Energies, Vol. 11, Pages 99: Renewable Energy Assisted Traffic Aware Cellular Base Station Energy Cooperation Energies doi: 10.3390/en11010099 Authors: Faran Ahmed Muhammad Naeem Waleed Ejaz Muhammad Iqbal Alagan Anpalagan Hyung Kim With global concern for climate change, and for cutting down the energy cost, especially in off grid areas, use of renewable energy has been gaining widespread attention in many areas including cellular communication. The base station (BS) has emerged as a strong candidate for the integration of renewable energy sources (RES), particularly solar and wind. The incorporation of renewable energy opens many possibilities for energy conservation through strategies such as energy cooperation between BSs during the off-peak hours, when the energy harvested from renewable energy sources may become surplus. In this paper, we present the case for cellular BSs enabled with renewable energy sources (RES) to have an arrangement in which the BS provide surplus energy to a neighboring BS, thus minimizing the use of conventional energy. A realistic objective is developed for northern region of Pakistan, which entails modeling of solar panels and wind-turbine according to the average solar irradiation and wind speed of the region. We also model the dynamic load of the BS, which depicts temporal fluctuations with traffic variations. Based on these models we initiate an energy cooperation scheme between the BS in which an energy cost minimization framework is mathematically modeled and solved through the interior point method algorithm. Results are obtained for different times of the year for different number of base stations showing respective energy cost savings.
Energy, Environment Protection, Nuclear Power Engineering