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    Series available for loan
    Hannover : Fachrichtung Geodäsie und Geoinformatik der Leibniz-Universität Hannover
    Associated volumes
    Call number: S 99.0139(396)
    In: Wissenschaftliche Arbeiten der Fachrichtung Geodäsie und Geoinformatik der Leibniz Universität Hannover, Nr. 396
    Description / Table of Contents: With increasing urbanization, a well-functioning transport infrastructure that takes into account the needs of the society is becoming more and more important. In particular, a high proportion of motorized traffic can cause far-reaching problems that affect large parts of the urban population, such as traffic congestion or increased air pollution. To counteract this trend, an optimized distribution of traffic flows could improve the situation from a societal perspective. Since most routing decisions are made based on digital maps before the journey starts, clear and intuitive visualization is crucial for conveying the cartographic information to the traveler. While most existing services typically provide the most efficient routing options in terms of travel time, newer approaches attempt to guide drivers to societally favorable routes. These take into account societally relevant factors, which are referred to as scenarios in this thesis, and include environmental issues such as traffic congestion or air pollution. However, since such a societally favorable route is not necessarily efficient for the individual traveler, it is important to convince the traveler to choose a seemingly less efficient route. For this purpose, an automatic method for visualizing route maps is developed, which calculates societally favorable routes, and communicates them visually to the end user in such a way that the user would prefer to use them. For this communication, different visual variables of cartography are used, whose usage is adapted to the different scenarios and controlled by scenario-specific thresholds. Based on the goal of dynamic distribution of traffic flows, the proposed method recommends routes that are not necessarily the shortest or fastest, but rather those that seek to avoid unfavorable or hazardous paths or areas. The proposed design variants of route maps use a large variety of symbolization techniques; including classic visual variables of cartography such as color, size or pattern, but also more abstract methods that use cartographic generalization techniques.
    Description / Table of Contents: Mit zunehmender Verstädterung gewinnt eine gut funktionierende Verkehrsinfrastruktur, die den Bedürfnissen der Gesellschaft Rechnung trägt, immer mehr an Bedeutung. Insbesondere ein hoher Anteil an motorisiertem Verkehr kann weitreichende Probleme verursachen, die große Teile der Stadtbevölkerung betreffen, wie z.B. Verkehrsstaus oder erhöhte Luftverschmutzung. Um dieser Entwicklung entgegenzuwirken, könnte eine optimierte Verteilung der Verkehrsströme die Situation für die Gemeinschaft verbessern. Da die meisten Routing-Entscheidungen vor Reiseantritt auf der Grundlage digitaler Karten getroffen werden, ist eine klare und intuitive Visualisierung entscheidend für die Vermittlung kartografischer Informationen an den Reisenden. Während die meisten bestehenden Dienste in der Regel die effizientesten Routing-Optionen im Hinblick auf die Reisezeit bieten, versuchen neuere Ansätze, die Fahrer auf gesellschaftlich vorteilhafte Routen zu leiten. Diese berücksichtigen gesellschaftlich relevante Faktoren, die in dieser Arbeit als Szenarien bezeichnet werden. Darunter fallen Umweltprobleme wie Verkehrsstaus oder Luftverschmutzung. Da eine solche gesellschaftlich vorteilhafte Route für den einzelnen Reisenden jedoch nicht zwangsläufig effizient ist, ist es wichtig, den Reisenden davon zu überzeugen, eine scheinbar weniger effiziente Route zu wählen. Dazu wird im Rahmen der Arbeit ein automatisches Verfahren zur Visualisierung von Routenkarten entwickelt, welches gesellschaftlich vorteilhafte Routen berechnet und diese so visuell dem Endnutzer kommuniziert, dass dieser sie bevorzugt nutzen möchte. Für diese Kommunikation kommen verschiedene visuelle Variablen der Kartographie zum Einsatz, deren Verwendung auf die verschiedenen Szenarien angepasst sind und über Szenario-spezifische Schwellwerte gesteuert werden. Basierend auf dem Ziel einer dynamischen Verteilung der Verkehrsströme empfiehlt die vorgeschlagene Methode Routen, die nicht unbedingt die kürzesten oder schnellsten sind, sondern vielmehr solche Routen, die ungünstige oder gefährliche Wege oder Bereiche zu vermeiden versuchen. Die vorgeschlagenen Designvarianten von Routenkarten nutzen eine Vielzahl von Symbolisierungstechniken; darunter klassische, visuelle Variablen der Kartographie wie Farbe, Größe oder Muster, aber auch abstraktere Methoden, die kartographische Generalisierungstechniken verwenden.
    Type of Medium: Series available for loan
    Pages: 207 Seiten , Illustrationen, Diagramme , 30 cm
    ISSN: 01741454
    Series Statement: Wissenschaftliche Arbeiten der Fachrichtung Geodäsie und Geoinformatik der Leibniz Universität Hannover Nr. 396
    Language: English
    Note: Dissertation, Gottfried Wilhelm Leibniz Universität Hannover, 2024 , 1 Introduction 1.1 Motivation and problem statemen 1.2 Research objectives and key hypotheses 1.3 Structure of the thesis 2 Theoretical background 2.1 Visual communication with maps 2.2 Route choice factors 2.3 Cartographic symbolization 2.3.1 Visual variables 2.3.1.1 Levels of organization of visual variables 2.3.1.2 ‘Original visual variables’ as proposed by Bertin 2.3.1.3 Visual variable additions 2.3.1.4 Experimental visual variables 2.3.1.5 Conjunctions of visual variables 2.3.1.6 Dynamic visual variables 2.3.2 Cartographic design tools 2.3.3 Visual metaphor 2.3.4 Cartographic generalization and map abstraction 2.3.4.1 Insights from cognitive mapping research 2.3.4.2 Elementary processes of cartographic generalization 2.3.4.3 Cartographic generalization algorithms 2.4 Nudging 2.5 Maps and emotions 2.5.1 Classifying emotions 2.5.2 Instruments for measuring emotions 2.6 Map-related usability testing 2.6.1 Types of user study designs 2.6.2 Statistical analysis of user survey results 2.6.2.1 Descriptive statistics 2.6.2.2 Basic statistical tests and models 2.6.2.3 Sophisticated statistical models for non-parametric data 2.6.2.4 Statistical significance 2.6.2.5 Main effect and post-hoc tests 2.6.2.6 Effect sizes 2.6.2.7 Inter-rater reliability 2.6.2.8 Software for statistical analysis 3 Related work 3.1 Visual route communication using visual variables 3.2 Cartographic generalization for route map communication 3.3 Map-based visualization of environmental hazards 3.4 The role of emotions in map-based communication 3.5 Research gap addressed in this thesis 4 Framework and data preprocessing 4.1 Research framework 4.2 Scenarios 4.2.1 Traffic 4.2.2 Air quality 4.3 Routing 4.3.1 Data basis for route calculation 4.3.2 Calculation of favorable routes 4.3.3 Routing results 5 Visualization concepts for designing ‘social’ route maps 5.1 Map symbols 5.2 Data-based calculation of graphical differences in symbolization 5.3 Visually modified geometry 5.3.1 Line distortion and simplification 5.3.1.1 Line distortion 5.3.1.2 Line simplification 5.3.1.3 Combined approach 5.3.1.4 Topological issues and further adaptions 5.3.2 Length distortion using PUSH 5.3.3 Application to discrete areas: Geometric deformation of risk zones 5.4 Examples of route map design variants 5.4.1 Design variants for symbolizing route favorability 5.4.2 Application of the methodology to discrete objects 6 Usability evaluation of proposed route map design variants 6.1 User study 1: Subjective usability – Attractiveness, intuitiveness and suitability of design variants 6.1.1 Sub-hypotheses 6.1.2 Study design 6.1.3 Participants 6.1.4 Results – Intuitiveness and suitability 6.1.5 Results – Attractiveness 6.1.6 Discussion and conclusion – User study 1 6.2 User study 2: Objective usability – Effectiveness of line objects for influencing route choice in the traffic scenario 6.2.1 Common design specifications in user study 2 and user study 3 6.2.2 Sub-hypotheses 6.2.3 Route maps 6.2.4 Design variants 6.2.5 Calculation of graphical differences among design variants and modification intensities 6.2.6 Study design 6.2.7 Participants 6.2.8 Results – User study 2 6.2.8.1 Influencing route choice 6.2.8.2 Decision time 6.2.8.3 Route characteristics 6.2.8.4 Map use habits 6.2.9 Discussion – User study 2 6.2.9.1 Effectiveness for influencing route choice behavior 6.2.9.2 The role of time during decision making 6.2.9.3 Relations between route choice and route characteristics 6.2.9.4 Transferability of the findings to real world applications 6.2.10 Conclusion – User study 2 6.2.11 Modification of line objects using dynamic visual variables 6.3 User study 3: Objective usability – The impact of visual communication and emotions on route choice decision making using modification of line and area objects 6.3.1 Sub-hypotheses 6.3.2 Route maps 6.3.3 Design variants 6.3.3.1 Line modifications 6.3.3.2 Area modifications 6.3.3.3 Line + area modifications 6.3.4 Study design 6.3.5 Participants 6.3.6 Results – User study 3 6.3.6.1 H1: Shift towards choosing the societally favorable route 6.3.6.2 H2: Scenario-dependent willingness to adapt route choice behavior 6.3.6.3 H3: Scenario-dependent effectiveness of symbolization dimensions 6.3.6.4 H4: Influence of combining multiple visual variables in one representation 6.3.6.5 H5: Emotional responses to map symbols 6.3.6.6 H6: Effect of emotions on route choice decision making 6.3.6.7 Helpfulness of map visualizations 6.3.6.8 Route choice strategies 6.3.6.9 Text-based sentiment analysis 6.3.6.10 Suitability of visualizations 6.3.6.11 Further factors influencing route choice 6.3.7 Discussion – User study 3 6.3.7.1 Influence of different design variants on route choice 6.3.7.2 The effect of emotions on route choice 6.3.7.3 Limitations of the study design 6.3.7.4 Outlook 6.3.8 Conclusion – User study 3 7 Interactive web-based visualization of route maps 7.1 Application architecture 7.2 User interface and functionalities 7.3 User assessment to usability of the application 7.4 Usability test – Results 7.5 Limitations and future adaptions 8 Implications of the findings 8.1 Agreement with key hypotheses 8.2 Assessment regarding successful design variants for influencing route choice towards a societally favorable route 8.3 Limitations and challenges 8.4 Suggestions for future research 8.5 Summary and contribution of the dissertation Appendix Bibliography Curriculum vitae Acknowledgments
    Location: Lower compact magazine
    Branch Library: GFZ Library
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