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  • 1
    Publication Date: 2013-11-12
    Description: Reims Cathedral is a major monument in the NE of France originally built with local Lutetian limestone. The recent closure of the last quarries has made restoration using the same stone more complicated. The restoration stones used currently are Lutetian limestones from the centre of the Paris Basin (Saint-Pierre-Aigle and Saint-Maximin stones). Mapping of the Cathedral's façades confirmed the data from ancient manuscripts: Courville stone was the original building stone, but several other local stones from various quarries and beds were also used. As a follow-up to this mapping, Lutetian limestones from five disused quarries were sampled for petrophysical characterization tests: thin section analyses, porosimetry, capillary and drying kinetics. The petrophysical properties of the limestones showed differences between the two main local stone types ( Ditrupa limestone and miliolids limestone) and also between the quarries. This study addresses the difficulty of selecting new stone for restoration. Should ancient quarries be re-opened? If so, which ones?
    Print ISSN: 0305-8719
    Electronic ISSN: 2041-4927
    Topics: Geosciences
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  • 2
    Publication Date: 2012-05-30
    Description: Early Neolithic sedentary villagers started cultivating wild cereals in the Near East 11,500 y ago [Pre-Pottery Neolithic A (PPNA)]. Recent discoveries indicated that Cyprus was frequented by Late PPNA people, but the earliest evidence until now for both the use of cereals and Neolithic villages on the island dates to 10,400 y ago. Here we present the recent archaeological excavation at Klimonas, which demonstrates that established villagers were living on Cyprus between 11,100 and 10,600 y ago. Villagers had stone artifacts and buildings (including a remarkable 10-m diameter communal building) that were similar to those found on Late PPNA sites on the mainland. Cereals were introduced from the Levant, and meat was obtained by hunting the only ungulate living on the island, a small indigenous Cypriot wild boar. Cats and small domestic dogs were brought from the mainland. This colonization suggests well-developed maritime capabilities by the PPNA period, but also that migration from the mainland may have occurred shortly after the beginning of agriculture.
    Print ISSN: 0027-8424
    Electronic ISSN: 1091-6490
    Topics: Biology , Medicine , Natural Sciences in General
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  • 3
    Publication Date: 2012-07-04
    Description: Langmuir DOI: 10.1021/la301293r
    Print ISSN: 0743-7463
    Electronic ISSN: 1520-5827
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology
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  • 4
    Publication Date: 2019
    Description: 〈span〉〈div〉SUMMARY〈/div〉We introduce a methodology based on array processing to detect and locate weak seismic events in a complex fault zone environment. The method is illustrated using data recorded by a dense array of 1108 vertical component geophones in a 600 m × 600 m area on the Clark branch of the San Jacinto Fault. Because surface and atmospheric sources affect weak ground motion, it is necessary to discriminate them from weak seismic sources at depth. Source epicentral positions and associated apparent velocities are extracted from continuous seismic waveforms using Match Field Processing (MFP). We implement MFP at specific frequencies targeting surface and subsurface sources, using for computational efficiency a forward model of acoustic source in a homogenous medium and Markov Chain Monte Carlo sampling. Surface sources such as Betsy gun shots and a moving vehicle are successfully located. Weak seismic events are also detected outside of the array, and their backazimuth angle is retrieved and found to be consistent with the fault geometry. We also show that the homogeneous acoustic model does not yield satisfying results when extracting microseismic event depth, because of the ambiguity between depth and the apparent velocity based on surface data.〈/span〉
    Print ISSN: 2051-1965
    Electronic ISSN: 1365-246X
    Topics: Geosciences
    Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of The Deutsche Geophysikalische Gesellschaft (DGG) and the Royal Astronomical Society (RAS).
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  • 5
    Publication Date: 2019
    Description: 〈span〉〈div〉Summary〈/div〉We introduce a methodology based on array processing to detect and locate weak seismic events in a complex fault zone environment. The method is illustrated using data recorded by a dense array of 1108 vertical component geophones in a 600 m x 600 m area on the Clark branch of the San Jacinto Fault. Because surface and atmospheric sources affect weak ground motion, it is necessary to discriminate them from weak seismic sources at depth. Source epicentral positions and associated apparent velocities are extracted from continuous seismic waveforms using Match Field Processing (MFP). We implement MFP at specific frequencies targeting surface and subsurface sources, using for computational efficiency a forward model of acoustic source in a homogenous medium and Markov-Chain Monte Carlo sampling. Surface sources such as Betsy gun shots and a moving vehicle are successfully located. Weak seismic events are also detected outside of the array, and their back-azimuth angle is retrieved and found to be consistent with the fault geometry. We also show that the homogeneous acoustic model does not yield satisfying results when extracting micro-seismic event depth, because of the ambiguity between depth and the apparent velocity based on surface data.〈/span〉
    Print ISSN: 2051-1965
    Electronic ISSN: 1365-246X
    Topics: Geosciences
    Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of The Deutsche Geophysikalische Gesellschaft (DGG) and the Royal Astronomical Society (RAS).
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  • 6
    Publication Date: 2019
    Description: 〈p〉Rho guanosine triphosphatases (GTPases) are master regulators of cell signaling, but how they are regulated depending on the cellular context is unclear. We found that the phospholipid phosphatidylserine acts as a developmentally controlled lipid rheostat that tunes Rho GTPase signaling in 〈i〉Arabidopsis〈/i〉. Live superresolution single-molecule imaging revealed that the protein Rho of Plants 6 (ROP6) is stabilized by phosphatidylserine into plasma membrane nanodomains, which are required for auxin signaling. Our experiments also revealed that the plasma membrane phosphatidylserine content varies during plant root development and that the level of phosphatidylserine modulates the quantity of ROP6 nanoclusters induced by auxin and hence downstream signaling, including regulation of endocytosis and gravitropism. Our work shows that variations in phosphatidylserine levels are a physiological process that may be leveraged to regulate small GTPase signaling during development.〈/p〉
    Print ISSN: 0036-8075
    Electronic ISSN: 1095-9203
    Topics: Biology , Chemistry and Pharmacology , Computer Science , Medicine , Natural Sciences in General , Physics
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  • 7
    Publication Date: 2012-07-18
    Description: The peopling of the Americas has been the subject of extensive genetic, archaeological and linguistic research; however, central questions remain unresolved. One contentious issue is whether the settlement occurred by means of a single migration or multiple streams of migration from Siberia. The pattern of dispersals within the Americas is also poorly understood. To address these questions at a higher resolution than was previously possible, we assembled data from 52 Native American and 17 Siberian groups genotyped at 364,470 single nucleotide polymorphisms. Here we show that Native Americans descend from at least three streams of Asian gene flow. Most descend entirely from a single ancestral population that we call 'First American'. However, speakers of Eskimo-Aleut languages from the Arctic inherit almost half their ancestry from a second stream of Asian gene flow, and the Na-Dene-speaking Chipewyan from Canada inherit roughly one-tenth of their ancestry from a third stream. We show that the initial peopling followed a southward expansion facilitated by the coast, with sequential population splits and little gene flow after divergence, especially in South America. A major exception is in Chibchan speakers on both sides of the Panama isthmus, who have ancestry from both North and South America.〈br /〉〈br /〉〈a href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3615710/" target="_blank"〉〈img src="https://static.pubmed.gov/portal/portal3rc.fcgi/4089621/img/3977009" border="0"〉〈/a〉   〈a href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3615710/" target="_blank"〉This paper as free author manuscript - peer-reviewed and accepted for publication〈/a〉〈br /〉〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Notes: 〈/span〉Reich, David -- Patterson, Nick -- Campbell, Desmond -- Tandon, Arti -- Mazieres, Stephane -- Ray, Nicolas -- Parra, Maria V -- Rojas, Winston -- Duque, Constanza -- Mesa, Natalia -- Garcia, Luis F -- Triana, Omar -- Blair, Silvia -- Maestre, Amanda -- Dib, Juan C -- Bravi, Claudio M -- Bailliet, Graciela -- Corach, Daniel -- Hunemeier, Tabita -- Bortolini, Maria Catira -- Salzano, Francisco M -- Petzl-Erler, Maria Luiza -- Acuna-Alonzo, Victor -- Aguilar-Salinas, Carlos -- Canizales-Quinteros, Samuel -- Tusie-Luna, Teresa -- Riba, Laura -- Rodriguez-Cruz, Maricela -- Lopez-Alarcon, Mardia -- Coral-Vazquez, Ramon -- Canto-Cetina, Thelma -- Silva-Zolezzi, Irma -- Fernandez-Lopez, Juan Carlos -- Contreras, Alejandra V -- Jimenez-Sanchez, Gerardo -- Gomez-Vazquez, Maria Jose -- Molina, Julio -- Carracedo, Angel -- Salas, Antonio -- Gallo, Carla -- Poletti, Giovanni -- Witonsky, David B -- Alkorta-Aranburu, Gorka -- Sukernik, Rem I -- Osipova, Ludmila -- Fedorova, Sardana A -- Vasquez, Rene -- Villena, Mercedes -- Moreau, Claudia -- Barrantes, Ramiro -- Pauls, David -- Excoffier, Laurent -- Bedoya, Gabriel -- Rothhammer, Francisco -- Dugoujon, Jean-Michel -- Larrouy, Georges -- Klitz, William -- Labuda, Damian -- Kidd, Judith -- Kidd, Kenneth -- Di Rienzo, Anna -- Freimer, Nelson B -- Price, Alkes L -- Ruiz-Linares, Andres -- BB/1021213/1/Biotechnology and Biological Sciences Research Council/United Kingdom -- GM057672/GM/NIGMS NIH HHS/ -- GM079558/GM/NIGMS NIH HHS/ -- GM079558-S1/GM/NIGMS NIH HHS/ -- HG006399/HG/NHGRI NIH HHS/ -- MH075007/MH/NIMH NIH HHS/ -- NS037484/NS/NINDS NIH HHS/ -- NS043538/NS/NINDS NIH HHS/ -- R01 GM079558/GM/NIGMS NIH HHS/ -- R01 GM100233/GM/NIGMS NIH HHS/ -- R01 HG006399/HG/NHGRI NIH HHS/ -- R21 DK073818/DK/NIDDK NIH HHS/ -- Canadian Institutes of Health Research/Canada -- England -- Nature. 2012 Aug 16;488(7411):370-4. doi: 10.1038/nature11258.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Author address: 〈/span〉Department of Genetics, Harvard Medical School, Boston, Massachusetts 02115, USA. reich@genetics.med.harvard.edu〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Record origin:〈/span〉 〈a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22801491" target="_blank"〉PubMed〈/a〉
    Keywords: Americas ; Asia ; Cluster Analysis ; Emigration and Immigration/*history/statistics & numerical data ; Gene Flow ; Genetics, Population ; History, Ancient ; Humans ; Indians, North American/*genetics/*history ; Models, Genetic ; *Phylogeny ; Polymorphism, Single Nucleotide/genetics ; Siberia
    Print ISSN: 0028-0836
    Electronic ISSN: 1476-4687
    Topics: Biology , Chemistry and Pharmacology , Medicine , Natural Sciences in General , Physics
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  • 8
    Publication Date: 2014-08-15
    Description: Neurotransmitter-gated ion channels of the Cys-loop receptor family mediate fast neurotransmission throughout the nervous system. The molecular processes of neurotransmitter binding, subsequent opening of the ion channel and ion permeation remain poorly understood. Here we present the X-ray structure of a mammalian Cys-loop receptor, the mouse serotonin 5-HT3 receptor, at 3.5 A resolution. The structure of the proteolysed receptor, made up of two fragments and comprising part of the intracellular domain, was determined in complex with stabilizing nanobodies. The extracellular domain reveals the detailed anatomy of the neurotransmitter binding site capped by a nanobody. The membrane domain delimits an aqueous pore with a 4.6 A constriction. In the intracellular domain, a bundle of five intracellular helices creates a closed vestibule where lateral portals are obstructed by loops. This 5-HT3 receptor structure, revealing part of the intracellular domain, expands the structural basis for understanding the operating mechanism of mammalian Cys-loop receptors.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Notes: 〈/span〉Hassaine, Gherici -- Deluz, Cedric -- Grasso, Luigino -- Wyss, Romain -- Tol, Menno B -- Hovius, Ruud -- Graff, Alexandra -- Stahlberg, Henning -- Tomizaki, Takashi -- Desmyter, Aline -- Moreau, Christophe -- Li, Xiao-Dan -- Poitevin, Frederic -- Vogel, Horst -- Nury, Hugues -- England -- Nature. 2014 Aug 21;512(7514):276-81. doi: 10.1038/nature13552. Epub 2014 Aug 3.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Author address: 〈/span〉1] Laboratory of Physical Chemistry of Polymers and Membranes, Ecole Polytechnique Federale de Lausanne, CH-1015 Lausanne, Switzerland [2] [3] Theranyx, 163 Avenue de Luminy, 13288 Marseille, France. ; 1] Laboratory of Physical Chemistry of Polymers and Membranes, Ecole Polytechnique Federale de Lausanne, CH-1015 Lausanne, Switzerland [2]. ; Laboratory of Physical Chemistry of Polymers and Membranes, Ecole Polytechnique Federale de Lausanne, CH-1015 Lausanne, Switzerland. ; Center for Cellular Imaging and NanoAnalytics, Biozentrum, University of Basel, CH-4058 Basel, Switzerland. ; Swiss Light Source, Paul Scherrer Institute, CH-5234 Villigen, Switzerland. ; Architecture et Fonction des Macromolecules Biologiques, CNRS UMR 7257 and Universite Aix-Marseille, F-13288 Marseille, France. ; 1] Universite Grenoble Alpes, IBS, F-38000 Grenoble, France [2] CNRS, IBS, F-38000 Grenoble, France [3] CEA, DSV, IBS, F-38000 Grenoble, France. ; Laboratory of Biomolecular Research, Paul Scherrer Institute, CH-5232 Villigen, Switzerland. ; Unite de Dynamique Structurale des Macromolecules, Institut Pasteur, CNRS UMR3528, F-75015 Paris, France. ; 1] Laboratory of Physical Chemistry of Polymers and Membranes, Ecole Polytechnique Federale de Lausanne, CH-1015 Lausanne, Switzerland [2] Universite Grenoble Alpes, IBS, F-38000 Grenoble, France [3] CNRS, IBS, F-38000 Grenoble, France [4] CEA, DSV, IBS, F-38000 Grenoble, France.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Record origin:〈/span〉 〈a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25119048" target="_blank"〉PubMed〈/a〉
    Keywords: Amino Acid Sequence ; Animals ; Binding Sites ; Crystallography, X-Ray ; Mice ; Models, Molecular ; Molecular Sequence Data ; Neurotransmitter Agents/metabolism ; Protein Structure, Quaternary ; Protein Structure, Tertiary ; Protein Subunits/chemistry/metabolism ; Receptors, Serotonin, 5-HT3/*chemistry/metabolism
    Print ISSN: 0028-0836
    Electronic ISSN: 1476-4687
    Topics: Biology , Chemistry and Pharmacology , Medicine , Natural Sciences in General , Physics
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  • 9
    Publication Date: 2014-08-06
    Description: Although the bovine tuberculosis (TB) agent, Mycobacterium bovis, may infect humans and cause disease, long-term epidemiological data indicate that humans represent a spill-over host in which infection with M. bovis is not self-maintaining. Indeed, human-to-human transmission of M. bovis strains and other members of the animal lineage of the tubercle...
    Print ISSN: 0027-8424
    Electronic ISSN: 1091-6490
    Topics: Biology , Medicine , Natural Sciences in General
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  • 10
    Publication Date: 2016-01-09
    Description: The reaction of singlet molecular oxygen with purine DNA bases is investigated by computational means. We support the formation of a transient endoperoxide for guanine and by classical molecular dynamics simulations we demonstrate that the formation of this adduct does not affect the B-helicity. We thus identify the guanine endoperoxide as a key intermediate, confirming a low-temperature nuclear magnetic resonance proof of its existence, and we delineate its degradation pathway, tracing back the preferential formation of 8-oxoguanine versus spiro-derivates in B-DNA. Finally, the latter oxidized 8-oxodGuo product exhibits an almost barrierless reaction profile, and hence is found, coherently with experience, to be much more reactive than guanine itself. On the contrary, in agreement with experimental observations, singlet-oxygen reactivity onto adenine is kinetically blocked by a higher energy transition state.
    Print ISSN: 0305-1048
    Electronic ISSN: 1362-4962
    Topics: Biology
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