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  • 1
    Chichester, [England] : Wiley
    Call number: 9781444328479 (e-book)
    Type of Medium: 12
    Pages: 1 Online-Ressource (XIII, 768 Seiten) , Illustrationen
    Edition: Second edition
    ISBN: 9781444328479 (e-book) , 978-1-4443-2847-9
    Language: English
    Note: Contents Contents Preface Acknowledgements Part 1: Making Sediment Introduction Clastic sediment as a chemical and physical breakdown product 1.1 Introduction: clastic sediments—'accidents' of weathering 1.2 Silicate minerals and chemical weathering 1.3 Solute flux: rates and mechanisms of silicate chemical weathering 1.4 Physical weathering 1.5 Soils as valves and filters for the natural landscape 1.6 Links between soil age, chemical weathering and weathered-rock removal 1.7 Provenance: siliciclastic sediment-sourcing Further reading 2 Carbonate, siliceous, iron-rich and evaporite sediments 2.1 Marine vs. freshwater chemical composition and fluxes 2.2 The calcium carbonate system in the oceans 2.3 Ooid carbonate grains 2.4 Carbonate grains from marine plants and animals 2.5 Carbonate muds, oozes and chalks 2.6 Other carbonate grains of biological origins 2.7 Organic productivity, sea-level and atmospheric controls of biogenic CaCO3 deposition rates 2.8 CaCO3 dissolution in the deep ocean and the oceanic CaCO3 compensation mechanism 2.9 The carbonate system on land 2.10 Evaporite salts and their inorganic precipitation as sediment 2.11 Silica and pelagic plankton 2.12 Iron minerals and biomineralizers 2.13 Desert varnish 2.14 Phosphates 2.15 Primary microbial-induced sediments: algal mats and stromatolites Further reading 3 Sediment grain properties 3.1 General 3.2 Grain size 3.3 Grain-size distributions 3.4 Grain shape and form 3.5 Bulk properties of grain aggregates Further reading Part 2: Moving Fluid Introduction 4 Fluid basics 4.1 Material properties of fluids 4.2 Fluid kinematics 4.3 Fluid continuity with constant density 4.4 Fluid dynamics 4.5 Energy, mechanical work and power Further reading 5 Types of fluid motion 5.1 Osborne Reynolds and flow types 5.2 The distribution of velocity in viscous flows: the boundary layer 5.3 Turbulent flows 5.4 The structure of turbulent shear flows 5.5 Shear flow instabilities, flow separation and secondary currents 5.6 Subcritical and supercritical flows: the Froude number and hydraulic jumps 5.7 Stratified flow generally 5.8 Water waves 5.9 Tidal flow—long-period waves Further reading Part 3: Transporting Sediment Introduction 6 Sediment in fluid and fluid flow—general 6.1 Fall of grains through stationary fluids 6.2 Natural flows carrying particulate material are complex 6.3 Fluids as transporting machines 6.4 Initiation of grain motion 6.5 Paths of grain motion 6.6 Categories of transported sediment 6.7 Some contrasts between wind and water flows 6.8 Cohesive sediment transport and erosion 6.9 A warning: nonequilibrium effects dominate natural sediment transport systems 6.10 Steady state, deposition or erosion: the sediment continuity equation and competence vs. capacity Further reading 7 Bedforms and sedimentary structures in flows and under waves 7.1 Trinity of interaction: turbulent flow, sediment transport and bedform development 7.2 Water-flow bedforms 7.3 Bedform phase diagrams for water flows 7.4 Water flow erosional bedforms on cohesive beds 7.5 Water wave bedforms 7.6 Combined flows: wave-current ripples and hummocky cross-stratification 7.7 Bedforms and structures formed by atmospheric flows Further reading 8 Sediment gravity flows and their deposits 8.1 Introduction 8.2 Granular flows 8.3 Debris flows 8.4 Turbidity flows 8.5 Turbidite evidence for downslope transformation from turbidity to debris flows Further reading 9 Liquefaction, fluidization and sliding sediment deformation 9.1 Liquefaction 9.2 Sedimentary structures formed by and during liquefaction 9.3 Submarine landslides, growth faults and slumps 9.4 Desiccation and synaeresis shrinkage structures Further reading Part 4: Major External Controls on Sedimentation and Sedimentary Environments Introduction 10 Major external controls on sedimentation 10.1 Climate 10.2 Global climates: a summary 10.3 Sea-level changes 10.4 Tectonics 10.5 Sediment yield, denudation rate and the sedimentary record Further reading Part 5: Continental Sedimentary Environments Introduction 11 Rivers 11.1 Introduction 11.2 River networks, hydrographs,patterns and long profiles 11.3 Channel form 11.4 Channel sediment transport processes, bedforms and internal structures 11.5 The floodplain 11.6 Channel belts, alluvial ridges and avulsion 11.7 River channel changes, adjustable variables and equilibrium 11.8 Alluvial architecture: product of complex responses 11.9 Alluvial architecture: scale, controls and time Further reading 12 Subaerial Fans: Alluvial and Colluvial 12.1 Introduction 12.2 Controls on the size (area) and gradient of fans 12.3 Physical processes on alluvial fans 12.4 Debris-flow-dominated alluvial fans 12.5 Stream-flow-dominated alluvial fans 12.6 Recognition of ancient alluvial fans and talus cones Further reading 13 Aeolian Sediments in Low-Latitude Deserts 13.1 Introduction 13.2 Aeolian system state 13.3 Physical processes and erg formation 13.4 Erg margins and interbedform areas 13.5 Erg and draa evolution and sedimentary architecture 13.6 Erg construction, stasis and destruction: climate and sea-level controls 13.7 Ancient desert facies Further reading 14 Lakes 14.1 Introduction 14.2 Lake stratification 14.3 Clastic input by rivers and the effect of turbidity currents 14.4 Wind-forced physical processes 14.5 Temperate lake chemical processes and cycles 14.6 Saline lake chemical processes and cycles 14.7 Biological processes and cycles 14.8 Modern temperate lakes and their sedimentary facies 14.9 Lakes in the East African rifts 14.10 Lake Baikal 14.11 The succession of facies as lakes evolve 14.12 Ancient lake facies Further reading 15 Ice 15.1 Introduction 15.2 Physical processes of ice flow 15.3 Glacier flow, basal lubrication and surges 15.4 Sediment transport, erosion and deposition by flowing ice 15.5 Glacigenic sediment: nomenclature and classification 15.6 Quaternary and modern glacial environments and facies 15.7 Ice-produced glacigenic erosion and depositional facies on land and in the periglacial realm 15.8 Glaciofluvial processes on land at and within the ice-front 15.9 Glacimarine environments 15.10 Glacilacustrine environments 15.11 Glacial facies in the pre-Quaternary geological record: case of Cenozoic Antarctica Further reading Part 6: Marine Sedimentary Environments Introduction 16. Estuaries 16.1 Introduction 16.2 Estuarine dynamics 16.3 Modern estuarine morphology and sedimentary environments 16.4 Estuaries and sequence stratigraphy Further reading 17. River and Fan Deltas 17.1 Introduction to river deltas 17.2 Basic physical processes and sedimentation at the river delta front 17.3 Mass movements and slope failure on the subaqueous delta 17.4 Organic deposition in river deltas 17.5 River delta case histories 17.6 River deltas and sea-level change 17.7 Ancient river delta deposits 17.8 Fan deltas Further reading 18. Linear Siliciclastic Shorelines 18.1 Introduction 18.2 Beach processes and sedimentation 18.3 Barrier-inlet-spit systems and their deposits 18.4 Tidal flats, salt marsh and chenier ridges 18.5 Ancient clastic shoreline facies Further reading 19 Siliciclastic Shelves 19.1 Introduction: shelf sinks and lowstand bypass 19.2 Shelf water dynamics 19.3 Holocene highstand shelf sediments: general 19.4 Tide-dominated, low river input, highstand shelves 19.5 Tide-dominated, high river input, highstand shelves 19.6 Weather-dominated highstand shelves Further reading 20 Calcium-carbonate-evaporite Shorelines, Shelves and Basins 20.1 Introduction: calcium carbonate 'nurseries' and their consequences 20.2 Arid carbonate tidal flats, lagoons and evaporite sabkhas 20.3 Humid carbonate tidal flats and marshes 20.4 Lagoons and bays 20.5 Tidal delta and margin-spillover carbonate tidal sands 20.6 Open-shelf carbonate ramps 20.7 Platform margin reefs and carbonate build-ups 20.8 Platform margin slopes and basins 20.9 Carbonate sediments, cycles and sea-level change 20.10 Displacement and destruction of carbonate environments: silicicl
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