Sensors, Vol. 18, Pages 2643: Galfenol Thin Films and Nanowires Sensors doi: 10.3390/s18082643 Authors: Bethanie J. H. Stadler Madhukar Reddy Rajneeta Basantkumar Patrick McGary Eliot Estrine Xiaobo Huang Sang Yeob Sung Liwen Tan Jia Zou Mazin Maqableh Daniel Shore Thomas Gage Joseph Um Matthew Hein Anirudh Sharma Galfenol (Fe1&minus;xGax, 10 &lt; x &lt; 40) may be the only smart material that can be made by electrochemical deposition which enables thick film and nanowire structures. This article reviews the deposition, characterization, and applications of Galfenol thin films and nanowires. Galfenol films have been made by sputter deposition as well as by electrochemical deposition, which can be difficult due to the insolubility of gallium. However, a stable process has been developed, using citrate complexing, a rotating disk electrode, Cu seed layers, and pulsed deposition. Galfenol thin films and nanowires have been characterized for crystal structures and magnetostriction both by our group and by collaborators. Films and nanowires have been shown to be largely polycrystalline, with magnetostrictions that are on the same order of magnitude as textured bulk Galfenol. Electrodeposited Galfenol films were made with epitaxial texture on GaAs. Galfenol nanowires have been made by electrodeposition into anodic aluminum oxide templates using similar parameters defined for films. Segmented nanowires of Galfenol/Cu have been made to provide engineered magnetic properties. Applications of Galfenol and other magnetic nanowires include microfluidic sensors, magnetic separation, cellular radio-frequency identification (RFID) tags, magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) contrast, and hyperthermia.
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