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    Call number: 9780128171301 (e-book)
    Type of Medium: 12
    Pages: 1 Online-Ressource (786 Seiten) , Illustrationen
    Edition: 2nd edition
    ISBN: 978-0-12-817130-1
    Series Statement: Hazards and disasters series
    Former Title: Snow and ice-related hazards, risks, and disasters (1. Auflage, Druckausgabe)
    Language: English
    Note: Contents Contributors Editorial foreword Preface CHAPTER 1 Snow and ice-related hazards, risks, and disasters: Facing challenges of rapid change and long-term commitments / Wilfried Haeberli and Colin Whiteman 1.1 Introduction 1.2 Costs and benefits: Living with snow and ice 1.3 Small and large, fast and slow, local to global: Dealing with constraints 1.4 Beyond historical experience: Monitoring, modeling, and managing rapid and irreversible changes Acknowledgments References CHAPTER 2 Physical, thermal, and mechanical properties of snow, ice, and permafrost / Lukas Arenson (U.), William Colgan, and Hans Peter Marshall 2.1 Introduction 2.2 Density and structure 2.2.1 Snow 2.2.2 Ice 2.2.3 Frozen ground/permafrost 2.3 Thermal properties 2.3.1 Snow 2.3.2 Ice 2.3.3 Frozen ground 2.4 Mechanical properties 2.4.1 Brittle behavior 2.4.2 Ductile behavior 2.5 Electromagnetic and wave properties 2.5.1 Snow 2.5.2 Ice 2.5.3 Frozen ground 2.6 Summary Acknowledgment References.. CHAPTER 3 Snow and ice in the climate system / Atsumu Ohmura 3.1 Introduction 3.2 Physical extent of the cryosphere 3.3 Climatic conditions of the cryosphere 3.3.1 Snow cover 3.3.2 Sea ice 3.3.3 Permafrost 3.3.4 Glaciers References CHAPTER 4 Snow and ice in the hydrosphere / Jan Seibert, Michal Jenicek, Matthias Huss, Tracy Ewen, and Daniel Viviroli 4.1 Introduction 4.2 Snow accumulation and melt 4.2.1 Snowpack description 4.2.2 Snow accumulation 4.2.3 Snow redistribution, metamorphism, and ripening process 4.2.4 Snowpack development 4.2.5 Snowmelt 4.3 Glaciers and glacial mass balance 4.3.1 Glacier mass balance 4.3.2 Glacial drainage system 4.3.3 Modeling glacier discharge 4.4 Hydrology of snow- and ice-covered catchments 4.4.1 Influence of snow on discharge 4.4.2 Snowmelt runoff and climate change 4.4.3 Influence of glaciers on discharge 4.4.4 River ice 4.4.5 Seasonally frozen soil and permafrost 4.5 Concluding remarks References CHAPTER 5 Snow, ice, and the biosphere / Terry V. Callaghan and Margareta Johansson 5.1 Introduction 5.2 Adaptations to snow, ice, and permafrost. 5.3 Snow and ice as habitats 5.4 Snow as a moderator of habitat 5.4.1 Modification of winter habitat 5.4.2 Modification of nonwinter habitat 5.4.3 Effects of changing snow on the biosphere 5.5 Ice as a moderator of habitat 5.5.1 Mechanical effects of ice 5.5.2 Effects of changing lake and river ice on the biosphere 5.5.3 Effects of changing sea ice on the biosphere 5.6 Permafrost as a moderator of habitat 5.6.1 Effects of changing permafrost on the biosphere 5.6.2 Snow-permafrost-vegetation interactions 5.7 Vegetation as a moderator of snow, ice, and permafrost habitats 5.8 Conclusions Acknowledgments References CHAPTER 6 Ice and snow as land-forming agents / Darrel A. Swift, Simon Cook, Tobias Heckmann, Isabelle Gärtner-Roer, Oliver Korup, and Jeffrey Moore 6.1 Glacial processes and landscapes 6.1.1 Erosion mechanisms and their controls 6.1.2 Landforms and associated hazards 6.1.3 Landscape evolution and rates of glacial incision 6.1.4 Recommended avenues for further research 6.2 Periglacial and permafrost processes and landforms 6.2.1 Landforms and processes related to seasonal frost and permafrost 6.3 The role of snow in forming landscapes 6.3.1 Influence of snow cover on geomorphic processes 6.3.2 Snow-related geomorphic processes and landforms 6.3.3 Potential impacts of global change on snow-related geomorphic processes 6.3.4 Quantifying rates 6.3.5 Modeling 6.4 Conclusions and outlook Acknowledgments References CHAPTER 7 Mountains, lowlands, and coasts: The physiography of cold landscapes / Tobias Bolch and Hanne H. Christiansen 7.1 Introduction 7.2 Physiography of the terrestrial cryosphere 7.2.1 High altitudes/mountains 7.2.2 Cold lowlands 7.2.3 Cold coasts 7.3 Glaciers and ice sheets: Extent and distribution 7.4 Permafrost types, extent, and distribution 7.5 Glacier-permafrost interactions References CHAPTER 8 A socio-cryospheric systems approach to glacier hazards, glacier runoff variability, and climate change / Mark Carey, Graham McDowell, Christian Huggel, Becca Marshall, Holly Moulton, Cesar Portocarrero, Zachary Provant, John M. Reynolds, and Luis Vicuña 8.1 Introduction 8.2 Integrated adaptation in dynamic socio-cryospheric systems 8.3 Glacier and glacial lake hazards 8.3.1 Cordillera Blanca, Peru 8.3.2 Santa Teresa, Peru 8.3.3 Nepal 8.4 Volcano-ice hazards 8.5 Glacier runoff, hydrologic variability, and water use hazards 8.5.1 Nepal 8.5.2 Peru 8.6 Coastal resources and hazards 8.7 Discussion and conclusions Acknowledgments References CHAPTER 9 Integrative risk management: The example of snow avalanches / Michael Bründl and Stefan Margreth 9.1 Introduction 9.2 Risk analysis 9.2.1 Hazard analysis 9.2.2 Exposure and vulnerability analysis 9.2.3 Consequence analysis and calculation of risk 9.3 Risk evaluation 9.3.1 Evaluation of individual risk 9.3.2 Evaluation of collective risk 9.4 Mitigation of risk 9.4.1 Meaning of mitigation of risk 9.4.2 Technical avalanche mitigation measures 9.4.3 Land-use planning 9.4.4 Biological measures and protection forests 9.4.5 Organizational measures 9.5 Methods and tools for risk assessment and evaluation of mitigation measures 9.6 Case study “Evaluation of avalanche mitigation measures for Juneau, Alaska” 9.6.1 Introduction 9.6.2 Avalanche situation 9.6.3 Hazard analysis 9.6.4 Consequence analysis and risk evaluation 9.6.5 Protection measures 9.6.6 Conclusions 9.7 Final remarks References CHAPTER 10 Permafrost degradation / Dmitry Streletskiy 10.1 Introduction 10.2 Drivers of permafrost and active-layer change across space and time 10.2.1 Role of climate: Air temperature and liquid precipitation 10.2.2 Role of topography 10.2.3 Role of vegetation and snow 10.2.4 Role of soil properties 10.3 Observed permafrost and active-layer changes 10.4 Permafrost modeling and forecasting 10.5 Permafrost degradation and infrastructure hazards 10.5.1 Buildings on permafrost 10.5.2 Pipelines on permafrost 10.5.3 Railroads, roads, and utility on permafrost 10.6 Coastal erosion and permafrost 10.7 Summary Acknowledgments References CHAPTER 11 Radioactive waste under conditions of future ice ages / Urs H. Fischer, Anke Bebiolka, Jenny Brandefelt, Denis Cohen, Joel Harper, Sarah Hirschorn, Mark Jensen, Laura Kennell, Johan Liakka, Jens-Ove Näslund, Stefano Normani, Heidrun Stück, and Axel Weitkamp 11.1 Introduction 11.2 Timing of future glacial inception 11.2.1 Introduction 11.2.2 Definition of glacial inception 11.2.3 Controlling factors of glacial inception 11.2.4 Future long-term variations of insolation and atmospheric greenhouse gas concentrations 11.2.5 Modeling of future glacial inception 11.2.6 Timing of future glacial inception and concluding remarks 11.3 The glacier ice-groundwater interface: Constraints from a transect of the modern Greenland Ice Sheet 11.3.1 Background 11.3.2 Basal thermal state 11.3.3 Framework of the ice-bed interface 11.3.4 Basal water 11.3.5 Summary 11.4 Deep glacial erosion in the Alpine Foreland of northern Switzerland 11.4.1 Background 11.4.2 Ice age conditions 11.4.3 Processes of glacial erosion and glacial overdeepening 11.4.4 Water flow in overdeepenings 11.4.5 Deep glacial erosion in the Swiss Plateau 11.4.6 Future research focus 11.5 Tunnel valleys in Germany and their relevance to the long-term safety of nuclear waste repositories 11.5.1 Background 11.5.2 Formation of tunnel valleys 11.5.3 Tunnel valleys in Northern Germany 11.5.4 Tunnel valleys in the German North Sea 11.5.5 Glacial overdeepening in Southern Germany 11.5.6 Impact of tunnel valley formation on host rocks 11.6 Assessment of glacial impacts on geosphere stability and barrier capacity—Canadian perspective 11.6.1 Background 11.6.2 Bruce Nuclear Site—Location and geologic setting Acknowledgments References CHAPTER 12 Snow avalanches / Jürg Schweizer, Perry Bartelt, and Alec van Herwijnen 12.1 Introduction 12.2 The avalanche phenomenon 12.3 Avalanche release 12.3.1 Dry-snow avalanches 1
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