, which can obscure detection of the long-term changes associated with anthropogenic CO2 uptake and climate change.
    Description: S. C. Doney and I. D. Lima were supported by NASA grant NNG05GG30G.
    Keywords: North Atlantic ; CO2 uptake ; NAO
    Repository Name: Woods Hole Open Access Server
    Type: Article
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  • 3
    Publication Date: 2017-01-04
    Description: Author Posting. © American Geophysical Union, 2004. This article is posted here by permission of American Geophysical Union for personal use, not for redistribution. The definitive version was published in Journal of Geophysical Research 109 (2004): C08S11, doi:10.1029/2003JC001831.
    Description: During the two recent GasEx field experiments, direct covariance measurements of air-sea carbon dioxide fluxes were obtained over the open ocean. Concurrently, the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration/Coupled-Ocean Atmospheric Response Experiment air-sea gas transfer parameterization was developed to predict gas transfer velocities from measurements of the bulk state of the sea surface and atmosphere. The model output is combined with measurements of the mean air and sea surface carbon dioxide fugacities to provide estimates of the air-sea CO2 flux, and the model is then tuned to the GasEx-1998 data set. Because of differences in the local environment and possibly because of weaknesses in the model, some discrepancies are observed between the predicted fluxes from the GasEx-1998 and GasEx-2001 cases. To provide an estimate of the contribution to the air-sea flux of gas due to wave-breaking processes, the whitecap and bubble parameterizations are removed from the model output. These results show that moderate (approximately 15 m s−1) wind speed breaking wave gas transfer processes account for a fourfold increase in the flux over the modeled interfacial processes.
    Description: This work was supported by the NOAA Office of Global Programs, under the leadership of Dr. Lisa Dilling. WHOI was supported by the National Science Foundation grant OCE-9711218.
    Keywords: Air-sea interaction ; Air-sea flux ; Air-gas transfer
    Repository Name: Woods Hole Open Access Server
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  • 4
    Publication Date: 2017-01-04
    Description: Author Posting. © American Geophysical Union, 2009. This article is posted here by permission of American Geophysical Union for personal use, not for redistribution. The definitive version was published in Journal of Geophysical Research 114 (2009): C12099, doi:10.1029/2009JC005835.
    Keywords: Modeling ; Climate ; Carbon
    Repository Name: Woods Hole Open Access Server
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  • 5
    Publication Date: 2017-01-04
    Description: Author Posting. © American Geophysical Union, 2009. This article is posted here by permission of American Geophysical Union for personal use, not for redistribution. The definitive version was published in Journal of Geophysical Research 114 (2009): C09013, doi:10.1029/2008JC005183.
    Description: Here we use observations and ocean models to identify mechanisms driving large seasonal to interannual variations in dissolved inorganic carbon (DIC) and dissolved oxygen (O2) in the upper ocean. We begin with observations linking variations in upper ocean DIC and O2 inventories with changes in the physical state of the ocean. Models are subsequently used to address the extent to which the relationships derived from short-timescale (6 months to 2 years) repeat measurements are representative of variations over larger spatial and temporal scales. The main new result is that convergence and divergence (column stretching) attributed to baroclinic Rossby waves can make a first-order contribution to DIC and O2 variability in the upper ocean. This results in a close correspondence between natural variations in DIC and O2 column inventory variations and sea surface height (SSH) variations over much of the ocean. Oceanic Rossby wave activity is an intrinsic part of the natural variability in the climate system and is elevated even in the absence of significant interannual variability in climate mode indices. The close correspondence between SSH and both DIC and O2 column inventories for many regions suggests that SSH changes (inferred from satellite altimetry) may prove useful in reducing uncertainty in separating natural and anthropogenic DIC signals (using measurements from Climate Variability and Predictability's CO2/Repeat Hydrography program).
    Description: This report was prepared by K.B.R. under awards NA17RJ2612 and NA08OAR4320752, which includes support through the NOAA Office of Climate Observations (OCO). The statements, findings, conclusions, and recommendations are those of the authors and do not necessarily reflect the views of the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration or the U.S. Department of Commerce. Support for K.B.R. was also provided by the Carbon Mitigation Initiative (CMI) through the support of BP, Amaco, and Ford. R.M.K. was supported by NOAA grants NA17RJ2612, NA08OAR4320752, and NA08OAR4310820. F.F.P. was supported by the European Union FP6 CARBOOCEAN Integrated project (contract 51176), the French OVIDE project, and the Spanish Salvador de Madariaga program (PR2006– 0523). This work was also supported by the European NOCES project (EVK2-CT201-00134). Y.Y. and A.I. are partly supported by CREST, JST of Japan. The long-term OISO observational program in the South Indian Ocean is supported by the following three French institutes: INSU (Institut National des Sciences de l’Univers), IPSL (Institute Pierre-Simon Laplace), and IPEV (Institut Paul-Emile Victor).
    Keywords: Modeling ; Climate ; Carbon
    Repository Name: Woods Hole Open Access Server
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  • 6
    Publication Date: 2017-01-04
    Description: Author Posting. © American Geophysical Union, 2004. This article is posted here by permission of American Geophysical Union for personal use, not for redistribution. The definitive version was published in Journal of Geophysical Research 109 (2004): C08S08, doi:10.1029/2003JC001800.
    Description: The difference in the fugacities of CO2 across the diffusive sublayer at the ocean surface is the driving force behind the air-sea flux of CO2. Bulk seawater fugacity is normally measured several meters below the surface, while the fugacity at the water surface, assumed to be in equilibrium with the atmosphere, is measured several meters above the surface. Implied in these measurements is that the fugacity values are the same as those across the diffusive boundary layer. However, temperature gradients exist at the interface due to molecular transfer processes, resulting in a cool surface temperature, known as the skin effect. A warm layer from solar radiation can also result in a heterogeneous temperature profile within the upper few meters of the ocean. Here we describe measurements carried out during a 14-day study in the equatorial Pacific Ocean (GasEx-2001) aimed at estimating the gradients of CO2 near the surface and resulting flux anomalies. The fugacity measurements were corrected for temperature effects using data from the ship's thermosalinograph, a high-resolution profiler (SkinDeEP), an infrared radiometer (CIRIMS), and several point measurements at different depths on various platforms. Results from SkinDeEP show that the largest cool skin and warm layer biases occur at low winds, with maximum biases of −4% and +4%, respectively. Time series ship data show an average CO2 flux cool skin retardation of about 2%. Ship and drifter data show significant CO2 flux enhancement due to the warm layer, with maximums occurring in the afternoon. Temperature measurements were compared to predictions based on available cool skin parameterizations to predict the skin-bulk temperature difference, along with a warm layer model.
    Description: This material is based upon work supported by the NSF under grant OCE-9986724, and by NOAA/OGP grant GC00-226.
    Keywords: Air-sea CO2 flux ; Warm layer ; Cool skin
    Repository Name: Woods Hole Open Access Server
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  • 7
    Publication Date: 2017-01-05
    Description: Author Posting. © American Geophysical Union, 2010. This article is posted here by permission of American Geophysical Union for personal use, not for redistribution. The definitive version was published in Journal of Geophysical Research 115 (2010): C11028, doi:10.1029/2010JC006251.
    Description: Repeat observations along the meridional Atlantic section A16 from Iceland to 56°S show substantial changes in the total dissolved inorganic carbon (DIC) concentrations in the ocean between occupations from 1989 through 2005. The changes correspond to the expected increase in DIC driven by the uptake of anthropogenic CO2 from the atmosphere, but the ΔDIC is more varied and larger, in some locations, than can be explained solely by this process. Concomitant large changes in oxygen (O2) suggest that processes acting on the natural carbon cycle also contribute to ΔDIC. Precise partial pressure of CO2 measurements suggest small but systematic increases in the bottom waters. To isolate the anthropogenic CO2 component (ΔCanthro) from ΔDIC, an extended multilinear regression approach is applied along isopycnal surfaces. This yields an average depth-integrated ΔCanthro of 0.53 ± 0.05 mol m−2 yr−1 with maximum values in the temperate zones of both hemispheres and a minimum in the tropical Atlantic. A higher decadal increase in the anthropogenic CO2 inventory is found for the South Atlantic compared to the North Atlantic. This anthropogenic CO2 accumulation pattern is opposite to that seen for the entire Anthropocene up to the 1990s. This change could perhaps be a consequence of the reduced downward transport of anthropogenic CO2 in the North Atlantic due to recent climate variability. Extrapolating the results for this section to the entire Atlantic basin (63°N to 56°S) yields an uptake of 5 ± 1 Pg C decade−1, which corresponds to about 25% of the annual global ocean uptake of anthropogenic CO2 during this period.
    Description: The CLIVAR/CO2 cruises are cosponsored by the physical and chemical oceanography divisions of the National Science Foundation and the Climate Observation Division of the Climate Program Office of NOAA. Support from the program managers involved is greatly appreciated. We also acknowledge a grant from NOAA (NOAA‐NA07OAR4310098), which supported part of the postcruise data analysis contributing to this manuscript. N.G. also acknowledges support from ETH Zurich.
    Keywords: Carbon cycling ; Biogeochemical cycles, processes, and modeling ; Oceans
    Repository Name: Woods Hole Open Access Server
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  • 8
    Publication Date: 2017-01-05
    Description: This paper is not subject to U.S. copyright. The definitive version was published in Deep Sea Research Part I: Oceanographic Research Papers 74 (2013): 48-63, doi:10.1016/j.dsr.2012.12.005.
    Description: Detection and attribution of hydrographic and biogeochemical changes in the deep ocean are challenging due to the small magnitude of their signals and to limitations in the accuracy of available data. However, there are indications that anthropogenic and climate change signals are starting to manifest at depth. The deep ocean below 2000 m comprises about 50% of the total ocean volume, and changes in the deep ocean should be followed over time to accurately assess the partitioning of anthropogenic carbon dioxide (CO2) between the ocean, terrestrial biosphere, and atmosphere. Here we determine the changes in the interior deep-water inorganic carbon content by a novel means that uses the partial pressure of CO2 measured at 20 °C, pCO2(20), along three meridional transects in the Atlantic and Pacific oceans. These changes are measured on decadal time scales using observations from the World Ocean Circulation Experiment (WOCE)/World Hydrographic Program (WHP) of the 1980s and 1990s and the CLIVAR/CO2 Repeat Hydrography Program of the past decade. The pCO2(20) values show a consistent increase in deep water over the time period. Changes in total dissolved inorganic carbon (DIC) content in the deep interior are not significant or consistent, as most of the signal is below the level of analytical uncertainty. Using an approximate relationship between pCO2(20) and DIC change, we infer DIC changes that are at the margin of detectability. However, when integrated on the basin scale, the increases range from 8–40% of the total specific water column changes over the past several decades. Patterns in chlorofluorocarbons (CFCs), along with output from an ocean model, suggest that the changes in pCO2(20) and DIC are of anthropogenic origin.
    Description: Rik Wanninkhof, Geun-Ha Park, John L. Bullister, and Richard A. Feely appreciate the support from the NOAA Office of Atmospheric and Oceanic Research and the Climate Observation Division. S.C.D. acknowledges support from NOAA Grant NA07OAR4310098. T.T. has been supported by grants from NSF and NOAA.
    Keywords: Ocean ; Carbon dioxide ; CO2 sink ; Anthropogenic carbon ; Deep-water
    Repository Name: Woods Hole Open Access Server
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  • 9
    Publication Date: 2018-03-29
    Description: © The Author(s), 2014. This article is distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License. The definitive version was published in Biogeosciences 11 (2014): 709-734, doi:10.5194/bg-11-709-2014.
    Description: Air–sea CO2 fluxes over the Pacific Ocean are known to be characterized by coherent large-scale structures that reflect not only ocean subduction and upwelling patterns, but also the combined effects of wind-driven gas exchange and biology. On the largest scales, a large net CO2 influx into the extratropics is associated with a robust seasonal cycle, and a large net CO2 efflux from the tropics is associated with substantial interannual variability. In this work, we have synthesized estimates of the net air–sea CO2 flux from a variety of products, drawing upon a variety of approaches in three sub-basins of the Pacific Ocean, i.e., the North Pacific extratropics (18–66° N), the tropical Pacific (18° S–18° N), and the South Pacific extratropics (44.5–18° S). These approaches include those based on the measurements of CO2 partial pressure in surface seawater (pCO2sw), inversions of ocean-interior CO2 data, forward ocean biogeochemistry models embedded in the ocean general circulation models (OBGCMs), a model with assimilation of pCO2sw data, and inversions of atmospheric CO2 measurements. Long-term means, interannual variations and mean seasonal variations of the regionally integrated fluxes were compared in each of the sub-basins over the last two decades, spanning the period from 1990 through 2009. A simple average of the long-term mean fluxes obtained with surface water pCO2 diagnostics and those obtained with ocean-interior CO2 inversions are −0.47 ± 0.13 Pg C yr−1 in the North Pacific extratropics, +0.44 ± 0.14 Pg C yr−1 in the tropical Pacific, and −0.37 ± 0.08 Pg C yr−1 in the South Pacific extratropics, where positive fluxes are into the atmosphere. This suggests that approximately half of the CO2 taken up over the North and South Pacific extratropics is released back to the atmosphere from the tropical Pacific. These estimates of the regional fluxes are also supported by the estimates from OBGCMs after adding the riverine CO2 flux, i.e., −0.49 ± 0.02 Pg C yr−1 in the North Pacific extratropics, +0.41 ± 0.05 Pg C yr−1 in the tropical Pacific, and −0.39 ± 0.11 Pg C yr−1 in the South Pacific extratropics. The estimates from the atmospheric CO2 inversions show large variations amongst different inversion systems, but their median fluxes are consistent with the estimates from climatological pCO2sw data and pCO2sw diagnostics. In the South Pacific extratropics, where CO2 variations in the surface and ocean interior are severely undersampled, the difference in the air–sea CO2 flux estimates between the diagnostic models and ocean-interior CO2 inversions is larger (0.18 Pg C yr−1). The range of estimates from forward OBGCMs is also large (−0.19 to −0.72 Pg C yr−1). Regarding interannual variability of air–sea CO2 fluxes, positive and negative anomalies are evident in the tropical Pacific during the cold and warm events of the El Niño–Southern Oscillation in the estimates from pCO2sw diagnostic models and from OBGCMs. They are consistent in phase with the Southern Oscillation Index, but the peak-to-peak amplitudes tend to be higher in OBGCMs (0.40 ± 0.09 Pg C yr−1) than in the diagnostic models (0.27 ± 0.07 Pg C yr−1).
    Description: M. Ishii acknowledges the Meteorological Research Institute’s priority research fund for ocean carbon cycle changes, JSPS Grant-in-Aid for Scientific Research (B) No. 22310017, and MEXT Grant-in-Aid for Scientific Research on Innovative Areas No. 24121003. Support for K. B. Rodgers came under awards NA17RJ2612 and NA08OAR4320752, and support for K. B. Rodgers and R. A. Feely from the NOAA Office of Oceanic and Atmospheric Research (OAR) through the office of Climate Observations (OCO), as well as by funds from NASA’s Research Opportunities in Space and Earth Sciences through award #NNX09AI13G. SMF’s contributions were funded through the NIWA National Centre for Atmosphere’s core research funding. S. C. Doney and I. Lima acknowledge support from US National Science Foundation award AGS-1048827. E. T. Buitenhuis acknowledges support from the EU (CarboChange, contract 264879). A. Lenton acknowledges support from the Australian Climate Change Science Program. T. Takahashi is supported by grants from the NOAA (NA08OAR4320754) and the Comer Science and Education Foundation (CSEF CP70).
    Repository Name: Woods Hole Open Access Server
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  • 10
    Publication Date: 2017-01-04
    Description: Author Posting. © American Geophysical Union, 2011. This article is posted here by permission of American Geophysical Union for personal use, not for redistribution. The definitive version was published in Global Biogeochemical Cycles 25 (2011): GB3023, doi:10.1029/2010GB004009.
    Description: A common approach for estimating the oceanic uptake of anthropogenic carbon dioxide (Canthro) depends on the linear approximation of oceanic dissolved inorganic carbon (DIC) from a suite of physical and biological ocean parameters. The extended multiple linear regression (eMLR) method assumes that baseline correlations and the resulting residual fields will remain constant with time even under the influence of secular climate changes. The validity of these assumptions over the 21st century is tested using a coupled carbon-climate model. Findings demonstrate that the influence of both changing climate and changing chemistry beyond 2–4 decades invalidates the assumption that the residual fields will remain constant resulting in significant errors in the eMLR estimate of Canthro. This study determines that the eMLR method is unable to describe Canthro uptake for a sampling interval of greater than 30 years if the error is to remain below 20% for many regions in the Southern Ocean, Atlantic Ocean, and western Pacific Ocean. These results suggest that, for many regions of the ocean basins, hydrographic field investigations have to be repeated at approximately decadal timescales in order to accurately predict the uptake of Canthro by the ocean if the eMLR method is used.
    Description: This work was supported by NOAA grant NA07OAR4310098 (SCD and RW) and funding from the University of Hong Kong (NFG).
    Keywords: Anthropogenic carbon detection ; Global ocean model ; Impact of global change ; Ocean carbon sink
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