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    Publication Date: 2016-05-27
    Description: Educational attainment is strongly influenced by social and other environmental factors, but genetic factors are estimated to account for at least 20% of the variation across individuals. Here we report the results of a genome-wide association study (GWAS) for educational attainment that extends our earlier discovery sample of 101,069 individuals to 293,723 individuals, and a replication study in an independent sample of 111,349 individuals from the UK Biobank. We identify 74 genome-wide significant loci associated with the number of years of schooling completed. Single-nucleotide polymorphisms associated with educational attainment are disproportionately found in genomic regions regulating gene expression in the fetal brain. Candidate genes are preferentially expressed in neural tissue, especially during the prenatal period, and enriched for biological pathways involved in neural development. Our findings demonstrate that, even for a behavioural phenotype that is mostly environmentally determined, a well-powered GWAS identifies replicable associated genetic variants that suggest biologically relevant pathways. Because educational attainment is measured in large numbers of individuals, it will continue to be useful as a proxy phenotype in efforts to characterize the genetic influences of related phenotypes, including cognition and neuropsychiatric diseases.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Notes: 〈/span〉Okbay, Aysu -- Beauchamp, Jonathan P -- Fontana, Mark Alan -- Lee, James J -- Pers, Tune H -- Rietveld, Cornelius A -- Turley, Patrick -- Chen, Guo-Bo -- Emilsson, Valur -- Meddens, S Fleur W -- Oskarsson, Sven -- Pickrell, Joseph K -- Thom, Kevin -- Timshel, Pascal -- de Vlaming, Ronald -- Abdellaoui, Abdel -- Ahluwalia, Tarunveer S -- Bacelis, Jonas -- Baumbach, Clemens -- Bjornsdottir, Gyda -- Brandsma, Johannes H -- Pina Concas, Maria -- Derringer, Jaime -- Furlotte, Nicholas A -- Galesloot, Tessel E -- Girotto, Giorgia -- Gupta, Richa -- Hall, Leanne M -- Harris, Sarah E -- Hofer, Edith -- Horikoshi, Momoko -- Huffman, Jennifer E -- Kaasik, Kadri -- Kalafati, Ioanna P -- Karlsson, Robert -- Kong, Augustine -- Lahti, Jari -- van der Lee, Sven J -- deLeeuw, Christiaan -- Lind, Penelope A -- Lindgren, Karl-Oskar -- Liu, Tian -- Mangino, Massimo -- Marten, Jonathan -- Mihailov, Evelin -- Miller, Michael B -- van der Most, Peter J -- Oldmeadow, Christopher -- Payton, Antony -- Pervjakova, Natalia -- Peyrot, Wouter J -- Qian, Yong -- Raitakari, Olli -- Rueedi, Rico -- Salvi, Erika -- Schmidt, Borge -- Schraut, Katharina E -- Shi, Jianxin -- Smith, Albert V -- Poot, Raymond A -- St Pourcain, Beate -- Teumer, Alexander -- Thorleifsson, Gudmar -- Verweij, Niek -- Vuckovic, Dragana -- Wellmann, Juergen -- Westra, Harm-Jan -- Yang, Jingyun -- Zhao, Wei -- Zhu, Zhihong -- Alizadeh, Behrooz Z -- Amin, Najaf -- Bakshi, Andrew -- Baumeister, Sebastian E -- Biino, Ginevra -- Bonnelykke, Klaus -- Boyle, Patricia A -- Campbell, Harry -- Cappuccio, Francesco P -- Davies, Gail -- De Neve, Jan-Emmanuel -- Deloukas, Panos -- Demuth, Ilja -- Ding, Jun -- Eibich, Peter -- Eisele, Lewin -- Eklund, Niina -- Evans, David M -- Faul, Jessica D -- Feitosa, Mary F -- Forstner, Andreas J -- Gandin, Ilaria -- Gunnarsson, Bjarni -- Halldorsson, Bjarni V -- Harris, Tamara B -- Heath, Andrew C -- Hocking, Lynne J -- Holliday, Elizabeth G -- Homuth, Georg -- Horan, Michael A -- Hottenga, Jouke-Jan -- de Jager, Philip L -- Joshi, Peter K -- Jugessur, Astanand -- Kaakinen, Marika A -- Kahonen, Mika -- Kanoni, Stavroula -- Keltigangas-Jarvinen, Liisa -- Kiemeney, Lambertus A L M -- Kolcic, Ivana -- Koskinen, Seppo -- Kraja, Aldi T -- Kroh, Martin -- Kutalik, Zoltan -- Latvala, Antti -- Launer, Lenore J -- Lebreton, Mael P -- Levinson, Douglas F -- Lichtenstein, Paul -- Lichtner, Peter -- Liewald, David C M -- LifeLines Cohort Study -- Loukola, Anu -- Madden, Pamela A -- Magi, Reedik -- Maki-Opas, Tomi -- Marioni, Riccardo E -- Marques-Vidal, Pedro -- Meddens, Gerardus A -- McMahon, George -- Meisinger, Christa -- Meitinger, Thomas -- Milaneschi, Yusplitri -- Milani, Lili -- Montgomery, Grant W -- Myhre, Ronny -- Nelson, Christopher P -- Nyholt, Dale R -- Ollier, William E R -- Palotie, Aarno -- Paternoster, Lavinia -- Pedersen, Nancy L -- Petrovic, Katja E -- Porteous, David J -- Raikkonen, Katri -- Ring, Susan M -- Robino, Antonietta -- Rostapshova, Olga -- Rudan, Igor -- Rustichini, Aldo -- Salomaa, Veikko -- Sanders, Alan R -- Sarin, Antti-Pekka -- Schmidt, Helena -- Scott, Rodney J -- Smith, Blair H -- Smith, Jennifer A -- Staessen, Jan A -- Steinhagen-Thiessen, Elisabeth -- Strauch, Konstantin -- Terracciano, Antonio -- Tobin, Martin D -- Ulivi, Sheila -- Vaccargiu, Simona -- Quaye, Lydia -- van Rooij, Frank J A -- Venturini, Cristina -- Vinkhuyzen, Anna A E -- Volker, Uwe -- Volzke, Henry -- Vonk, Judith M -- Vozzi, Diego -- Waage, Johannes -- Ware, Erin B -- Willemsen, Gonneke -- Attia, John R -- Bennett, David A -- Berger, Klaus -- Bertram, Lars -- Bisgaard, Hans -- Boomsma, Dorret I -- Borecki, Ingrid B -- Bultmann, Ute -- Chabris, Christopher F -- Cucca, Francesco -- Cusi, Daniele -- Deary, Ian J -- Dedoussis, George V -- van Duijn, Cornelia M -- Eriksson, Johan G -- Franke, Barbara -- Franke, Lude -- Gasparini, Paolo -- Gejman, Pablo V -- Gieger, Christian -- Grabe, Hans-Jorgen -- Gratten, Jacob -- Groenen, Patrick J F -- Gudnason, Vilmundur -- van der Harst, Pim -- Hayward, Caroline -- Hinds, David A -- Hoffmann, Wolfgang -- Hypponen, Elina -- Iacono, William G -- Jacobsson, Bo -- Jarvelin, Marjo-Riitta -- Jockel, Karl-Heinz -- Kaprio, Jaakko -- Kardia, Sharon L R -- Lehtimaki, Terho -- Lehrer, Steven F -- Magnusson, Patrik K E -- Martin, Nicholas G -- McGue, Matt -- Metspalu, Andres -- Pendleton, Neil -- Penninx, Brenda W J H -- Perola, Markus -- Pirastu, Nicola -- Pirastu, Mario -- Polasek, Ozren -- Posthuma, Danielle -- Power, Christine -- Province, Michael A -- Samani, Nilesh J -- Schlessinger, David -- Schmidt, Reinhold -- Sorensen, Thorkild I A -- Spector, Tim D -- Stefansson, Kari -- Thorsteinsdottir, Unnur -- Thurik, A Roy -- Timpson, Nicholas J -- Tiemeier, Henning -- Tung, Joyce Y -- Uitterlinden, Andre G -- Vitart, Veronique -- Vollenweider, Peter -- Weir, David R -- Wilson, James F -- Wright, Alan F -- Conley, Dalton C -- Krueger, Robert F -- Davey Smith, George -- Hofman, Albert -- Laibson, David I -- Medland, Sarah E -- Meyer, Michelle N -- Yang, Jian -- Johannesson, Magnus -- Visscher, Peter M -- Esko, Tonu -- Koellinger, Philipp D -- Cesarini, David -- Benjamin, Daniel J -- P01-AG005842/AG/NIA NIH HHS/ -- P01-AG005842-20S2/AG/NIA NIH HHS/ -- P30-AG012810/AG/NIA NIH HHS/ -- R01-AG042568/AG/NIA NIH HHS/ -- T32-AG000186-23/AG/NIA NIH HHS/ -- England -- Nature. 2016 May 11;533(7604):539-42. doi: 10.1038/nature17671.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Author address: 〈/span〉Department of Applied Economics, Erasmus School of Economics, Erasmus University Rotterdam, Rotterdam, 3062 PA, The Netherlands. ; Department of Epidemiology, Erasmus Medical Center, Rotterdam, 3015 GE, The Netherlands. ; Erasmus University Rotterdam Institute for Behavior and Biology, Rotterdam, 3062 PA, The Netherlands. ; Department of Economics, Harvard University, Cambridge, Massachusetts 02138, USA. ; Center for Economic and Social Research, University of Southern California, Los Angeles, California 90089-3332, USA. ; Department of Psychology, University of Minnesota Twin Cities, Minneapolis, Minnesota 55455, USA. ; Division of Endocrinology and Center for Basic and Translational Obesity Research, Boston Children's Hospital, Boston, Massachusetts 2116, USA. ; Program in Medical and Population Genetics, Broad Institute of MIT and Harvard, Cambridge, Massachusetts 02142, USA. ; The Novo Nordisk Foundation Center for Basic Metabolic Research, Section of Metabolic Genetics, University of Copenhagen, Faculty of Health and Medical Sciences, Copenhagen 2100, Denmark. ; Statens Serum Institut, Department of Epidemiology Research, Copenhagen 2300, Denmark. ; Queensland Brain Institute, The University of Queensland, Brisbane, QLD 4072, Australia. ; Icelandic Heart Association, Kopavogur 201, Iceland. ; Faculty of Pharmaceutical Sciences, University of Iceland, Reykjavik 107, Iceland. ; Department of Complex Trait Genetics, VU University, Center for Neurogenomics and Cognitive Research, Amsterdam, 1081 HV, The Netherlands. ; Amsterdam Business School, University of Amsterdam, Amsterdam, 1018 TV, The Netherlands. ; Department of Government, Uppsala University, Uppsala 751 20, Sweden. ; New York Genome Center, New York, New York 10013, USA. ; Department of Economics, New York University, New York, New York 10012, USA. ; Center for Biological Sequence Analysis, Department of Systems Biology, Technical University of Denmark Lyngby 2800, Denmark. ; Department of Biological Psychology, VU University Amsterdam, Amsterdam, 1081 BT, The Netherlands. ; COPSAC, Copenhagen Prospective Studies on Asthma in Childhood, Herlev and Gentofte Hospital, University of Copenhagen, Copenhagen 2820, Denmark. ; Steno Diabetes Center, Gentofte 2820, Denmark. ; Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Institute of Clinical Sciences, Sahlgrenska Academy, Gothenburg 416 85, Sweden. ; Research Unit of Molecular Epidemiology, Helmholtz Zentrum Munchen, German Research Center for Environmental Health, Neuherberg 85764, Germany. ; Institute of Epidemiology II, Helmholtz Zentrum Munchen, German Research Center for Environmental Health, Neuherberg 85764, Germany. ; deCODE Genetics/Amgen Inc., Reykjavik 101, Iceland. ; Department of Cell Biology, Erasmus Medical Center Rotterdam, 3015 CN, The Netherlands. ; Istituto di Ricerca Genetica e Biomedica U.O.S. di Sassari, National Research Council of Italy, Sassari 07100, Italy. ; Psychology, University of Illinois, Champaign, Illinois 61820, USA. ; 23andMe, Inc., Mountain View, California 94041, USA. ; Radboud Institute for Health Sciences, Radboud University Medical Center, Nijmegen, 6500 HB, The Netherlands. ; Department of Medical, Surgical and Health Sciences, University of Trieste, Trieste 34100, Italy. ; Department of Public Health, University of Helsinki, 00014 Helsinki, Finland. ; Department of Cardiovascular Sciences, University of Leicester, Leicester LE3 9QP, UK. ; NIHR Leicester Cardiovascular Biomedical Research Unit, Glenfield Hospital, Leicester LE3 9QP, UK. ; Centre for Cognitive Ageing and Cognitive Epidemiology, University of Edinburgh, Edinburgh EH8 9JZ, UK. ; Centre for Genomic and Experimental Medicine, Institute of Genetics and Molecular Medicine, University of Edinburgh, Edinburgh EH4 2XU, UK. ; Department of Neurology, General Hospital and Medical University Graz, Graz 8036, Austria. ; Institute for Medical Informatics, Statistics and Documentation, General Hospital and Medical University Graz, Graz 8036, Austria. ; Oxford Centre for Diabetes, Endocrinology &Metabolism, University of Oxford, Oxford OX3 7LE, UK. ; Wellcome Trust Centre for Human Genetics, University of Oxford, Oxford OX3 7BN, UK. ; MRC Human Genetics Unit, Institute of Genetics and Molecular Medicine, University of Edinburgh, Edinburgh EH4 2XU, UK. ; Institute of Behavioural Sciences, University of Helsinki, 00014 Helsinki, Finland. ; Nutrition and Dietetics, Health Science and Education, Harokopio University, Athens 17671, Greece. ; Department of Medical Epidemiology and Biostatistics, Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm 171 77, Sweden. ; Folkhalsan Research Centre, 00014 Helsingfors, Finland. ; Institute for Computing and Information Sciences, Radboud University Nijmegen, Nijmegen, 6525 EC, The Netherlands. ; Quantitative Genetics, QIMR Berghofer Medical Research Institute, Brisbane, QLD 4029, Australia. ; Lifespan Psychology, Max Planck Institute for Human Development, Berlin 14195, Germany. ; Department of Twin Research and Genetic Epidemiology, King's College London, London SE1 7EH, UK. ; NIHR Biomedical Research Centre, Guy's and St. Thomas' Foundation Trust, London SE1 7EH, UK. ; Estonian Genome Center, University of Tartu, Tartu 51010, Estonia. ; Department of Epidemiology, University of Groningen, University Medical Center Groningen, Groningen, 9700 RB, The Netherlands. ; Public Health Stream, Hunter Medical Research Institute, New Lambton, NSW 2305, Australia. ; Faculty of Health and Medicine, University of Newcastle, Newcastle, NSW 2300, Australia. ; Centre for Integrated Genomic Medical Research, Institute of Population Health, The University of Manchester, Manchester M13 9PT, UK. ; Human Communication and Deafness, School of Psychological Sciences, The University of Manchester, Manchester M13 9PL, UK. ; Department of Health, THL-National Institute for Health and Welfare, 00271 Helsinki, Finland. ; Psychiatry, VU University Medical Center &GGZ inGeest, Amsterdam, 1081 HL, The Netherlands. ; Laboratory of Genetics, National Institute on Aging, Baltimore, Maryland 21224, USA. ; Research Centre of Applied and Preventive Cardiovascular Medicine, University of Turku, 20521 Turku, Finland. ; Department of Medical Genetics, University of Lausanne, Lausanne 1005, Switzerland. ; Swiss Institute of Bioinformatics, Lausanne 1015, Switzerland. ; Department Of Health Sciences, University of Milan, Milano 20142, Italy. ; Institute for Medical Informatics, Biometry and Epidemiology, University Hospital of Essen, Essen 45147, Germany. ; Centre for Global Health Research, The Usher Institute for Population Health Sciences and Informatics, University of Edinburgh, Edinburgh EH8 9AG, UK. ; Division of Cancer Epidemiology and Genetics, National Cancer Institute, Bethesda, Maryland 20892-9780, USA. ; Faculty of Medicine, University of Iceland, Reykjavik 101, Iceland. ; MRC Integrative Epidemiology Unit, University of Bristol, Bristol BS8 2BN, UK. ; School of Oral and Dental Sciences, University of Bristol, Bristol BS1 2LY, UK. ; Institute for Community Medicine, University Medicine Greifswald, Greifswald 17475, Germany. ; Department of Cardiology, University Medical Center Groningen, University of Groningen, Groningen, 9700 RB, The Netherlands. ; Institute of Epidemiology and Social Medicine, University of Munster, Munster 48149, Germany. ; Divisions of Genetics and Rheumatology, Department of Medicine, Brigham and Women's Hospital, Harvard Medical School, Boston, Massachusetts 02115, USA. ; Partners Center for Personalized Genetic Medicine, Boston, Massachusetts 02115, USA. ; Rush Alzheimer's Disease Center, Rush University Medical Center, Chicago, Illinois 60612, USA. ; Department of Neurological Sciences, Rush University Medical Center, Chicago, Illinois 60612, USA. ; Department of Epidemiology, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, Michigan 48109, USA. ; Department of Gastroenterology and Hepatology, University of Groningen, University Medical Center Groningen, Groningen, 9713 GZ, The Netherlands. ; Institute of Epidemiology and Preventive Medicine, University of Regensburg, Regensburg D-93053, Germany. ; Institute of Molecular Genetics, National Research Council of Italy, Pavia 27100, Italy. ; Department of Behavioral Sciences, Rush University Medical Center, Chicago, Illinois 60612, USA. ; Warwick Medical School, University of Warwick, Coventry CV4 7AL, UK. ; Department of Psychology, University of Edinburgh, Edinburgh EH8 9JZ, UK. ; Said Business School, University of Oxford, Oxford OX1 1HP, UK. ; William Harvey Research Institute, Barts and The London School of Medicine and Dentistry, Queen Mary University of London, London EC1M 6BQ, UK. ; Princess Al-Jawhara Al-Brahim Centre of Excellence in Research of Hereditary Disorders (PACER-HD), King Abdulaziz University, Jeddah 21589, Saudi Arabia. ; The Berlin Aging Study II; Research Group on Geriatrics, Charite - Universitatsmedizin Berlin, Germany, Berlin 13347, Germany. ; Institute of Medical and Human Genetics, Charite-Universitatsmedizin, Berlin, Berlin 13353, Germany. ; German Socio- Economic Panel Study, DIW Berlin, Berlin 10117, Germany. ; Health Economics Research Centre, Nuffield Department of Population Health, University of Oxford, Oxford OX3 7LF, UK. ; The University of Queensland Diamantina Institute, The Translational Research Institute, Brisbane, QLD 4102, Australia. ; Survey Research Center, Institute for Social Research, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, Michigan 48109, USA. ; Department of Genetics, Division of Statistical Genomics, Washington University School of Medicine, St. Louis, Missouri 63018, USA. ; Institute of Human Genetics, University of Bonn, Bonn 53127, Germany. ; Department of Genomics, Life and Brain Center, University of Bonn, Bonn 53127, Germany. ; Institute of Biomedical and Neural Engineering, School of Science and Engineering, Reykjavik University, Reykjavik 101, Iceland. ; Laboratory of Epidemiology, Demography, National Institute on Aging, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, Maryland 20892-9205, USA. ; Department of Psychiatry, Washington University School of Medicine, St. Louis, Missouri 63110, USA. ; Division of Applied Health Sciences, University of Aberdeen, Aberdeen AB25 2ZD, UK. ; Interfaculty Institute for Genetics and Functional Genomics, University Medicine Greifswald, Greifswald 17475, Germany. ; Manchester Medical School, The University of Manchester, Manchester M13 9PT, UK. ; Program in Translational NeuroPsychiatric Genomics, Departments of Neurology &Psychiatry, Brigham and Women's Hospital, Boston, Massachusetts 02115, USA. ; Harvard Medical School, Boston, Massachusetts 02115, USA. ; Department of Genes and Environment, Norwegian Institute of Public Health, N-0403 Oslo, Norway. ; Department of Genomics of Common Disease, Imperial College London, London, W12 0NN, UK. ; Department of Clinical Physiology, Tampere University Hospital, 33521 Tampere, Finland. ; Department of Clinical Physiology, University of Tampere, School of Medicine, 33014 Tampere, Finland. ; Public Health, Medical School, University of Split, 21000 Split, Croatia. ; Institute of Social and Preventive Medicine, Lausanne University Hospital (CHUV), Lausanne 1010, Switzerland. ; Neuroepidemiology Section, National Institute on Aging, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, Maryland 20892-9205, USA. ; Amsterdam Brain and Cognition Center, University of Amsterdam, Amsterdam, 1018 XA, The Netherlands. ; Department of Psychiatry and Behavioral Sciences, Stanford University, Stanford, California 94305-5797, USA. ; Institute of Human Genetics, Helmholtz Zentrum Munchen, German Research Center for Environmental Health, Neuherberg 85764, Germany. ; Medical Genetics Section, Centre for Genomic and Experimental Medicine, Institute of Genetics and Molecular Medicine, University of Edinburgh, Edinburgh, EH4 2XU, UK. ; Department of Internal Medicine, Internal Medicine, Lausanne University Hospital (CHUV), Lausanne 1011, Switzerland. ; Tema BV, Hoofddorp, 2131 HE, The Netherlands. ; Molecular Epidemiology, QIMR Berghofer Medical Research Institute, Brisbane, QLD 4029, Australia. ; Institute of Health and Biomedical Innovation, Queensland Institute of Technology, Brisbane, QLD 4059, Australia. ; Analytic and Translational Genetics Unit, Department of Medicine, Massachusetts General Hospital, Boston, Massachusetts 02114, USA. ; The Stanley Center for Psychiatric Research, Broad Institute of MIT and Harvard, Cambridge, Massachusetts 02142, USA. ; Psychiatric &Neurodevelopmental Genetics Unit, Department of Psychiatry, Massachusetts General Hospital, Boston, Massachusetts 02114, USA. ; Institute for Molecular Medicine Finland (FIMM), University of Helsinki, Helsinki 00014, Finland. ; Department of Neurology, Massachusetts General Hospital, Boston, Massachusetts 02114, USA. ; Medical Genetics, Institute for Maternal and Child Health IRCCS "Burlo Garofolo", Trieste 34100, Italy. ; Social Impact, Arlington, Virginia 22201, USA. ; Department of Economics, University of Minnesota Twin Cities, Minneapolis, Minnesota 55455, USA. ; Department of Psychiatry and Behavioral Sciences, NorthShore University HealthSystem, Evanston, Illinois 60201-3137, USA. ; Department of Psychiatry and Behavioral Neuroscience, University of Chicago, Chicago, Illinois 60637, USA. ; Public Health Genomics Unit, National Institute for Health and Welfare, 00300 Helsinki, Finland. ; Research Unit for Genetic Epidemiology, Institute of Molecular Biology and Biochemistry, Center of Molecular Medicine, General Hospital and Medical University, Graz, Graz 8010, Austria. ; Information Based Medicine Stream, Hunter Medical Research Institute, New Lambton, NSW 2305, Australia. ; Medical Research Institute, University of Dundee, Dundee DD1 9SY, UK. ; Research Unit Hypertension and Cardiovascular Epidemiology, Department of Cardiovascular Science, University of Leuven, Leuven 3000, Belgium. ; R&D VitaK Group, Maastricht University, Maastricht, 6229 EV, The Netherlands. ; Institute of Genetic Epidemiology, Helmholtz Zentrum Munchen, German Research Center for Environmental Health, Neuherberg 85764, Germany. ; Institute of Medical Informatics, Biometry and Epidemiology, Chair of Genetic Epidemiology, Ludwig Maximilians-Universitat, Munich 81377, Germany. ; Department of Geriatrics, Florida State University College of Medicine, Tallahassee, Florida 32306, USA. ; Department of Health Sciences and Genetics, University of Leicester, Leicester LE1 7RH, UK. ; Department of Internal Medicine, Erasmus Medical Center, Rotterdam, 3015 GE, The Netherlands. ; Research Center for Group Dynamics, Institute for Social Research, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, Michigan 48104, USA. ; Platform for Genome Analytics, Institutes of Neurogenetics &Integrative and Experimental Genomics, University of Lubeck, Lubeck 23562, Germany. ; Neuroepidemiology and Ageing Research Unit, School of Public Health, Faculty of Medicine, Imperial College of Science, Technology and Medicine, London SW7 2AZ, UK. ; Department of Health Sciences, Community &Occupational Medicine, University of Groningen, University Medical Center Groningen, Groningen, 9713 AV, The Netherlands. ; Department of Psychology, Union College, Schenectady, New York 12308, USA. ; Istituto di Ricerca Genetica e Biomedica (IRGB), Consiglio Nazionale delle Ricerche, c/o Cittadella Universitaria di Monserrato, Monserrato, Cagliari 9042, Italy. ; Institute of Biomedical Technologies, Italian National Research Council, Segrate (Milano) 20090, Italy. ; Department of General Practice and Primary Health Care, University of Helsinki, 00014 Helsinki, Finland. ; Departments of Human Genetics and Psychiatry, Donders Centre for Neuroscience, Nijmegen, 6500 HB, The Netherlands. ; Department of Genetics, University Medical Center Groningen, University of Groningen, Groningen, 9700 RB, The Netherlands. ; Sidra, Experimental Genetics Division, Sidra, Doha 26999, Qatar. ; Department of Psychiatry and Psychotherapy, University Medicine Greifswald, Greifswald 17475, Germany. ; Department of Psychiatry and Psychotherapy, HELIOS-Hospital Stralsund, Stralsund 18437, Germany. ; Econometric Institute, Erasmus School of Economics, Erasmus University Rotterdam, Rotterdam, 3062 PA, The Netherlands. ; Durrer Center for Cardiogenetic Research, ICIN-Netherlands Heart Institute, Utrecht, 1105 AZ, The Netherlands. ; Generation Scotland, Centre for Genomics and Experimental Medicine, Institute of Genetics and Molecular Medicine, University of Edinburgh, Edinburgh EH4 2XU, UK. ; Centre for Population Health Research, School of Health Sciences and Sansom Institute, University of South Australia, Adelaide, SA 5000, Australia. ; South Australian Health and Medical Research Institute, Adelaide, SA 5000, Australia. ; Population, Policy and Practice, UCL Institute of Child Health, London WC1N 1EH, UK. ; Department of Epidemiology and Biostatistics, MRC-PHE Centre for Environment &Health, School of Public Health, Imperial College London, London W2 1PG, UK. ; Center for Life Course Epidemiology, Faculty of Medicine, University of Oulu, 90014 Oulu, Finland. ; Unit of Primary Care, Oulu University Hospital, 90029 Oulu, Finland. ; Biocenter Oulu, University of Oulu, 90014 Oulu, Finland. ; Fimlab Laboratories, 33520 Tampere, Finland. ; Department of Clinical Chemistry, University of Tampere, School of Medicine, 33014 Tampere, Finland. ; Economics, NYU Shanghai, 200122 Pudong, China. ; Policy Studies, Queen's University, Kingston, Ontario K7L 3N6, Canada. ; Genetic Epidemiology, QIMR Berghofer Medical Research Institute, Brisbane, QLD 4029, Australia. ; Institute of Molecular and Cell Biology, University of Tartu, Tartu 51010, Estonia. ; Centre for Clinical and Cognitive Neuroscience, Institute Brain Behaviour and Mental Health, Salford Royal Hospital, Manchester M6 8HD, UK. ; Manchester Institute for Collaborative Research in Ageing, University of Manchester, Manchester M13 9PL, UK. ; Faculty of Medicine, University of Split, Split 21000, Croatia. ; Department of Clinical Genetics, VU Medical Centre, Amsterdam, 1081 HV, The Netherlands. ; Institute of Preventive Medicine. Bispebjerg and Frederiksberg Hospitals, The Capital Region, Frederiksberg 2000, Denmark. ; Montpellier Business School, Montpellier 34080, France. ; Panteia, Zoetermeer, 2715 CA, The Netherlands. ; Department of Psychiatry, Erasmus Medical Center, Rotterdam, 3015 GE, The Netherlands. ; Department of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, Erasmus Medical Center, Rotterdam, 3015 GE, The Netherlands. ; Department of Sociology, New York University, New York, New York 10012, USA. ; School of Medicine, New York University, New York, New York 10016, USA. ; Bioethics Program, Union Graduate College - Icahn School of Medicine at Mount Sinai, Schenectady, New York 12308, USA. ; Department of Economics, Stockholm School of Economics, Stockholm 113 83, Sweden. ; Department of Genetics, Harvard Medical School, Boston, Massachusetts 02115, USA. ; Research Institute for Industrial Economics, Stockholm 10215, Sweden.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Record origin:〈/span〉 〈a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27225129" target="_blank"〉PubMed〈/a〉
    Print ISSN: 0028-0836
    Electronic ISSN: 1476-4687
    Topics: Biology , Chemistry and Pharmacology , Medicine , Natural Sciences in General , Physics
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