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  • 1
    Unknown
    London : Penguin Books
    ISBN: 9780141985206
    Language: English
    Branch Library: IASS Library
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  • 2
    Monograph non-lending collection
    Monograph non-lending collection
    Leiden : Nijhoff ; 1.2009 -
    Call number: IASS 17.92082
    Type of Medium: Monograph non-lending collection
    ISSN: 1876-8814
    Language: English
    Branch Library: IASS Library
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  • 3
    Call number: (DE-599)GBV03709842X
    Type of Medium: Monograph available for loan
    Language: German
    Location: MOP - must be ordered
    Branch Library: GFZ Library
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  • 4
    Journal available for loan
    Journal available for loan
    München : Altop Verlag ; 2007 -
    Call number: Z 19.92410
    Type of Medium: Journal available for loan
    Pages: 30 cm
    ISSN: 1865-4266
    Former Title: Vorg. Nachhaltiges Wirtschaften in Deutschland
    Language: German
    Note: Ungezählte Beil. ab 2010: Special , Ersch. jährl. 4x
    Branch Library: IASS Library
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  • 5
    Call number: IASS 15.89494
    Type of Medium: Monograph available for loan
    Pages: Losebl.-Ausg.
    Edition: Stand: Oktober 2010
    ISBN: 9783768501828
    Language: German
    Branch Library: IASS Library
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  • 6
    Call number: MOP 19538/1d-6d
    Type of Medium: Monograph available for loan
    Pages: 111 S.
    ISSN: 0486-2287
    Language: Russian
    Note: In kyrill. Schr.
    Location: MOP - must be ordered
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  • 7
    Monograph available for loan
    Monograph available for loan
    Garmisch-Partenkirchen : Institut für atmosphärische Umweltforschung der Fraunhofer- Gesellschaft
    Call number: MOP 44829 / Mitte
    Type of Medium: Monograph available for loan
    Pages: 25 S. , graph. Darst.
    Language: English
    Location: MOP - must be ordered
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  • 8
    Call number: PIK N 453-17-91096
    Type of Medium: Monograph available for loan
    Pages: 50 Seiten , Illustrationen, Diagramme
    Language: German
    Branch Library: PIK Library
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  • 9
    Call number: 3/S 07.0034(2016)
    In: Annual report
    Type of Medium: Monograph available for loan
    Pages: 51 Seiten
    ISSN: 1865-6439 , 1865-6447
    Parallel Title: Erscheint auch als Annual report ... / Helmholtz Association of German Research Centres
    Language: English
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  • 10
    Call number: AWI G6-19-92375
    In: Berichte / Christian-Albrechts-Universität zu Kiel, Institut für Geowissenschaften, Nr. 9
    Type of Medium: Monograph available for loan
    Pages: 278 Seiten , Illustrationen
    ISSN: 0175-9302
    Series Statement: Berichte / Christian-Albrechts-Universität zu Kiel, Institut für Geowissenschaften 9
    Language: German
    Note: Zugleich: Dissertation, Christian-Albrechts-Universität zu Kiel, 1999 , INHALTSVERZEICHNIS 1. Einleitung 1.1 Kenntnisstand und offene Fragen 1.2 Fragestellung und Ziele dieser Arbeit 2. Umweltbedingungen in den Arbeitsgebieten 2.1 Hydrographie, Eisverhältnisse und NAO 2.2 Zur Variation von Wassertiefe und Breite der Dänemarkstraße und zur Vereisung Islands während des letzten Glazials 3. Methoden 3.1 Auswahl der Kernstationen 3.2 Probennahme und Analysen (Übersicht) 3.3 Zur Rekonstruktion von Paläobedingungen im Oberflächenwasser Zur Aussage stabiler Isotopenverhältnisse in planktischen Foraminiferen Zur Messung stabiler Isotopenverhältnisse Zur Massenspektrometrie Zur Rekonstruktion von Oberflächentemperaturen Alkane und Alkohole als Maß für Staubeintrag Eistranspmtiertes Material und vulkanische Aschen 3.4 Zur Rekonstruktion von Paläobedingungen im Zwischen-/ Tiefenwasser Häufigkeit von Cibicides- und anderen benthischen Arten (inkl. Taxonomie) Stabile Isotopenverhältnisse in benthischen Foraminiferen 3.5 AMS 14C-Datierungen Probenreinigung 3. 6 Hauptelementanalysen von vulkanischen Asche-Leithorizonten 3. 7 Geomagnetische Meßgrößen und magnetische Suszeptibiltät 3.8 Techniken zur Spektralanalyse 4. Methodische Ergebnisse 4.1 Zum Einfluß der Probenreinigung auf δ18O-/ δ13C-Werte 4.2 Probleme bei der langfristigen Reproduzierbarkeit von δ18O-Zeitreihen 4.3 Einfluß der Korngröße und Artendefinition planktischer Foraminiferen auf SST-Rekonstruktionen in hohen Breiten 4.4 Vergleich der stabilen Isotopenwerte von Cibicides lobatulus und Cibicidoides wuellerstorfi 5. Stratigraphische Grundlagen und Tiefenprofile der Klimasignale 5.1 Stratigraphische Korrelation zwischen parallel-gekernten GKG- und SL-/KL-Profilen 5.2 Flanktische δ18O-/ δ13C-Kurven, 14C-Alter und biostratigraphische Fixpunkte Westliches Islandbecken Kern PS2644 Kern PS2646 Kern PS2647 Kern 23351 Vøring-Plateau Kern 23071 Kern 23074 5.3 Benthische δ18O-/ δ13C-Werte in Kern PS2644 5.4 Siliziklastische Sedimentkomponenten: Eistransportiertes Material Westliches Islandbecken Kern PS2644 Kern PS2646 Kern PS2647 Vøring-Plateau Kern 23071 Kern 23074 5.5 Vulkanische Glasscherben in Kern PS2644: Wind- und Eiseintrag 5.6 Geochemie und Alter einzelner Tephralagen als Leithorizonte Westliches Islandbecken Kern PS2644 Kern PS2646 Kern PS2647 Vøring-Plateau Kern 23071 Kern 23074 5.7 Magnetische Suszeptibilität in den Kernen PS2644, PS2646 und PS2647 Kern PS2644 Kern PS2646 und PS2647 5.8 Geomagnetische Feldintensität und Richtungsänderungen in Kern PS2644 5.9 Variation von Planktonfauna und -flora Westliches Islandbecken: Kern PS2644 Kern PS2646 und PS2647 Vøring-Plateau: Kern 23071 und 23074 5.10 Benthische Foraminiferen in Kern PS2644 6. Entwicklung von Temperatur und Salzgehalt nördlich der Dänemark-Straße 6.1 Variation der Oberflächentemperatur nach Planktonforaminiferen 6.2 Variation der Oberflächentemperatur nach Uk37 6.3 Variation der Oberflächensalinität 7. Die Feinstratigraphie von Kern PS2644 als Basis für eine Eichung der 14C-Altersskala 22 - 55 ka 7.1 Korrelation zwischen den Klimasignalen in Kern PS2644 und der GISP2-Klimakurve zum Kalibrieren der 14C-Alter und Erstellen eines Altersmodells Tephrachronologische Marker Korrelationsparameter und -regeln Sonderfälle/ Probleme bei der Korrelation 7.2 Alters-stratigraphische Korrelation der Klimakurven von Kern 23071 und 23074 7.3 Variation der Altersanomalien zwischen 20 und 55 14C-ka 7.4 Variabilität des planktischen 14C-Reservoiralters in Schmelzwasserbeeinflußten Seegebieten Variation der planktischen 14C-Alter unmittelbar an der Basis von Heinrich-Ereignis 4 Unterschiede zwischen planktischen und benthischen 14C-Altern in der westlichen Islandsee. Zur Erklärung der inversen Altersdifferenzen 7.5 Differenz zwischen 14C- und Kalenderalter: Zeitliche Variation unter Einfluß des Erdmagnetfeldes - Modell und Befund 7.6 Sedimentationsraten der Kerne 23071, 23074 und PS2644 nach dem GISP2-Altersmodell Vøring-Plateau: Kerne 23071 und 23074 Südwest-Islandsee: Kern PS2644 8. Klimaoszillationen im Europäischen Nordmeer in der Zeit und Frequenzdomäne 8.1 "Der Einzelzyklus" in den Klimakurven von Kern PS2644 8.2 Zur Veränderlichkeit der Warm- und Kaltextreme sowie Zyklenlänge Besonderheiten in der Zyklenlänge Variation der Kalt-(Stadiale) Variation der Interstadiale 8.3 Periodizitäten der Klimasignale im Frequenzband der D.-Oe.-Zyklen. Der D.-Oe.-Zyklus von 1470 J., seine Multiplen und harmonischen Schwingungen Weitere Frequenzen: 1000-1150 Jahre- und 490- 510 Jahre-Zyklizitäten Höhere Frequenzen im Bereich von Jahrhunderten und Dekaden 8.4 Phasenbeziehungen und (örtliche) Steuemngsmechanismen der Dansgaard-Oeschger-Zyklen 9. Schlußfolgerungen Danksagung Literaturverzeichnis Anhang
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  • 11
    Call number: Z 06.0500
    Type of Medium: Journal available for loan
    Pages: 30 cm
    ISSN: 1824-7741
    Former Title: Vorgänger Geologisch-paläontologische Mitteilungen, Innsbruck
    Language: German , English
    Note: Ersch. unregelmäßig , Beiträge teilweise in Englisch
    Branch Library: GFZ Library
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  • 12
    Monograph available for loan
    Monograph available for loan
    Madrid : Secc
    Call number: PIK N 456-17-90913
    Type of Medium: Monograph available for loan
    Pages: 536 Seiten
    Series Statement: Ministerio de Transportes Turismo Y Comunicaciones : Publicación Serie A 114
    Parallel Title: 1,1=6; 2,1=13 von Publicaciones / D / Ministerio del Aire, Subsecretaria de Aviación Civil, Servicio Meteorológico Nacional
    Language: Spanish
    Branch Library: PIK Library
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  • 13
    Monograph available for loan
    Monograph available for loan
    Leningrad : Gidrometeorolog. Izd.
    Call number: MOP 33767
    Type of Medium: Monograph available for loan
    Pages: 663 S.
    Language: Russian
    Note: In kyrill. Schr., russ.
    Location: MOP - must be ordered
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  • 14
    Monograph available for loan
    Monograph available for loan
    Stuttgart : Schweizerbart Science Publishers ; Volume 1, number 1 (1978)-
    Call number: M 18.91571
    Type of Medium: Monograph available for loan
    Pages: 134 Seiten
    ISSN: 2363-7196
    Series Statement: Global tectonics and metallogeny : special issue Vol. 10/2-4
    Classification:
    Tectonics
    Parallel Title: Erscheint auch als Global tectonics and metallogeny
    Language: English
    Location: Upper compact magazine
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  • 15
    Call number: AWI A3-20-93434
    In: Meteorologische Abhandlungen / Institut für Meteorologie und Geophysik der Freien Universität Berlin, Band XXXII, Heft 1
    Type of Medium: Series available for loan
    Pages: 121 Seiten , Illustrationen
    Series Statement: Meteorologische Abhandlungen / Institut für Meteorologie und Geophysik der Freien Universität Berlin 32,1
    Language: German
    Note: Zugleich: Dissertation, Freie Unversität Berlin, [ca. 1963] , INHALTSVERZEICHNIS PROBLEMSTELLUNG UND ZIELSETZUNG 1. BEMERKUNGEN ZUM BEOBACHTUNGSGELÄNDE UND ZUM BEOBACHTUNGSMATERIAL 1.1 Das Beobachtungsgelände 1.2 Das Beobachtungsmaterial 2. HOMOGENITÄTSBETRACHTUNGEN 2.1 Temperatur 2.2 Niederschlag 2.3 Wind 2.4 Sonnenschein und Bewölkung 3. TEMPERATURVERHÄLTNISSE 3.1 Monats- und Jahreswerte 3.2 Tageswerte 3.3 Pentadenwerte 3.4 Häufigkeitsbetrachtungen 3.5 Interdiurne Veränderlichkeit 3.6 Der tägliche Gang 3.7 Vorkommen bestimmter Schwellenwerte 3.71 Frost- und Eistage 3.72 Sommer- und Tropentage 4. DER WASSERGEHALT DER LUFT 4.1 Monats- und Jahreswerte 4.2 Tageswerte 4.3 Häufigkeitsbetrachtungen 4.4 Interdiurne Veränderlichkeit 4.5 Der tägliche Gang 5. BEWÖLKUNGSVERHÄLTNISSE 5.1 Monats- und Jahreswerte 5.2 Tageswerte 5.3 Häufigkeitsbetrachtungen 5.4 Der tägliche Gang 5.5 Heitere und trübe Tage 5.6 Nebel 6. SONNENSCHEIN 6.1 Monats- und Jahreswerte 6.2 Tageswerte 6.3 Der tägliche Gang 7. NIEDERSCHLAGSVERHÄLTNISSE 7.1 Monats- und Jahreswerte 7.2 Niederschlagsbereitschaft 7.3 Tageswerte 7.4 Der tägliche Gang 7.5 Häufigkeitsbetrachtungen 7.6 Niederschlags- und Trockenperioden 7.7 Niederschlag und Wind· 7.8 Schneeverhältnisse 7.81 Schneefall und Schneedecke 7.82 Schneehöhe 7.9 Gewitter 8. WINDVERHÄLTNISSE 8.1 Windrichtung 8.2 Windgeschwindigkeit 8.21 Der jährliche Gang 8.22 Häufigkeitsbetrachtungen 8.23 Sturmtage und Windstillen 8.24 Der tägliche Gang 9.ZUSAMMENFASSUNG VERZEICHNIS DER TEXTTABELLEN VERZEICHNIS DER ABBILDUNGEN LITERATURVERZEICHNIS TABELLENANHANG
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  • 16
    Monograph available for loan
    Monograph available for loan
    [Edgecumbe, N.Z.] : A. Muller
    Call number: M 15.89146
    Description / Table of Contents: An account of the results of the 2 March 1987 earthquake in the eastern Bay of Plenty and the aftermath's effects on the people and places on the Rangitaiki Plains
    Type of Medium: Monograph available for loan
    Pages: 223 S., , Ill.
    Language: English
    Branch Library: GFZ Library
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  • 17
    Call number: S 90.0066(162,1)
    In: Geologisches Jahrbuch / A
    Type of Medium: Series available for loan
    Pages: 261 Seiten , Ill., 1 DVD-ROM (12 cm) und 1 Tafel-Beil. ([2] S.)
    ISBN: 9783510968534
    Series Statement: Geologisches Jahrbuch 162
    Classification:
    Engineering Geophysics
    Language: German
    Location: Lower compact magazine
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  • 18
    Call number: AWI A3-20-93434-2
    In: Meteorologische Abhandlungen / Institut für Meteorologie und Geophysik der Freien Universität Berlin, Band XXXII, Heft 2
    Type of Medium: Series available for loan
    Pages: 218 Seiten , Illustrationen
    Series Statement: Meteorologische Abhandlungen / Institut für Meteorologie und Geophysik der Freien Universität Berlin 32,2
    Language: German
    Note: Zugleich: Dissertation, Freie Unversität Berlin, [ca. 1963] , INHALTSVERZEICHNIS PROBLEMSTELLUNG UND ZIELSETZUNG 1. BEMERKUNGEN ZUM BEOBACHTUNGSGELÄNDE UND ZUM BEOBACHTUNGSMATERIAL 1.1 Das Beobachtungsgelände 1.2 Das Beobachtungsmaterial 2. HOMOGENITÄTSBETRACHTUNGEN 2.1 Temperatur 2.2 Niederschlag 2.3 Wind 2.4 Sonnenschein und Bewölkung 3. TEMPERATURVERHÄLTNISSE 3.1 Monats- und Jahreswerte 3.2 Tageswerte 3.3 Pentadenwerte 3.4 Häufigkeitsbetrachtungen 3.5 Interdiurne Veränderlichkeit 3.6 Der tägliche Gang 3.7 Vorkommen bestimmter Schwellenwerte 3.71 Frost- und Eistage 3.72 Sommer- und Tropentage 4. DER WASSERGEHALT DER LUFT 4.1 Monats- und Jahreswerte 4.2 Tageswerte 4.3 Häufigkeitsbetrachtungen 4.4 Interdiurne Veränderlichkeit 4.5 Der tägliche Gang 5. BEWÖLKUNGSVERHÄLTNISSE 5.1 Monats- und Jahreswerte 5.2 Tageswerte 5.3 Häufigkeitsbetrachtungen 5.4 Der tägliche Gang 5.5 Heitere und trübe Tage 5.6 Nebel 6. SONNENSCHEIN 6.1 Monats- und Jahreswerte 6.2 Tageswerte 6.3 Der tägliche Gang 7. NIEDERSCHLAGSVERHÄLTNISSE 7.1 Monats- und Jahreswerte 7.2 Niederschlagsbereitschaft 7.3 Tageswerte 7.4 Der tägliche Gang 7.5 Häufigkeitsbetrachtungen 7.6 Niederschlags- und Trockenperioden 7.7 Niederschlag und Wind· 7.8 Schneeverhältnisse 7.81 Schneefall und Schneedecke 7.82 Schneehöhe 7.9 Gewitter 8. WINDVERHÄLTNISSE 8.1 Windrichtung 8.2 Windgeschwindigkeit 8.21 Der jährliche Gang 8.22 Häufigkeitsbetrachtungen 8.23 Sturmtage und Windstillen 8.24 Der tägliche Gang 9.ZUSAMMENFASSUNG VERZEICHNIS DER TEXTTABELLEN VERZEICHNIS DER ABBILDUNGEN LITERATURVERZEICHNIS TABELLENANHANG
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  • 19
    Type of Medium: Monograph available for loan
    Pages: Bände (Loseblattsammlung)
    ISBN: 9783963144509 , 3963144505
    Subsequent Title: Fortsetzung von EnEV und Energieausweise ...
    Language: German
    Branch Library: PIK Library
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  • 20
  • 21
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    Amsterdam : Elsevier
    Physics Letters B 294 (1992), S. 466-478 
    ISSN: 0370-2693
    Source: Elsevier Journal Backfiles on ScienceDirect 1907 - 2002
    Topics: Physics
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 22
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    Amsterdam : Elsevier
    Physics Letters B 317 (1993), S. 474-484 
    ISSN: 0370-2693
    Source: Elsevier Journal Backfiles on ScienceDirect 1907 - 2002
    Topics: Physics
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 23
    Publication Date: 2021-11-08
    Description: Glaciated fjords are dynamic systems dominated by seasonal events such as spring phytoplankton blooms and pulses of glacial sediment-bearing meltwater delivery. These fjords are also characterized by strong spatial gradients in environmental factors such as sedimentation rate and primary productivity from the glacier-influenced head to the marine-influenced mouth. Such seasonal variations and spatial gradients, combined with the ongoing influence of climate change, generate non-steady state conditions, which have a strong impact on the mineralization of organic carbon in the fjord sediments and the flux of nutrients from the seabed. In order to investigate the role of fjord seasonal events and variability on diagenetic cycling of iron (Fe) and sulfur (S), we sampled Kongsfjorden (Svalbard, 79°N) in the spring, mid-summer, and late summer. We investigated sediment structure and biogeochemistry, conducted laboratory experiments to determine reaction rates, and compared these findings to water column productivity and turbidity. We found that rapid sedimentation near the glacial input buried algal matter-rich layers that fueled sub-surface peaks in mineralization rates over multi-year timescales. Sulfate reduction rates were limited by organic carbon availability and competition with Fe-reducers, while Fe reduction was controlled by the availability of reactive Fe(III) oxides. Pore water Fe2+ concentrations were influenced by sulfur cycling pathways and abiotic reactions such as carbonate precipitation and potentially reverse weathering. Seasonal changes in sedimentation and organic carbon supply caused lower sulfate reduction and sulfide production rates in spring, driving generally higher spring fluxes of Fe2+ from the sediment. The results of this study reveal the potential for an increased benthic source of nutrients such as Fe with continued benthic remineralization over winter in Kongsfjorden. Interannual changes in primary productivity, which are likely to intensify with global warming, and shifts in glacial sediment delivery have immediate impacts on the benthic cycling of Fe and S in this tightly coupled system, with a long term trend likely toward decreased benthic Fe fluxes. With the glacial retreat and changes in productivity predicted due to climate change, glaciated fjords such as Kongsfjorden may become a less efficient carbon sink by burying less terrestrial and marine-sourced organic matter in the deep sediments.
    Repository Name: EPIC Alfred Wegener Institut
    Type: Article , isiRev
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  • 24
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    Unknown
    ELSEVIER SCIENCE INC
    In:  EPIC3Remote Sensing of Environment, ELSEVIER SCIENCE INC, 268, pp. 112752, ISSN: 0034-4257
    Publication Date: 2021-11-07
    Description: Permafrost is warming globally which leads to widespread permafrost thaw. Particularly ice-rich permafrost is vulnerable to rapid thaw and erosion, impacting whole landscapes and ecosystems. Retrogressive thaw slumps (RTS) are abrupt permafrost disturbances that expand by several meters each year and lead to an increased soil organic carbon release. Local Remote Sensing studies identified increasing RTS activity in the last two decades by increasing number of RTS or heightened RTS growth rates. However, a large-scale assessment across diverse permafrost regions and at high temporal resolution allowing to further determine RTS thaw dynamics and its main drivers is still lacking. In this study we apply the disturbance detection algorithm LandTrendr for automated large-scale RTS mapping and high temporal thaw dynamic assessment to North Siberia (8.1×106km2). We adapted and parametrised the temporal segmentation algorithm for abrupt disturbance detection to incorporate Landsat+Sentinel-2 mosaics, conducted spectral filtering, spatial masking and filtering, and a binary machine-learning object classification of the disturbance output to separate between RTS and false positives (F1 score: 0.609). Ground truth data for calibration and validation of the workflow was collected from 9 known RTS cluster sites using very high-resolution RapidEye and PlanetScope imagery. Our study presents the first automated detection and assessment of RTS and their temporal dynamics at large-scale for 2001–2019. We identified 50,895 RTS and a steady increase in RTS-affected area from 2001 to 2019 across North Siberia, with a more abrupt increase from 2016 onward. Overall the RTS-affected area increased by 331 compared to 2000 (2000: 20,158ha, 2001–2019: 66,699ha). Contrary to this, 5 focus sites show spatio-temporal variability in their annual RTS dynamics, with alternating periods of increased and decreased RTS development, indicating a close relationship to thaw drivers. The majority of identified RTS was active from 2000 onward and only a small proportion initiated during the assessment period, indicating that the increase in RTS-affected area was mainly caused by enlarging existing RTS and not by new RTS. The detected increase in RTS dynamics suggests advancing permafrost thaw and underlines the importance of assessing abrupt permafrost disturbances with high spatial and temporal resolution at large-scales. Obtaining such consistent disturbance products will help to parametrise regional and global climate change models.
    Repository Name: EPIC Alfred Wegener Institut
    Type: Article , peerRev , info:eu-repo/semantics/article
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  • 25
    Publication Date: 2021-11-06
    Repository Name: EPIC Alfred Wegener Institut
    Type: Inbook , peerRev
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  • 26
    Publication Date: 2021-10-07
    Repository Name: EPIC Alfred Wegener Institut
    Type: Article , isiRev , info:eu-repo/semantics/article
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  • 27
    Publication Date: 2022-03-07
    Description: On the basis of a literature research, this subtask develops a conceptional framework for a common understanding of CE within the project team and for the following work packages and tasks. After a brief introduction into the objectives and the context of a circular economy, a more elaborated look into the necessity of an explicit understanding of CE, the objectives, the spatial perspective of CE and the specific challenges within the CICERONE context will be done, in order to develop a basis for a common understanding within the project context. Circular economy can and has to be understood as an (eco-)innovation agenda. Therefore, the paper investigates the role policy has to play to support innovation for a CE transition, for creating the framework conditions and why CE has also to be build from the ground up. Finally, the paper looks from two perspectives at emerging trends and business models in a CE to sketch next steps towards the transition in a selection of central sectors. Conclusions are drawn on the basis of the insights gained by the preceding chapters.
    Keywords: ddc:600
    Repository Name: Wuppertal Institut für Klima, Umwelt, Energie
    Language: English
    Type: report , doc-type:report
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  • 28
    Publication Date: 2022-03-07
    Description: The key objective of this deliverable is to gain insights on and assess how CE is being implemented and R&I is being funded at regional level, e.g., via the RIS3 strategy and Structural Funds. As such it sets the scope for the project and provides the background against which programmes and measures can be understood, assessed, developed and recommended in succinct tasks and work packages. The objective of this report is to provide a concise overview of the current R&I priorities, as expressed in running and newly introduced funding and legislative measures with respect to Circular Economy in European countries and regions.
    Keywords: ddc:600
    Repository Name: Wuppertal Institut für Klima, Umwelt, Energie
    Language: English
    Type: report , doc-type:report
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  • 29
    Publication Date: 2022-03-07
    Description: CICERONE aims to bring national, regional and local governments together to jointly tackle the circular economy transition needed to reach net-zero carbon emissions and meet the targets set in the Paris Agreement and EU Green Deal. This document represents one of the key outcomes of the project: a Strategic Research & Innovation Agenda (SRIA) for Europe, to support owners and funders of circular economy programmes in aligning priorities and approaching the circular economy transition in a systemic way.
    Keywords: ddc:600
    Repository Name: Wuppertal Institut für Klima, Umwelt, Energie
    Language: English
    Type: report , doc-type:report
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  • 30
    Publication Date: 2022-03-09
    Description: The eruptions of Campi Flegrei (Southern Italy), one of the most studied and dangerous active volcanic areas of the world, are fed by mildly potassic alkaline magmas, from shoshonite to trachyte and phonotrachyte. Petrological investigations carried out in past decades on Campi Flegrei rocks provide crucial information for understanding differentiation processes in its magmatic system. However, the compositional features of rocks are a palimpsest of many processes acting over timescales of 100–104 years, including crystal entrapment from multiple reservoirs with different magmatic histories. In this work, olivine, clinopyroxene and feldspar crystals from volcanic rocks related to the entire period of Campi Flegrei’s volcanic activity are checked for equilibrium with combined and possibly more rigorous tests than those commonly used in previous works (e.g., Fe–Mg exchange between either olivine or clinopyroxene and melt), with the aim of obtaining more robust geothermobarometric estimations for the magmas these products represent. We applied several combinations of equilibrium tests and geothermometric and geobarometric methods to a suite of rocks and related minerals spanning the period from ~59 ka to 1538 A.D. and compared the obtained results with the inferred magma storage conditions estimated in previous works through different methods. This mineral-chemistry investigation suggests that two prevalent sets of T–P (temperature–pressure) conditions, here referred to as “magmatic environments”, characterized the magma storage over the entire period of Campi Flegrei activity investigated here. These magmatic environments are ascribable to either mafic or differentiated magmas, stationing in deep and shallow reservoirs, respectively, which interacted frequently, mostly during the last 12 ka of activity. In fact, open-system magmatic processes (mixing/mingling, crustal contamination, CO2 flushing) hypothesized to have occurred before several Campi Flegrei eruptions could have removed earlier-grown crystals from their equilibrium melts. Moreover, our new results indicate that, in the case of complex systems such as Campi Flegrei’s, in which different pre-eruptive processes can modify the equilibrium composition of the crystals, one single geothermobarometric method offers little chance to constrain the magma storage conditions. Conversely, combined methods yield more robust results in agreement with estimates obtained in previous independent studies based on both petrological and geophysical methods
    Description: Published
    Description: 308
    Description: 2V. Struttura e sistema di alimentazione dei vulcani
    Description: JCR Journal
    Repository Name: Istituto Nazionale di Geofisica e Vulcanologia (INGV)
    Type: article
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  • 31
    Publication Date: 2022-03-09
    Description: This work sets out to identify a state-of-the-art system to be used for the calibration of seismic sensors. The aim is to acquire such a system within the framework of the PON ARS01 00926 EWAS (an Early Warning System for cultural heritage) project, which seeks to develop new technologies for the protection, conservation and safety of cultural heritage and envisages creating a newly developed seismic monitoring system. This system will exploit the ETL3D/5s-H hybrid sensors, resulting from the integration of a precision accelerometer within the ETL3D/5s velocimeter [Fertitta et al., 2020]. The new calibration system, already acquired and being installed, can be used by the EWAS project partners (including the National Institute of Geophysics and Volcanology and the Kore University of Enna), to calibrate the ETL3D/5s-H sensors, and by external organisations to calibrate or gauge other seismic sensors, thus providing a useful service to the scientific community and supporting industrial activities. This paper presents the method used and the activities undertaken to define the technical specifications of the calibration system. A feasibility study of an electromechanical vibrating table and the testing of two electrodynamic calibration systems were carried out. One of the electrodynamic systems is the CS18P (Calibration System for Seismic Sensors) produced by the German firm SPEKTRA. The CS18P comprises two vibrating tables, one horizontal and one vertical, which, thanks to their fluid-dynamic suspension, eliminate the sliding and rolling friction associated with the movement of the moving part with respect to the fixed part. A hardware and software system monitors and controls the motion in real time, analyses the data and automatically processes a predefined set of measurements. In the light of the technical specifications and experimental results, the CS18P represents the ideal solution for the aims of the EWAS project and also in view of the possible future uses of the calibration system.
    Description: Published
    Description: 1-38
    Description: 2IT. Laboratori analitici e sperimentali
    Description: JCR Journal
    Keywords: Seismic sensors calibration, Vibration exciter, Seismometer
    Repository Name: Istituto Nazionale di Geofisica e Vulcanologia (INGV)
    Type: article
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  • 32
    facet.materialart.
    Unknown
    Universidade Estadual de Maringá. Departamento de Biologia. Programa de Pós-Graduação em Ecologia de Ambientes Aquáticos Continentais.
    Publication Date: 2022-03-10
    Description: A major challenge for conservation biology is to explain why some species are more likely to be endangered than others. Functional diversity is one of the most effective theoretical tools to explain the functioning of ecosystems, that is, whether species will adapt to changes or not, and may indicate traits that are more prone to extinction. Given the Brazilian biodiversity, the ecosystem services provided by it and the impacts it may suffer, there is an urgent need for a discussion on the methods and sources of information used for this assessment. Therefore, this thesis is divided into three studies. In the first study, a literature review was carried out on the different methodologies used for the classification of “rare species”, a very controversial and little studied topic. In the second study, the taxonomic indeterminacy of fish studies in the Neotropical region between 1991 and 2018 was investigated, relating the indeterminacy by year, basin and families. In this context, in the last study, precisely with the need to investigate the metacommunities of tropical systems, patterns of functional rarity in fish assemblages in a section of the Upper Rio Tocantins, Amazon Basin and the Upper Paraná River Floodplain were analyzed. last book excerpt of dams of this water system. Thus, this study will contribute to the understanding of the different patterns at the community level.
    Description: Um grande desafio para a biologia da conservação é explicar por que algumas espécies são mais propensas a ser ameaçada de extinção do que outros. A diversidade funcional é uma das ferramentas teóricas mais efetivas para explicar o funcionamento dos ecossistemas, ou seja, se as espécies se adaptarão as mudanças ou não, podendo indicar os traços mais propensos à extinção. Face a biodiversidade brasileira, os serviços ecossistêmicos prestados por ela e os impactos que pode sofrer, urge uma discussão sobre os métodos e fontes de informação utilizados para essa avaliação. Por isto, esta tese é dividida em três estudos. No primeiro estudo foi feita uma revisão bibliográfica sobre as diferentes metodologias utilizadas para a classificação de “espécies raras”, um tema muito controverso e pouco estudado. No segundo estudo foi investigada a indeterminância taxonômica de estudos de peixes na região Neotropical entre o ano de 1991 a 2018, relacionando a indeterminância por ano, bacia e famílias. Neste contexto, no último estudo, justamente com a necessidade de investigar as metacomunidades dos sistemas tropicais, foram analisados os padrões de raridade funcional nas assembleias de peixes em uma seção do Alto Rio Tocantins, Bacia Amazônia e da Planície de Inundação do Alto rio Paraná, último trecho livro de barragens deste sistema hídrico. Assim, esse estudo contribuirá para a compreensão dos diversos padrões em nível de comunidade.
    Description: PhD
    Keywords: Peixes de água doce. ; Espécies raras. ; Diversidade e conservação. ; Biologia da conservação. ; ASFA_2015::F::Freshwater fish ; ASFA_2015::C::Conservation ; ASFA_2015::S::Species rarity ; ASFA_2015::B::Biology
    Repository Name: AquaDocs
    Type: Thesis/Dissertation
    Format: 88pp.
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  • 33
    facet.materialart.
    Unknown
    Universidade Estadual de Maringá. Departamento de Biologia. Programa de Pós-Graduação em Ecologia de Ambientes Aquáticos Continentais.
    Publication Date: 2022-03-10
    Description: It is expected that the longitudinal limnological gradients described for reservoirs have great implications for the composition and yield of multispecific fisheries practiced in this type of environment, directly and indirectly affecting the operational strategies for the collection of the species. Recognition of patterns of spatial and temporal variation of stocks and their form of exploitation is fundamental to the rationalization of fishery management. It is, however, a complex task given the large number of variables and the physical, biological and socioeconomic interactions involved. Daily landing data from 12 fisheries along the Itaipu reservoir over a period of 11 years are analyzed in this study. Uni and multivariate analysis techniques are used to identify (i) spatial-temporal patterns in the composition of the fish and in the yield of the fishery and (ii) longitudinal gradients in the operational strategies used in fishing. The results are discussed in light of longitudinal and temporal limnological gradients, species life strategies and competitive uses of the basin upstream. Significant correlation was verified between sedimentation rates, considered a synthesis variable of the limnological conditions, and yield of the 10 main species (90% of the total catch). Of these species, eight showed significant longitudinal gradients in abundance. Three of them concentrated in the fluvial zone, one in the lacustrine, three in the fluvial-transitional and one in the lacustrine-transitional. Diet requirements (autochthonous and allochthonous resources) and migratory behavior were considered the most adequate terms to explain these patterns. The marked decline in the fishery yield was attributed to the fall in the CPUEs of the two most caught species, that were, perna-de-moça Hypophthalmus oremaculatus in the lacustrine zone (trophic state reduction in the reservoir, recruitment overfishing) and armado Pterodoras granulosus in the fluvial zone (regulation of the floods on the floodplain upstream from the operation of new reservoirs, growth overfishing). Three fishery strategies were observed: (I) cascudo-preto Rhinelepis aspera fisheries in the fluvial zone using casting nets and wooden boats propelled by a stationary (center) motor (10 to 12 HP), (II) Hypophthalmus oremaculatus fisheries in the transition and lacustrine zones with gillnets, wooden boats driven by oars or a rabeta motor (3.5 to 4 HP) and (III) Pterodoras granulosus and jaú Zungaro jahu fisheries in the fluvial zone carried out with fish-hooks, wooden boats and a stationary (center) motor (10 to 12 HP). It was verifield the importance of the fisheries in sustaining families marginalized from other sectors of the economy and their regulation and rationalization in the operation of the reservoirs upstream to insure the occurrence of floods on the floodplain upstream.
    Description: É esperado que os gradientes limnológicos longitudinais descritos para reservatórios, tenham grandes implicações sobre a composição e o rendimento de pescarias multiespecíficas, exercidas neste tipo de ambiente, afetando direta e indiretamente as estratégias operacionais para a captura das espécies. O reconhecimento dos padrões de variação espaciais e temporais dos estoques e de sua forma de exploração é fundamental para a racionalização do manejo da pesca, sendo, entretanto, uma tarefa complexa, dado o grande número de variáveis e interações físicas, biológicas e socioeconômicas envolvidas. Neste estudo, são analisados os dados diários de acompanhamento de desembarque em 12 áreas de pesca ao longo do reservatório de Itaipu, tomados durante 11 anos. Técnicas de análise uni e multivariadas são utilizadas para identificar (i) os padrões espaço-temporais na composição do pescado e no rendimento da pesca, (ii) os gradientes longitudinais nas estratégias operacionais empregadas na atividade pesqueira. Os resultados são discutidos à luz dos gradientes limnológicos longitudinais e temporais, as estratégias de vida das espécies e os usos concorrentes da bacia a montante. Correlações significativas foram constatadas entre as taxas de sedimentação, considerada variável síntese das condições limnológicas, e o rendimento das 10 principais espécies (90% das capturas totais). Destas espécies, oito mostraram gradientes longitudinais significativos na abundância, sendo três delas concentradas na zona fluvial, uma na lacustre, três na fluvial-transição, e uma na lacustre-transição. Requerimentos na dieta (recursos autóctones e alóctones) e o comportamento migratório foram considerados como a explicação mais adequada a estes padrões. O acentuado declínio no rendimento da pesca foi atribuído à queda nas CPUEs das duas espécies mais capturadas, ou seja, perna-de-moça Hypophthalmus oremaculatus, na zona lacustre (redução no estado trófico do reservatório, sobrepesca de recrutamento) e armado Pterodoras granulosus, na fluvial (regulação das cheias na planície a montante pela construção de novos reservatórios, e sobrepesca de crescimento). Três estratégias de pesca foram observadas: (I) pescaria de cascudo-preto Rhinelepis aspera na zona fluvial com uso de tarrafas, embarcações de madeira, com propulsão por motor de estacionário (centro), potência de 10 a 12,5 HP; (II) pescaria de Hypophthalmus oremaculatus nas zonas de transição e lacustre, com redes de espera, embarcações de madeira impulsionada por remo ou motor rabeta, com potência de 3,5 a 4 HP; (III) pescaria de Pterodoras granulosus e jaú Zungaro jahu, na zona fluvial realizada com anzóis, barcos de madeira e motor estacionário (centro), de 10 a 12,5 HP. Verifica-se a importância da pesca para o sustento de famílias marginalizadas de outros setores da economia e propõem-se ações de controle da atividade e a racionalização na operação dos reservatórios, a montante, visando assegurar a ocorrência de cheias na planície alagável a montante.
    Description: PhD
    Keywords: Pesca artesanal de água doce. ; Gradientes horizontais. ; Manejo. ; Peixes de água doce. ; Estratégias de pesca. ; Reservatório de Itaipu. ; Zonação. ; Itaipu Binacional. ; ASFA_2015::F::Freshwater fish ; ASFA_2015::F::Fisheries management ; ASFA_2015::G::Gradients ; ASFA_2015::R::Reservoir fisheries ; ASFA_2015::F::Fish stocks
    Repository Name: AquaDocs
    Type: Thesis/Dissertation
    Format: 64pp.
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  • 34
    facet.materialart.
    Unknown
    Universidade Estadual de Maringá. Departamento de Biologia. Programa de Pós-Graduação em Ecologia de Ambientes Aquáticos Continentais.
    Publication Date: 2022-03-10
    Description: The paleolimnological approach one of the few existing methods that assesses the rate of ecosystem changes in freshwater environments, over large time scales, and one of the few approaches that have been used successfully to infer pre-impact limnological conditions and post-perturbation trajectories of environmental changes. The diatoms are the most effective bioindicator microfossils in paleolimnological research in providing information on environmental changes in aquatic ecosystems. Among the ecosystems that have been altered over time, the floodplain of the Upper Paraná River in recent decades has been subjected to several natural and man-made disturbances, mainly hydroelectric dams, which have affected the entire ecosystem and the known freshwater biodiversity. Therefore, the temporal pattern of abundance and functional traits of the diatoms community of two lakes inserted in this floodplain was investigated, using the paleolimnological approach to infer a history of possible environmental changes. The results of these studies were divided into three works. Through the bioindication of the most abundant diatom species in Garças Lake and Patos Lake, it was possible to observe evidence of physical, chemical and hydrological changes in both environments over the last 100 years. It is inferred that both environments may have been influenced by effects imposed by the upstream reservoirs and climatic events. As well as the greater variation and reduction in functional diversity found in Garças Lake, which is closer to dams, indicates a greater influence of the reservoirs. Despite this, in different periods, both lakes have replaced and simplified similar functional categories, which are related to low water conditions and high turbulence in the water column, which were recurrent after the damming periods
    Description: A abordagem paleolimnológica é um dos poucos métodos existentes que avalia a taxa de alterações ecossistêmicas em ambientes de água doce em grandes escalas temporais e uma das poucas abordagens que têm sido usada com sucesso para inferir condições limnológicas pré-impacto e trajetórias pós-perturbação de mudanças ambientais. Sendo as diatomáceas os microfósseis bioindicadores mais eficazes na pesquisa paleolimnológica no fornecimento de informações sobre alterações ambientais nos ecossistemas aquáticos. Dentre os ecossistemas que tem sido alterado ao longo do tempo, tem-se como exemplo a Planície de inundação do alto rio Paraná, a qual nas últimas décadas tem sido submetida a diversos distúrbios naturais e antrópicos, principalmente por represas hidrelétricas, que afetaram todo o ecossistema e a biodiversidade de água doce conhecida. Portanto, investigou-se o padrão temporal da abundância e de traços funcionais da comunidade de diatomáceas de dois lagos inseridos nesta planície de inundação, utilizando a abordagem paleolimnológica para inferir um histórico de possíveis mudanças ambientais. Através da bioindicação das espécies de diatomáceas mais abundantes do lago das Garças e do lago dos Patos, foi possível observar evidências de mudanças físicas, químicas e hidrológicas em ambos os ambientes nos aproximados últimos 100 anos. Infere-se que ambos os ambientes podem ter tido influência de efeitos impostos pelos reservatórios a montante e eventos climáticos. Como também a maior variação e redução da diversidade funcional encontrado no lago das Garças, o qual está mais próximo de barragens, indica uma maior influência dos represamentos. Apesar disso, em períodos distintos, ambos os lagos apresentaram substituição e simplificação de categorias funcionais similares, as quais estão relacionadas com condições de águas baixas e alta turbulência da coluna d’água, as quais foram recorrentes após os períodos de represamento.
    Description: PhD
    Keywords: Diatomáceas (Bacillariophyta) de água doce. ; Algas diatomáceas epilíticas. ; Diatomáceas fósseis. ; Algas unicelulares de água doce. ; Paleolimonologia. ; Comunidades, Ecologia de. ; Bioindicadores. ; Mudanças paleoambientais. ; Lagos. ; Lagos das Garças e dos Patos. ; Planície de inundação. ; Alto rio Paraná. ; ASFA_2015::F::Freshwater ecology ; ASFA_2015::A::Algae ; ASFA_2015::D::Diatoms ; ASFA_2015::C::Communities (ecological) ; ASFA_2015::B::Bioindicators ; ASFA_2015::P::Palaeolimnology ; ASFA_2015::F::Fossil diatoms ; ASFA_2015::L::Lakes ; ASFA_2015::F::Floodplains ; ASFA_2015::T::Taxonomy
    Repository Name: AquaDocs
    Type: Thesis/Dissertation
    Format: 125pp.
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  • 35
    Publication Date: 2022-03-10
    Description: The Working Group on Fisheries Benthic Impact and Trade-offs (WGFBIT) develops methods and performs assessments to evaluate benthic impact from fisheries at regional scale, while con-sidering fisheries and seabed impact trade-offs. In this report, new fishery benthic impact assessments are carried out for several sub-regions in the Mediterranean (Greek waters, South Adriatic Sea, Sicily waters). For other regions, updates of the whole assessment or specific steps only were presented. A standard advice sheet for the regional benthic assessments, intended as input to the next generation of the ICES Ecosystem and Fisheries Overviews, was finalised and compiled for some regions as example (Greek wa-ters, Baltic Sea). A validation of the longevity relationships using new data was executed for the Kattegat area and the Southern North Sea. In relation to the methodology, some recommenda-tions were formulated concerning the update on depletion rates, the use of epifauna- or infauna-based data, guidance on which set of epibenthic species to include and the time scale for setting the average swept-area-ratio (SAR) used in model fitting and assessment. A benchmarking pro-cess comparing available benthic impact assessment approaches for MSFD descriptor 6 “Seafloor integrity” is needed, as the WGFBIT approach (relative benthic state) is not the only way to assess benthic impacts from physical disturbances. A start was made to explore how to incorporate more explicitly ecosystem functioning in to the WGFBIT seafloor assessment methodology. An improved understanding of the relationships between total community biomass and ecosystem functioning may assist in setting acceptable thresholds for ecosystem impacts from trawling. Furthermore, an improved understanding of the link between species functional effect traits and proxies and processes for specific ecosystem functions could help increase our ability to predict the impact of fishing disturbance on benthic ecosystem functioning more accurately. The ecosys-tem function we focus on is the biogeochemical cycling of organic matter. Two approaches were discussed (i) Biological traits approach focusing on the linkage between biological traits and eco-system functions and (ii) biogeochemical modelling approach using the established the OMEXDIA model.
    Description: FBIT
    Description: Published
    Description: Non Refereed
    Keywords: Fishery ; Fishing pressure ; Fisheries Benthic Impact ; Trade-offs ; AIS data ; VMS data ; Longevity ; Fishing gear technology ; Spatial modelling
    Repository Name: AquaDocs
    Type: Report
    Format: 133pp.
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  • 36
    Publication Date: 2022-03-10
    Repository Name: EPIC Alfred Wegener Institut
    Type: Article , isiRev
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  • 37
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    In:  EPIC3Quarterly Journal of the Royal Meteorological Society, 148, pp. 620-640
    Publication Date: 2022-03-10
    Description: Ensemble Kalman filters are widely used for data assimilation applications in the geosciences. While they are remarkably stable even with nonlinear systems, it is known that they are not optimal in this case. The alternative particle filters are fully nonlinear, but difficult to apply with high-dimensional models. To combine the strengths of both filter types, a hybrid filter is introduced that combines the local ensemble transform Kalman filter (LETKF) with the nonlinear ensemble transform filter (NETF). Three variants of the hybrid filter are formulated. The hybridization is controlled by a hybrid weight. Different hybrid weights are examined and a new adaptive approach based on the ensemble skewness and kurtosis is introduced. The different hybrid filters and the schemes to compute the hybrid weight are assessed in numerical experiments with the nonlinear Lorenz-63 and Lorenz-96 models at different degrees of nonlinearity. A hybrid variant that first applies the NETF followed by the LETKF yields the best results. For the Lorenz-96 model, error reductions by up to 21.5% compared with the LETKF are obtained for the same ensemble size. Computing the hybrid weight based on skewness and kurtosis combined with the effective sample size yields the lowest estimation errors and the overall highest stability of the hybrid filter. The new hybrid filter applies localization and inflation and is hence also usable with high-dimensional models and can potentially provide a robust way to account for leading nonlinearity with small ensembles in nonlinear data assimilation applications.
    Repository Name: EPIC Alfred Wegener Institut
    Type: Article , isiRev
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  • 38
    Publication Date: 2022-03-10
    Description: FILE
    Description: Published
    Description: online
    Description: 3IT. Calcolo scientifico
    Keywords: mixed precision OpenFOAM
    Repository Name: Istituto Nazionale di Geofisica e Vulcanologia (INGV)
    Type: Oral presentation
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  • 39
    Publication Date: 2022-03-10
    Description: Bubble growth is one of the key processes that govern the degassing of magmatic systems and drive volcanic eruptions. Typically, the gas exsolution process begins with the nucleation of bubbles in an oversaturated melt and continues with bubble growth. Bubbles grow by mass diffusion, when the silicate melt is oversaturated in volatiles, and by mechanical expansion as a response to pressure decrease. The viscosity of the surrounding melt and the surface tension oppose a resistance to bubble growth and control the mechanical disequilibrium between the bubbles and the melt itself. The combination of the Rayleigh-Plesset equation with a diffusion equation represents a common approach to describe diffusive bubble growth. A number of models have been developed for describing bubble growth dynamics in magmas, most of them accounting for a single volatile specie. Nevertheless, the multicomponent nature of magmatic volatiles has long been recognised to play a major role in controlling magmatic exsolution process. Here we present a model describing bubble growth in magmas in the presence of multiple volatile species through a fully non-ideal multicomponent saturation model. Numerical simulations show the role of the different species (e.g., water and carbon dioxide) in the dynamics of diffusive bubble growth for different melt compositions. The new model is implemented in the MagmaFOAM library, a dedicated computational tool to solve multiphase flows characterizing magmatic systems that extends the open-source library OpenFOAM. Within the MagmaFOAM framework it is possible to combine the bubble growth model with fluid solvers in order to fully capture the multi-scale nature of liquid and gas phases in magmatic systems.
    Description: Published
    Description: .
    Description: 4V. Processi pre-eruttivi
    Keywords: .
    Repository Name: Istituto Nazionale di Geofisica e Vulcanologia (INGV)
    Type: Conference paper
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  • 40
    Publication Date: 2022-03-10
    Description: Numerical models have been widely used to predict and better understand generation, ascent and eruption of magma. The recent extraordinary progress in computer performances and improvements in numerical model- ing allow us to simulate multiphase-multicomponent systems in mechanical and thermodynamic disequilibrium. Nonetheless, the growing complexity of the simulations requires more sophisticated constitutive models which are difficult to be validated with experiments. In most cases, simple constitutive equations and freely adjustable parameters are used to tackle with the complexity of real systems. Free tuning of parameters allows satisfactory fit of experimental data, but may significantly reduce the reliability of models at the natural scale. For instance, the calibration of free parameters expressing phenomena at the liquid-gas interface (e.g., phase change) with analogue experiments is useless if the properties controlling the kinetics are not scaled. Here we present MagmaFoam, a model based on the open source library OpenFOAM that resolves the fluid dy- namics of melt-gas systems. The model includes thermo-mechanical non equilibrium phase coupling and phase change, state of the art multiple volatile solubility models and constitutive equations with real thermodynamic and transport properties. Benchmark simulations and comparison with experimental data provide means to explore and discuss the constitutive models to be used in MagmaFoam in order to account for the physical processes that affect the dynamics of natural magmas.
    Description: Published
    Description: Vienna, Austria
    Description: 4V. Processi pre-eruttivi
    Keywords: Computational fluid dynamics, Volcanology
    Repository Name: Istituto Nazionale di Geofisica e Vulcanologia (INGV)
    Type: Oral presentation
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  • 41
    Publication Date: 2022-03-10
    Description: In the last years, the interest in three-dimensional physico-mathematical models for volcanic plumes has grown, motivated by the need of predicting accurately the dispersal patterns of volcanic ash in the atmosphere (to mitigate the risks for civil aviation and for the nearby inhabited regions) and pushed by improved remote sensing techniques and measurements. However, limitations due to the mesh resolution and numerical accuracy as well as the complexity entailed model formulations, have so far prevented a detailed study of turbulence in volcanic plumes at high resolution. Eruptive columns are indeed multiphase gas-particle turbulent flows, in which the largest (integral) scale is in the order of tens or hundreds of kilometers and the smallest scale is of the order of microns. Performing accurate numerical simulations of such phenomena remains therefore a challenging task. Modern HPC resources and recent model developments enable the study of multiphase turbulent structures of volcanic plumes with an unprecedented level of detail. However, a number of issues of the present model implementation need to be addressed in order to efficiently use the computational resources of modern supercomputing machines. Here we present an overview of an optimization strategy that allows us to perform large parallel simulations of volcanic plumes using ASHEE, a numerical solver based on OpenFOAM and one of the target flagship codes of the project ChEESE (Centre of Excellence for Exascale in Solid Earth). Such optimizations include: mixed precision floating point operations to increase computational speed and reduce memory usage, optimal domain decomposition for better communication load balancing and asynchronous I/O to hide I/O costs. Scaling analysis and volcanic plume simulations are presented to demonstrate the improvement in both computational performances and computing capability.
    Description: Published
    Description: online
    Description: 3IT. Calcolo scientifico
    Keywords: High performance computing, volcanic plumes
    Repository Name: Istituto Nazionale di Geofisica e Vulcanologia (INGV)
    Type: Oral presentation
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  • 42
    facet.materialart.
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    Springer
    In:  EPIC3Nature Reviews Earth & Environment, Springer, 3(6)
    Publication Date: 2022-03-11
    Repository Name: EPIC Alfred Wegener Institut
    Type: Article , isiRev , info:eu-repo/semantics/article
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  • 43
    Publication Date: 2022-03-11
    Description: Past efforts to synthesize and quantify the magnitude and change in carbon dioxide (CO2) fluxes in terrestrial ecosystems across the rapidly warming Arctic–boreal zone (ABZ) have provided valuable information but were limited in their geographical and temporal coverage. Furthermore, these efforts have been based on data aggregated over varying time periods, often with only minimal site ancillary data, thus limiting their potential to be used in large-scale carbon budget assessments. To bridge these gaps, we developed a standardized monthly database of Arctic–boreal CO2 fluxes (ABCflux) that aggregates in situ measurements of terrestrial net ecosystem CO2 exchange and its derived partitioned component fluxes: gross primary productivity and ecosystem respiration. The data span from 1989 to 2020 with over 70 supporting variables that describe key site conditions (e.g., vegetation and disturbance type), micrometeorological and environmental measurements (e.g., air and soil temperatures), and flux measurement techniques. Here, we describe these variables, the spatial and temporal distribution of observations, the main strengths and limitations of the database, and the potential research opportunities it enables. In total, ABCflux includes 244 sites and 6309 monthly observations; 136 sites and 2217 monthly observations represent tundra, and 108 sites and 4092 observations represent the boreal biome. The database includes fluxes estimated with chamber (19 % of the monthly observations), snow diffusion (3 %) and eddy covariance (78 %) techniques. The largest number of observations were collected during the climatological summer (June–August; 32 %), and fewer observations were available for autumn (September–October; 25 %), winter (December–February; 18 %), and spring (March–May; 25 %). ABCflux can be used in a wide array of empirical, remote sensing and modeling studies to improve understanding of the regional and temporal variability in CO2 fluxes and to better estimate the terrestrial ABZ CO2 budget. ABCflux is openly and freely available online (Virkkala et al., 2021b, https://doi.org/10.3334/ORNLDAAC/1934).
    Repository Name: EPIC Alfred Wegener Institut
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  • 44
    Publication Date: 2022-03-01
    Repository Name: EPIC Alfred Wegener Institut
    Type: Miscellaneous , notRev
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  • 45
    Publication Date: 2022-03-01
    Description: A breeding colony of notothenioid icefish (Neopagetopsis ionah, Nybelin 1947) of globally unprecedented extent has been discovered in the southern Weddell Sea, Antarctica. The colony was estimated to cover at least �240 km2 of the eastern flank of the Filchner Trough, comprised of fish nests at a density of 0.26 nests per square meter, representing an estimated total of �60 million active nests and associated fish biomass of 〉60,000 tonnes. The majority of nests were each occupied by 1 adult fish guarding 1,735 eggs (±433 SD). Bot- tom water temperatures measured across the nesting colony were up to 2�C warmer than the surrounding bottom waters, indicating a spatial correlation between the modified Warm Deep Water (mWDW) upflow onto the Weddell Shelf and the active nesting area. Historical and concurrently collected seal movement data indicate that this concentrated fish biomass may be utilized by predators such as Weddell seals (Lep- tonychotes weddellii, Lesson 1826). Numerous degraded fish carcasses within and near the nesting colony suggest that, in death as well as life, these fish provide input for local food webs and influence local biogeo- chemical processing. To our knowledge, the area surveyed harbors the most spatially expansive continuous fish breeding colony discovered to date globally at any depth, as well as an exceptionally high Antarctic sea- floor biomass. This discovery provides support for the establishment of a regional marine protected area in the Southern Ocean under the Convention on the Conservation of Antarctic Marine Living Resources (CCAMLR) umbrella.
    Repository Name: EPIC Alfred Wegener Institut
    Type: Article , peerRev
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  • 46
    Publication Date: 2022-03-03
    Description: The Arctic is no longer a region dominated by thick multi-year ice (MYI), but by thinner, more dynamic, first-year-ice (FYI). This shift towards a seasonal ice cover has consequences for the under-ice light field, as sea-ice and its snow cover are a major factor influencing radiative transfer and thus, biological activity within- and under the ice. This work describes in situ measurements of light transmission through different types of sea-ice (MYI and FYI) performed during two expeditions to the Chukchi sea in August 2018 and 2019, as well as a simple characterisation of the biological state of the ice microbial system. Our analysis shows that, in late summer, two different states of FYI exist in this region: 1) FYI in an enhanced state of decay, and 2) robust FYI, more likely to survive the melt season. The two FYI types have different average ice thicknesses: 0.74 ± 0.07 m (N = 9) and 0.93 ± 0.11m (N = 9), different average values of transmittance: 0.15 ± 0.04 compared to 0.09 ± 0.02, and different ice extinction coefficients: 1.49 ± 0.28 and 1.12 ± 0.19 m -1. The measurements performed over MYI present different characteristics with a higher average ice thickness of 1.56 ± 0.12 m, lower transmittance (0.05 ± 0.01) with ice extinction coefficients of 1.24 ± 0.26 m-1 (N = 12). All ice types show consistently low salinity, chlorophyll a concentrations and nutrients, which may be linked to the timing of the measurements and the flushing of melt-water through the ice. With continued Arctic warming, the summer ice will continue to retreat, and the decayed variant of FYI, with a higher scattering of light, but a reduced thickness, leading to an overall higher light transmittance, may become a more relevant ice type. Our results suggest that in this scenario, more light would reach the ice interior and the upper-ocean.
    Repository Name: EPIC Alfred Wegener Institut
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  • 47
    Publication Date: 2022-03-03
    Description: Arctic observing and data systems have been widely recognized as critical infrastructures to support decision making and understanding across sectors in the Arctic and globally. Yet due to broad and persistent issues related to coordination, deployment infrastructure and technology gaps, the Arctic remains among the most poorly observed regions on the planet from the standpoint of conventional observing systems. Sustaining Arctic Observing Networks (SAON) was initiated in 2011 to address the persistent shortcomings in the coordination of Arctic observations that are maintained by its many national and organizational partners. SAON set forth a bold vision in its 2018 – 28 strategic plan to develop a roadmap for Arctic observing and data systems (ROADS) to specifically address a key gap in coordination efforts—the current lack of a systematic planning mechanism to develop and link observing and data system requirements and implementation strategies in the Arctic region. This coordination gap has hampered partnership development and investments toward improved observing and data systems. ROADS seeks to address this shortcoming through generating a systems-level view of observing requirements and implementation strategies across SAON’s many partners through its roadmap. A critical success factor for ROADS is equitable participation of Arctic Indigenous Peoples in the design and development process, starting at the process design stage to build needed equity. ROADS is both a comprehensive concept, building from a societal benefit assessment approach, and one that can proceed step-wise so that the most imperative Arctic observations—here described as shared Arctic variables (SAVs)—can be rapidly improved. SAVs will be identified through rigorous assessment at the beginning of the ROADS process, with an emphasis in that assessment on increasing shared benefit of proposed system improvements across a range of partnerships from local to global scales. The success of the ROADS process will ultimately be measured by the realization of concrete investments in and well-structured partnerships for the improved sustainment of Arctic observing and data systems in support of societal benefit.
    Repository Name: EPIC Alfred Wegener Institut
    Type: Article , isiRev , info:eu-repo/semantics/article
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  • 48
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    Alfred Wegener Institute
    In:  EPIC3Bremerhaven, Alfred Wegener Institute
    Publication Date: 2022-03-03
    Repository Name: EPIC Alfred Wegener Institut
    Type: Data Processing Reports , notRev
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  • 49
    Publication Date: 2022-03-03
    Repository Name: EPIC Alfred Wegener Institut
    Type: Article , peerRev
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  • 50
    Publication Date: 2022-03-01
    Description: Equatorial Plasma Bubbles (EPBs) are plasma density depletions observed in the equatorial ionosphere. The correct understanding of the EPBs dynamics and formation has a key role in the Space Weather context. This work reports the analysis of a nightside EPB detected in the African sector during a solar quiet period on August 14, 2018. The principal characteristics of the EPB have been identified by the use of the electric field detector, fluxgate magnetometer and Langmuir probe on board CSES-01 (China Seismo Electromagnetic satellite). The results show that a peculiar solar wind structure is likely at the base of the EPB generation.
    Description: Published
    Description: 118
    Description: 2A. Fisica dell'alta atmosfera
    Description: JCR Journal
    Repository Name: Istituto Nazionale di Geofisica e Vulcanologia (INGV)
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  • 51
    Publication Date: 2022-03-01
    Description: Porous carbons are materials of wide application and their request is more and more increasing in the last years: Properly designed synthesis is presently available for the preparation of materials to be used in several fields (e.g.: adsorption, molecular separation, and catalysis). The characterization of the porous carbons is usually carried out using different techniques such as thermogravimetric analyses, Raman spectroscopy, Scanning electron microscopy, etc. In this work, the micro-Raman technique is adopted in combination with N2 physisorption at 77 K to monitor how the synthetic approach influences the presence of either amorphous or ordered regions in porous carbons. The typical D and G Raman bands of activated carbons have been carefully deconvoluted in six different components by a fitting procedure, and the determined R1 = ID1/IG ratio correlated to their specific surface area.
    Description: Published
    Description: 419–431
    Description: 1TR. Georisorse
    Description: JCR Journal
    Repository Name: Istituto Nazionale di Geofisica e Vulcanologia (INGV)
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  • 52
    Publication Date: 2022-03-01
    Description: To examine the atmospheric responses to Arctic sea ice variability in the Northern Hemisphere cold season (from October to the following March), this study uses a coordinated set of large-ensemble experiments of nine atmospheric general circulation models (AGCMs) forced with observed daily varying sea ice, sea surface temperature, and radiative forcings prescribed during the 1979–2014 period, together with a parallel set of experiments where Arctic sea ice is substituted by its climatology. The simulations of the former set reproduce the near-surface temperature trends in reanalysis data, with similar amplitude, and their multimodel ensemble mean (MMEM) shows decreasing sea level pressure over much of the polar cap and Eurasia in boreal autumn. The MMEM difference between the two experiments allows isolating the effects of Arctic sea ice loss, which explain a large portion of the Arctic warming trends in the lower troposphere and drive a small but statistically significant weakening of the wintertime Arctic Oscillation. The observed interannual covariability between sea ice extent in the Barents–Kara Seas and lagged atmospheric circulation is distinguished from the effects of confounding factors based on multiple regression, and quantitatively compared to the covariability in MMEMs. The interannual sea ice decline followed by a negative North Atlantic Oscillation–like anomaly found in observations is also seen in the MMEM differences, with consistent spatial structure but much smaller amplitude. This result suggests that the sea ice impacts on trends and interannual atmospheric variability simulated by AGCMs could be underestimated, but caution is needed because internal atmospheric variability may have affected the observed relationship.
    Description: Published
    Description: 8419–8443
    Description: 2A. Fisica dell'alta atmosfera
    Description: JCR Journal
    Keywords: Arctic ; Sea ice ; Atmospheric circulation ; Climate models ; 01.01. Atmosphere
    Repository Name: Istituto Nazionale di Geofisica e Vulcanologia (INGV)
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  • 53
    Publication Date: 2022-03-03
    Description: The Monte San Nicola area (Southern Sicily) offers a spectacular exposure of open-marine sediments that were employed in 1998 for defining the Global Stratotype Section and Point (GSSP) of the Gelasian Stage (Upper Pliocene). After the lowering of the Pliocene/Pleistocene boundary to ca. 2.6 Ma in 2010, the Gelasian GSSP has been redefined as the base of both the Pleistocene Series and the Quaternary Period, which increased its importance and visibility within the scientific community. However, documentation on the Monte San Nicola reference section is still sparse. In the light of its renewed status, we decided to undertake a complete revision of the Gelasian Stage in its type area, in order to evaluate whether the succession of bio- and magnetostratigraphic events that are expected to occur in the interval of relevance are represented adequately in the local record. The results of our investigation demonstrate that the Monte San Nicola succession spans continuously from the upper Piacenzian to the lower Calabrian, and is therefore suitable to host the Unit Stratotype, or even the Astronomical Unit Stratotype, of the Gelasian Stage.
    Description: Published
    Description: 107367
    Description: 1A. Geomagnetismo e Paleomagnetismo
    Description: JCR Journal
    Repository Name: Istituto Nazionale di Geofisica e Vulcanologia (INGV)
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  • 54
    Publication Date: 2022-03-03
    Description: Executive Summary The 2020 European Seismic Hazard Model (ESHM20) provides an update of the earthquake hazard assessment of the Euro-Mediterranean region. ESHM20 has received funding from the European Union's Horizon 2020 research and innovation programme under grant agreement No.s 730900 of the SERAProject (www.sera-eu.org) The ESHM20 follows the same principles as the ESHM13, with state-of-the art procedures homogeneously applied for the entire pan-European region, without the country-borders issues. The model was built upon recently compiled datasets (i.e. earthquake catalogues, active faults, ground shaking recordings), information (tectonic and geological) and models (seismogenic sources, ground shaking). A fully probabilistic framework was adopted in the hazard model implementation and all datasets and inputs are fully cross-border harmonized. The newly developed seismogenic source model encompass fully harmonized and cross borders seismogenic sources following the recent national earthquake hazard models. The inherent uncertainties in characterizing the earthquake rupture forecast are handled by a complex logic tree, consisting of two main models (branches): an area source-based model and a hybrid fault-smoothed seismicity model. The ground motion characteristic model is built upon the most complete ground shaking recordings in Europe and aims at capturing the effects of source and attenuation path of the expected ground shaking at a site. The regional variability of the ground shaking as constrain by observations is captured by a novel approach of spatial clustering and the overall uncertainties are handled in a backbone logic tree. The master logic tree combines the earthquake rate forecast with the backbone ground motion models into a computational model for assessing the earthquake ground shaking at across the entire Euro- Mediterranean region. Full sets of hazard results (i.e. hazard curves and maps, uniform hazard spectra) for various combinations of return periods and descriptive statistics (mean, median and quantiles) are available. The ESHM20 development process involved several regional workshops where the scientists and experts were consulted and their feedback was acknowledged and considered on the model outcome. Finally, ESHM20 provides the basis to derive informative hazard maps for two key engineering parameters defining the anchoring points of the seismic design spectra for the next version of the European Seismic Design Code (CEN-EC8). The European Facilities for Earthquake Hazard and Risk (EFEHR) will maintain and further develop this model in collaboration with the GEM Foundation and the European Plate Observing System (EPOS). The source data, input models, software and outputs of ESRM20 are thus being openly released with a Creative Commons CC-BY International 4.0 license (https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/). This license allows re-users to distribute, remix, adapt, and build upon the material in any medium or format, so long as attribution is given to the creator. The license allows for commercial use. Each product is released with a clear notice on how it should be cited in order to abide by the license. ESHM20 is online available at the www.hazard.EFEHR.org.
    Description: 1. Swiss Seismological Service, ETH Zurich, Sonneggstrasse 5, 8092 Zurich, Switzerland, 2. Istituto Nazionale di Geofisica e Vulcanologia (INGV), 00143 Rome, Italy, 3. German Research Centre for Geociences (GFZ), Section 2.6 Seismic Hazard & Risk Dynamics, 14473 Potsdam, Germany, 4. Institut des Sciences de la Terre (ISTerre), IRD, 38058 Grenoble, France, 5. Istituto Nazionale di Geofisica e Vulcanologia (INGV), 20133 Milan, Italy, 6. Instituto Superior Tecnico (IST), 1049-001 Lisboa, Portugal, 7. Bogazici University, Kandilli Observatory and Earthquake Research Institute, Department of Earthquake Engineering, 34684, Cengelkoy, Istanbul, Turkey, 8. Institute of Geophysics , ETH Zurich, Sonneggstrasse 5, 8092 Zurich, Switzerland
    Description: Published
    Description: 6T. Studi di pericolosità sismica e da maremoto
    Keywords: seismic hazard ; Europe ; 05.08. Risk
    Repository Name: Istituto Nazionale di Geofisica e Vulcanologia (INGV)
    Type: report
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  • 55
    Publication Date: 2022-03-08
    Description: How do recent changes in consumption in the wake of the COVID-19 pandemic affect the avoidance of packaging waste? How can an increase in packaging waste be countered and the previous trend towards unpackaged and reusable solutions be revived and promoted? To tackle these questions, we use a systemic approach that regards packaging as a network of interrelated interests of industry (manufacturing and logistics), trade (retail and catering), consumers and the waste management sector. To analyse this network, we applied three methods. First, we analysed secondary sources such as surveys. Second, we conducted semi-structured interviews with seven actors from industry, consumer education and waste management in May and June 2020. Third, we used the questions from the interview guideline to do an online survey among representatives of the public waste management industry.
    Keywords: ddc:330
    Repository Name: Wuppertal Institut für Klima, Umwelt, Energie
    Language: English
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  • 56
    Publication Date: 2022-03-08
    Description: This study presents in detail: the use of plastic products and the opportunities for recyclate use in the construction sector, quantities of plastic used, take-back systems, recycling techniques, current recyclate use and plastic construction product packaging.Potentials for increasing high-quality recyclate use were identified. Existing hurdles and options for action for industry and politics are presented. Current recyclate use as well as its potential use are strongly dependent on the application area of plastics. The biggest hurdles for the use of recycled materials are product life time, dismantling and technical requirements.
    Keywords: ddc:600
    Repository Name: Wuppertal Institut für Klima, Umwelt, Energie
    Language: English
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  • 57
    Publication Date: 2022-03-08
    Description: The European Integrated Data Archive (EIDA) is the infrastructure that provides access to the seismic‐waveform archives collected by European agencies. This distributed system is managed by Observatories and Research Facilities for European Seismology. EIDA provides seamless access to seismic data from 12 data archives across Europe by means of standard services, exposing data on behalf of hundreds of network operators and research organizations. More than 12,000 stations from permanent and temporary networks equipped with seismometers, accelerometers, pressure sensors, and other sensors are accessible through the EIDA federated services. A growing user base currently counting around 3000 unique users per year has been requesting data and using EIDA services. The EIDA system is designed to scale up to support additional new services, data types, and nodes. Data holdings, services, and user numbers have grown substantially since the establishment of EIDA in 2013. EIDA is currently active in developing suitable data management approaches for new emerging technologies (e.g., distributed acoustic sensing) and challenges related to big datasets. This article reviews the evolution of EIDA, the current data holdings, and service portfolio, and gives an outlook on the current developments and the future envisaged challenges.
    Description: Published
    Description: 1788-1795
    Description: 4IT. Banche dati
    Description: JCR Journal
    Keywords: Seismic waveforms ; repository dati ; Euroean Integrated Data archive ; EIDA ; EPOS ; 04.06. Seismology
    Repository Name: Istituto Nazionale di Geofisica e Vulcanologia (INGV)
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  • 58
    Publication Date: 2022-03-08
    Description: Sviluppo di tecnologie innovative per l’identificazione, monitoraggio, remediation di sorgenti di contaminazione naturale e antropica
    Description: CNR
    Description: Unpublished
    Description: 2TR. Ricostruzione e modellazione della struttura crostale
    Keywords: multibeam ; Side scan sonar
    Repository Name: Istituto Nazionale di Geofisica e Vulcanologia (INGV)
    Type: report
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  • 59
    Publication Date: 2022-03-08
    Description: Author Posting. © American Geophysical Union, 2021. This article is posted here by permission of American Geophysical Union for personal use, not for redistribution. The definitive version was published in Journal of Geophysical Research: Oceans 126(12), (2021): e2021JC017621, https://doi.org/10.1029/2021JC017621.
    Description: Wind-driven coastal upwelling is an important process that transports nutrients from the deep ocean to the surface, fueling biological productivity. To better understand what affects the upward transport of nutrients (and many other properties such as temperature, salinity, oxygen, and carbon), it is necessary to know the depth of source waters (i.e., “source depth”) or the density of source waters (“source density”). Here, we focus on the upwelling driven by offshore Ekman transport and present a scaling relation for the source depth and density by considering a balance between the wind-driven upwelling and eddy-driven restratification processes. The scaling suggests that the source depth varies as (τ/N)1/2, while the source density goes as (τ1/2N3/2), where τ is the wind stress and N is the stratification. We test these relations using numerical simulations of an idealized coastal upwelling front with varying constant wind forcing and initial stratification, and we find good agreement between the theory and numerical experiments. This work highlights the importance of considering stratification in wind-driven upwelling dynamics, especially when thinking about how nutrient transport and primary production of coastal upwelling regions might change with increased ocean warming and stratification.
    Description: This work was funded by the ONR grant N00014-17-1-2390, and J. He was supported by the NASA FINESST award 80NSSC19K1350.
    Description: 2022-05-29
    Repository Name: Woods Hole Open Access Server
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  • 60
    Publication Date: 2022-03-08
    Description: Buesseler, K., Jin, D., Kourantidou, M., Levin, D., Ramakrishna, K., Renaud, P., Ausubel, J., Baltes, K., Gjerde, K., Holland, M., Kostel, K., LaCapra, V., Martin, A., Sosik, H., Thorrold, S., Tierney, T., Joyce, K., Renier, N., Taylor, E. (2022). The Ocean Twilight Zone’s Role in Climate Change. Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution, 32 pp.
    Description: The ocean twilight zone (more formally known as the mesopelagic zone) plays a fundamental role in global climate. It is the mid-ocean region roughly 100 to 1000 meters below the surface, encompassing a half-mile deep belt of water that spans more than two-thirds of our planet. The top of the ocean twilight zone only receives 1% of incident sunlight and the bottom level is void of sunlight. Life in the ocean twilight zone helps to transport billions of metric tons (gigatonnes) of carbon annually from the upper ocean into the deep sea, due in part to processes known as the biological carbon pump. Once carbon moves below roughly 1000 meters depth in the ocean, it can remain out of the atmosphere for centuries to millennia. Without the benefits of the biological carbon pump, the atmospheric CO 2 concentration would increase by approximately 200 ppm 1 which would significantly amplify the negative effects of climate change that the world is currently trying to curtail and reverse. Unfortunately, existing scientific knowledge about this vast zone of the ocean, such as how chemical elements flow through its living systems and the physical environment, is extremely limited, jeopardizing the efforts to improve climate predictions and to inform fisheries management and ocean policy development.
    Description: Funding is: The Audacious Project housed at TED
    Keywords: Climate ; Mesopelagic ; Twilight Zone ; Fisheries ; Carbon Dioxide Removal ; Ocean ; Biological Carbon Pump ; Solubility Pump ; Carbon ; Marine Snow
    Repository Name: Woods Hole Open Access Server
    Type: Other
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  • 61
    Publication Date: 2022-03-08
    Description: Author Posting. © American Geophysical Union, 2021. This article is posted here by permission of American Geophysical Union for personal use, not for redistribution. The definitive version was published in Journal of Geophysical Research: Oceans 126(12),(2021): e2021JC017884, https://doi.org/10.1029/2021JC017884.
    Description: The Southern Ocean, an important region for the uptake of anthropogenic carbon dioxide (CO2), features strong surface currents due to substantial mesoscale meanders and eddies. These features interact with the wind and modify the momentum transfer from the atmosphere to the ocean. Although such interactions are known to reduce momentum transfer, their impact on air-sea carbon exchange remains unclear. Using a 1/20° physical-biogeochemical coupled ocean model, we examined the impact of the current-wind interaction on the surface carbon concentration and the air-sea carbon exchange in the Southern Ocean. The current-wind interaction decreased winter partial pressure of CO2 (pCO2) at the ocean surface mainly south of the northern subantarctic front. It also reduced pCO2 in summer, indicating enhanced uptake, but not to the same extent as the winter loss. Consequently, the net outgassing of CO2 was found to be reduced by approximately 17% when including current-wind interaction. These changes stem from the combined effect of vertical mixing and Ekman divergence. A budget analysis of dissolved inorganic carbon (DIC) revealed that a weakening of vertical mixing by current-wind interaction reduces the carbon supply from below, and particularly so in winter. The weaker wind stress additionally lowers the subsurface DIC concentration in summer, which can affect the vertical diffusive flux of carbon in winter. Our study suggests that ignoring current-wind interactions in the Southern Ocean can overestimate winter CO2 outgassing.
    Description: The Southern Ocean, an important region for the uptake of anthropogenic carbon dioxide (CO2), features strong surface currents due to substantial mesoscale meanders and eddies. These features interact with the wind and modify the momentum transfer from the atmosphere to the ocean. Although such interactions are known to reduce momentum transfer, their impact on air-sea carbon exchange remains unclear. Using a 1/20° physical-biogeochemical coupled ocean model, we examined the impact of the current-wind interaction on the surface carbon concentration and the air-sea carbon exchange in the Southern Ocean. The current-wind interaction decreased winter partial pressure of CO2 (pCO2) at the ocean surface mainly south of the northern subantarctic front. It also reduced pCO2 in summer, indicating enhanced uptake, but not to the same extent as the winter loss. Consequently, the net outgassing of CO2 was found to be reduced by approximately 17% when including current-wind interaction. These changes stem from the combined effect of vertical mixing and Ekman divergence. A budget analysis of dissolved inorganic carbon (DIC) revealed that a weakening of vertical mixing by current-wind interaction reduces the carbon supply from below, and particularly so in winter. The weaker wind stress additionally lowers the subsurface DIC concentration in summer, which can affect the vertical diffusive flux of carbon in winter. Our study suggests that ignoring current-wind interactions in the Southern Ocean can overestimate winter CO2 outgassing.
    Description: 2022-05-15
    Keywords: Southern Ocean ; Current-Wind interaction ;