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    American Association for the Advancement of Science (AAAS)
    In: Science
    Publication Date: 2019
    Description: 〈p〉We introduce the optical ruler, an electromagnetic analog of a physical ruler, for nanoscale displacement metrology. The optical ruler is a complex electromagnetic field in which singularities serve as the marks on the scale. It is created by the diffraction of light on a metasurface, with singularity marks then revealed by high-magnification interferometric observation. Using a Pancharatnam-Berry phase metasurface, we demonstrate a displacement resolving power of better than 1 nanometer (/800, where is the wavelength of light) at a wavelength of 800 nanometers. We argue that a resolving power of ~/4000, the typical size of an atom, may be achievable. An optical ruler with dimensions of only a few tens of micrometers offers applications in nanometrology, nanomonitoring, and nanofabrication, particularly in the demanding and confined environment of future smart manufacturing tools.〈/p〉
    Print ISSN: 0036-8075
    Electronic ISSN: 1095-9203
    Topics: Biology , Chemistry and Pharmacology , Computer Science , Medicine , Natural Sciences in General , Physics
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