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  • Articles  (45,822)
  • Animals  (27,844)
  • Chemical Engineering  (17,979)
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  • 1
    Publication Date: 2016-04-16
    Description: Increasing incidence of inflammatory bowel diseases, such as Crohn's disease, in developed nations is associated with changes to the microbial environment, such as decreased prevalence of helminth colonization and alterations to the gut microbiota. We find that helminth infection protects mice deficient in the Crohn's disease susceptibility gene Nod2 from intestinal abnormalities by inhibiting colonization by an inflammatory Bacteroides species. Resistance to Bacteroides colonization was dependent on type 2 immunity, which promoted the establishment of a protective microbiota enriched in Clostridiales. Additionally, we show that individuals from helminth-endemic regions harbor a similar protective microbiota and that deworming treatment reduced levels of Clostridiales and increased Bacteroidales. These results support a model of the hygiene hypothesis in which certain individuals are genetically susceptible to the consequences of a changing microbial environment.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Notes: 〈/span〉Ramanan, Deepshika -- Bowcutt, Rowann -- Lee, Soo Ching -- Tang, Mei San -- Kurtz, Zachary D -- Ding, Yi -- Honda, Kenya -- Gause, William C -- Blaser, Martin J -- Bonneau, Richard A -- Lim, Yvonne A L -- Loke, P'ng -- Cadwell, Ken -- AI007180/AI/NIAID NIH HHS/ -- AI093811/AI/NIAID NIH HHS/ -- AI107588/AI/NIAID NIH HHS/ -- DK090989/DK/NIDDK NIH HHS/ -- DK093668/DK/NIDDK NIH HHS/ -- DK103788/DK/NIDDK NIH HHS/ -- HL123340/HL/NHLBI NIH HHS/ -- P30CA016087/CA/NCI NIH HHS/ -- UL1 TR000038/TR/NCATS NIH HHS/ -- UL1 TR00038/TR/NCATS NIH HHS/ -- New York, N.Y. -- Science. 2016 Apr 29;352(6285):608-12. doi: 10.1126/science.aaf3229. Epub 2016 Apr 14.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Author address: 〈/span〉Kimmel Center for Biology and Medicine at the Skirball Institute, New York University School of Medicine, New York, NY 10016, USA. Sackler Institute of Graduate Biomedical Sciences, New York University School of Medicine, New York, NY 10016, USA. ; Departments of Microbiology and Medicine, New York University School of Medicine, New York, NY 10016, USA. ; Department of Parasitology, Faculty of Medicine, University of Malaya, Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia. ; Sackler Institute of Graduate Biomedical Sciences, New York University School of Medicine, New York, NY 10016, USA. Departments of Microbiology and Medicine, New York University School of Medicine, New York, NY 10016, USA. ; Department of Pathology, New York University Langone Medical Center, New York, NY 10016, USA. ; RIKEN Center for Integrative Medical Sciences (IMS), Yokohama, Kanagawa 230-0045, Japan. Japan Agency for Medical Research and Development (AMED)-Core Research for Evolutional Science and Technology (CREST), Tokyo 100-0004, Japan. ; Center for Immunity and Inflammation, New Jersey Medical School, Rutgers, The State University of New Jersey, Newark, NJ 07101, USA. ; Department of Biology, Center for Genomics and Systems Biology, New York University, New York, NY 10003, USA. Courant Institute of Mathematical Sciences, New York University, New York, NY 10012, USA. Simons Center for Data Analysis, Simons Foundation, New York, NY 10011, USA. ; Department of Parasitology, Faculty of Medicine, University of Malaya, Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia. ken.cadwell@med.nyu.edu png.loke@nyumc.org limailian@um.edu.my. ; Departments of Microbiology and Medicine, New York University School of Medicine, New York, NY 10016, USA. ken.cadwell@med.nyu.edu png.loke@nyumc.org limailian@um.edu.my. ; Kimmel Center for Biology and Medicine at the Skirball Institute, New York University School of Medicine, New York, NY 10016, USA. Departments of Microbiology and Medicine, New York University School of Medicine, New York, NY 10016, USA. ken.cadwell@med.nyu.edu png.loke@nyumc.org limailian@um.edu.my.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Record origin:〈/span〉 〈a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27080105" target="_blank"〉PubMed〈/a〉
    Keywords: Animals ; Bacteroides/*immunology ; Bacteroides Infections/*immunology ; Clostridiales/immunology ; Clostridium Infections/immunology ; Crohn Disease/*genetics/immunology ; Gastrointestinal Microbiome/*immunology ; Genetic Predisposition to Disease ; Hygiene Hypothesis ; Intestines/*immunology/microbiology/parasitology ; Mice ; Mice, Mutant Strains ; Nod2 Signaling Adaptor Protein/*genetics ; Trichuriasis/*immunology ; Trichuris/*immunology
    Print ISSN: 0036-8075
    Electronic ISSN: 1095-9203
    Topics: Biology , Chemistry and Pharmacology , Computer Science , Medicine , Natural Sciences in General , Physics
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  • 2
    Publication Date: 2016-02-27
    Description: Cooper et al. (Research Article, 7 August 2015, p. 602) combined the annual-layer-counted Greenland Ice Core Chronology 2005 with chronological information from the Hulu Cave and Cariaco Basin records to produce a "revised" time scale. We argue that their time scale is incompatible with the nature of annual-layer-counted time scales and may lead to seriously flawed conclusions if used elsewhere at face value.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Notes: 〈/span〉Rasmussen, Sune O -- Svensson, Anders M -- New York, N.Y. -- Science. 2016 Feb 26;351(6276):927. doi: 10.1126/science.aad3573.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Author address: 〈/span〉Centre for Ice and Climate, Niels Bohr Institute, University of Copenhagen, Juliane Maries Vej 30, 2100 Copenhagen O, Denmark. olander@nbi.ku.dk. ; Centre for Ice and Climate, Niels Bohr Institute, University of Copenhagen, Juliane Maries Vej 30, 2100 Copenhagen O, Denmark.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Record origin:〈/span〉 〈a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26917761" target="_blank"〉PubMed〈/a〉
    Keywords: Animals ; *Extinction, Biological ; Global Warming/*history ; Humans
    Print ISSN: 0036-8075
    Electronic ISSN: 1095-9203
    Topics: Biology , Chemistry and Pharmacology , Computer Science , Medicine , Natural Sciences in General , Physics
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  • 3
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    American Association for the Advancement of Science (AAAS)
    Publication Date: 2016-04-29
    Description: Metastatic disease is the leading cause of cancer-related deaths and involves critical interactions between tumor cells and the microenvironment. Hypoxia is a potent microenvironmental factor promoting metastatic progression. Clinically, hypoxia and the expression of the hypoxia-inducible transcription factors HIF-1 and HIF-2 are associated with increased distant metastasis and poor survival in a variety of tumor types. Moreover, HIF signaling in malignant cells influences multiple steps within the metastatic cascade. Here we review research focused on elucidating the mechanisms by which the hypoxic tumor microenvironment promotes metastatic progression. These studies have identified potential biomarkers and therapeutic targets regulated by hypoxia that could be incorporated into strategies aimed at preventing and treating metastatic disease.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Notes: 〈/span〉Rankin, Erinn B -- Giaccia, Amato J -- CA-197713/CA/NCI NIH HHS/ -- CA-198291/CA/NCI NIH HHS/ -- CA-67166/CA/NCI NIH HHS/ -- New York, N.Y. -- Science. 2016 Apr 8;352(6282):175-80. doi: 10.1126/science.aaf4405. Epub 2016 Apr 7.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Author address: 〈/span〉Division of Radiation and Cancer Biology, Department of Radiation Oncology, Stanford University Medical Center, Stanford, CA 94305-5152, USA. Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Stanford University Medical Center, Stanford, CA 94305-5152, USA. ; Division of Radiation and Cancer Biology, Department of Radiation Oncology, Stanford University Medical Center, Stanford, CA 94305-5152, USA. giaccia@stanford.edu.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Record origin:〈/span〉 〈a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27124451" target="_blank"〉PubMed〈/a〉
    Keywords: Animals ; Basic Helix-Loop-Helix Transcription Factors/*metabolism ; Biomarkers, Tumor/analysis/metabolism ; Cell Hypoxia ; Cell Movement ; Disease Progression ; Drug Resistance, Neoplasm ; Epithelial-Mesenchymal Transition ; Humans ; Hypoxia-Inducible Factor 1, alpha Subunit/*metabolism ; Neoplasm Invasiveness ; Neoplasm Metastasis/*pathology/*therapy ; Radiation Tolerance ; Signal Transduction ; *Tumor Microenvironment
    Print ISSN: 0036-8075
    Electronic ISSN: 1095-9203
    Topics: Biology , Chemistry and Pharmacology , Computer Science , Medicine , Natural Sciences in General , Physics
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  • 4
    Publication Date: 2016-04-23
    Description: 〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Notes: 〈/span〉Joppa, L N -- O'Connor, B -- Visconti, P -- Smith, C -- Geldmann, J -- Hoffmann, M -- Watson, J E M -- Butchart, S H M -- Virah-Sawmy, M -- Halpern, B S -- Ahmed, S E -- Balmford, A -- Sutherland, W J -- Harfoot, M -- Hilton-Taylor, C -- Foden, W -- Di Minin, E -- Pagad, S -- Genovesi, P -- Hutton, J -- Burgess, N D -- New York, N.Y. -- Science. 2016 Apr 22;352(6284):416-8. doi: 10.1126/science.aaf3565. Epub 2016 Apr 21.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Author address: 〈/span〉See supplementary materials for complete list of author affiliations. lujoppa@microsoft.com. ; See supplementary materials for complete list of author affiliations.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Record origin:〈/span〉 〈a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27102469" target="_blank"〉PubMed〈/a〉
    Keywords: Animals ; *Biodiversity ; Datasets as Topic/*standards ; Endangered Species/*statistics & numerical data ; Human Activities ; Humans
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    Topics: Biology , Chemistry and Pharmacology , Computer Science , Medicine , Natural Sciences in General , Physics
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  • 5
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    American Association for the Advancement of Science (AAAS)
    Publication Date: 2016-01-02
    Description: 〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Notes: 〈/span〉Kaiser, Jocelyn -- New York, N.Y. -- Science. 2016 Jan 1;351(6268):14. doi: 10.1126/science.351.6268.14.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Record origin:〈/span〉 〈a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26721983" target="_blank"〉PubMed〈/a〉
    Keywords: Animals ; Databases, Genetic/*economics ; Financial Support ; Human Genome Project/*economics ; Humans ; Models, Animal ; National Human Genome Research Institute (U.S.)/*economics ; United States
    Print ISSN: 0036-8075
    Electronic ISSN: 1095-9203
    Topics: Biology , Chemistry and Pharmacology , Computer Science , Medicine , Natural Sciences in General , Physics
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  • 6
    Publication Date: 2016-01-30
    Description: 〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Notes: 〈/span〉Phalan, Ben -- Green, Rhys E -- Dicks, Lynn V -- Dotta, Graziela -- Feniuk, Claire -- Lamb, Anthony -- Strassburg, Bernardo B N -- Williams, David R -- zu Ermgassen, Erasmus K H J -- Balmford, Andrew -- BB/J014540/1/Biotechnology and Biological Sciences Research Council/United Kingdom -- New York, N.Y. -- Science. 2016 Jan 29;351(6272):450-1. doi: 10.1126/science.aad0055.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Author address: 〈/span〉Conservation Science Group, Department of Zoology, University of Cambridge, Cambridge CB2 3EJ, UK. btp22@cam.ac.uk. ; Conservation Science Group, Department of Zoology, University of Cambridge, Cambridge CB2 3EJ, UK. RSPB Centre for Conservation Science, Royal Society for the Prote"〉 RSPB Centre for Conservation Science, Royal Society for the Protection of Birds, Sandy SG19 2DL, UK. ; Conservation Science Group, Department of Zoology, University of Cambridge, Cambridge CB2 3EJ, UK. ; Laboratorio de Ornitologia, Museu de Ciencias e Tecnologia, PUC-RS, 6681, Porto Alegre, Brazil. ; International Institute for Sustainability, 22460-320 Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. Rio Conservation and Sustainability Science Centre, Department of Geography and the Environment, Pontificia Universidade Catolica, 22453-900 Rio de Janeiro, Brazil.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Record origin:〈/span〉 〈a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26823413" target="_blank"〉PubMed〈/a〉
    Keywords: *Agriculture ; Animals ; Cattle ; Ecosystem ; *Environmental Restoration and Remediation ; Equidae ; Felidae ; Livestock ; Sheep
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    Topics: Biology , Chemistry and Pharmacology , Computer Science , Medicine , Natural Sciences in General , Physics
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  • 7
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    American Association for the Advancement of Science (AAAS)
    Publication Date: 2016-01-20
    Description: 〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Notes: 〈/span〉Tang, Zhenwu -- Huang, Qifei -- Nie, Zhiqiang -- Yang, Yufei -- New York, N.Y. -- Science. 2015 Dec 4;350(6265):1176-7. doi: 10.1126/science.350.6265.1176-c.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Author address: 〈/span〉Environmental Research Academy, North China Electric Power University, Beijing, 102206, China. ; State Key Laboratory of Environmental Criteria and Risk Assessment, Chinese Research Academy of Environmental Sciences, Beijing, 100012, China. huangqf@craes.org.cn. ; State Key Laboratory of Environmental Criteria and Risk Assessment, Chinese Research Academy of Environmental Sciences, Beijing, 100012, China.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Record origin:〈/span〉 〈a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26785469" target="_blank"〉PubMed〈/a〉
    Keywords: *Animal Migration ; Animals ; *Birds
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  • 8
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    American Association for the Advancement of Science (AAAS)
    Publication Date: 2016-01-20
    Description: 〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Notes: 〈/span〉Cohen, Jon -- New York, N.Y. -- Science. 2015 Dec 4;350(6265):1186-7. doi: 10.1126/science.350.6265.1186.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Record origin:〈/span〉 〈a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26785474" target="_blank"〉PubMed〈/a〉
    Keywords: Animals ; Caenorhabditis elegans/genetics/physiology ; Caenorhabditis elegans Proteins/genetics/physiology ; Caloric Restriction ; Death ; Humans ; Hydra/genetics/physiology ; Longevity/genetics/*physiology ; Mice ; Mutation ; Phosphatidylinositol 3-Kinases/genetics/physiology
    Print ISSN: 0036-8075
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    Topics: Biology , Chemistry and Pharmacology , Computer Science , Medicine , Natural Sciences in General , Physics
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  • 9
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    American Association for the Advancement of Science (AAAS)
    Publication Date: 2016-01-20
    Description: Research into stem cells and aging aims to understand how stem cells maintain tissue health, what mechanisms ultimately lead to decline in stem cell function with age, and how the regenerative capacity of somatic stem cells can be enhanced to promote healthy aging. Here, we explore the effects of aging on stem cells in different tissues. Recent research has focused on the ways that genetic mutations, epigenetic changes, and the extrinsic environmental milieu influence stem cell functionality over time. We describe each of these three factors, the ways in which they interact, and how these interactions decrease stem cell health over time. We are optimistic that a better understanding of these changes will uncover potential strategies to enhance stem cell function and increase tissue resiliency into old age.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Notes: 〈/span〉Goodell, Margaret A -- Rando, Thomas A -- P01 AG036695/AG/NIA NIH HHS/ -- R01 AG047820/AG/NIA NIH HHS/ -- R01 AR062185/AR/NIAMS NIH HHS/ -- R37 AG023806/AG/NIA NIH HHS/ -- New York, N.Y. -- Science. 2015 Dec 4;350(6265):1199-204. doi: 10.1126/science.aab3388.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Author address: 〈/span〉Stem Cells and Regenerative Medicine Center, Center for Cell and Gene Therapy, and Department of Pediatrics, Baylor College of Medicine, Houston, TX 77030, USA. goodell@bcm.edu rando@stanford.edu. ; Glenn Center for the Biology of Aging and Department of Neurology and Neurological Sciences, Stanford University School of Medicine, Stanford, CA 94305, USA, and Center for Regenerative Rehabilitation, Veterans Administration Palo Alto Health Care System, Palo Alto, CA 94304, USA. goodell@bcm.edu rando@stanford.edu.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Record origin:〈/span〉 〈a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26785478" target="_blank"〉PubMed〈/a〉
    Keywords: Adult Stem Cells/*physiology ; Aging/*physiology ; Animals ; Cell Aging ; Epigenesis, Genetic ; Genetic Drift ; *Health ; Humans ; Mice ; Mutation ; Organ Specificity ; Selection, Genetic
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    Topics: Biology , Chemistry and Pharmacology , Computer Science , Medicine , Natural Sciences in General , Physics
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  • 10
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    American Association for the Advancement of Science (AAAS)
    Publication Date: 2016-01-20
    Description: 〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Notes: 〈/span〉Gottlieb, Roberta A -- Bernstein, Daniel -- New York, N.Y. -- Science. 2015 Dec 4;350(6265):1162-3. doi: 10.1126/science.aad8222.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Author address: 〈/span〉Heart Institute, Cedars-Sinai Medical Center, Los Angeles, CA 90048, USA. roberta.gottlieb@cshs.org. ; Department of Pediatrics, Stanford University, Palo Alto, CA 94304, USA.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Record origin:〈/span〉 〈a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26785456" target="_blank"〉PubMed〈/a〉
    Keywords: Animals ; Female ; Heart/*embryology ; Heart Failure/*metabolism ; Male ; Mitochondria, Heart/*metabolism/*physiology ; Mitochondrial Degradation/*physiology ; *Mitochondrial Dynamics ; Myocardium/*metabolism ; Ubiquitin-Protein Ligases/*metabolism
    Print ISSN: 0036-8075
    Electronic ISSN: 1095-9203
    Topics: Biology , Chemistry and Pharmacology , Computer Science , Medicine , Natural Sciences in General , Physics
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  • 11
    Publication Date: 2016-01-20
    Description: In developing hearts, changes in the cardiac metabolic milieu during the perinatal period redirect mitochondrial substrate preference from carbohydrates to fatty acids. Mechanisms responsible for this mitochondrial plasticity are unknown. Here, we found that PINK1-Mfn2-Parkin-mediated mitophagy directs this metabolic transformation in mouse hearts. A mitofusin (Mfn) 2 mutant lacking PINK1 phosphorylation sites necessary for Parkin binding (Mfn2 AA) inhibited mitochondrial Parkin translocation, suppressing mitophagy without impairing mitochondrial fusion. Cardiac Parkin deletion or expression of Mfn2 AA from birth, but not after weaning, prevented postnatal mitochondrial maturation essential to survival. Five-week-old Mfn2 AA hearts retained a fetal mitochondrial transcriptional signature without normal increases in fatty acid metabolism and mitochondrial biogenesis genes. Myocardial fatty acylcarnitine levels and cardiomyocyte respiration induced by palmitoylcarnitine were concordantly depressed. Thus, instead of transcriptional reprogramming, fetal cardiomyocyte mitochondria undergo perinatal Parkin-mediated mitophagy and replacement by mature adult mitochondria. Mitophagic mitochondrial removal underlies developmental cardiomyocyte mitochondrial plasticity and metabolic transitioning of perinatal hearts.〈br /〉〈br /〉〈a href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4747105/" target="_blank"〉〈img src="https://static.pubmed.gov/portal/portal3rc.fcgi/4089621/img/3977009" border="0"〉〈/a〉   〈a href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4747105/" target="_blank"〉This paper as free author manuscript - peer-reviewed and accepted for publication〈/a〉〈br /〉〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Notes: 〈/span〉Gong, Guohua -- Song, Moshi -- Csordas, Gyorgy -- Kelly, Daniel P -- Matkovich, Scot J -- Dorn, Gerald W 2nd -- HL058493/HL/NHLBI NIH HHS/ -- HL108943/HL/NHLBI NIH HHS/ -- HL122124/HL/NHLBI NIH HHS/ -- HL128071/HL/NHLBI NIH HHS/ -- HL59888/HL/NHLBI NIH HHS/ -- R01 HL058493/HL/NHLBI NIH HHS/ -- R01 HL059888/HL/NHLBI NIH HHS/ -- R01 HL108943/HL/NHLBI NIH HHS/ -- R01 HL128071/HL/NHLBI NIH HHS/ -- New York, N.Y. -- Science. 2015 Dec 4;350(6265):aad2459. doi: 10.1126/science.aad2459. Epub 2015 Dec 3.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Author address: 〈/span〉Center for Pharmacogenomics, Department of Internal Medicine, Washington University School of Medicine, St. Louis, MO, USA. ; Department of Pathology, Anatomy, and Cell Biology, Thomas Jefferson University, Philadelphia, PA, USA. ; Center for Metabolic Origins of Disease, Cardiovascular Metabolism Program, Sanford Burnham Prebys Medical Discovery Institute, Orlando, FL, USA. ; Center for Pharmacogenomics, Department of Internal Medicine, Washington University School of Medicine, St. Louis, MO, USA. gdorn@dom.wustl.edu.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Record origin:〈/span〉 〈a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26785495" target="_blank"〉PubMed〈/a〉
    Keywords: Animals ; Cellular Reprogramming ; GTP Phosphohydrolases/genetics/metabolism ; Heart/*embryology ; Mice ; Mice, Inbred C57BL ; Mice, Knockout ; Mitochondria, Heart/metabolism/*physiology/ultrastructure ; Mitochondrial Degradation/genetics/*physiology ; Mitochondrial Dynamics ; Myocardium/*metabolism/ultrastructure ; Myocytes, Cardiac/metabolism/ultrastructure ; Protein Kinases/metabolism ; Ubiquitin-Protein Ligases/genetics/*metabolism
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    Topics: Biology , Chemistry and Pharmacology , Computer Science , Medicine , Natural Sciences in General , Physics
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  • 12
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    American Association for the Advancement of Science (AAAS)
    Publication Date: 2016-01-20
    Description: 〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Notes: 〈/span〉Grimm, David -- New York, N.Y. -- Science. 2015 Dec 4;350(6265):1182-5. doi: 10.1126/science.350.6265.1182.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Record origin:〈/span〉 〈a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26785473" target="_blank"〉PubMed〈/a〉
    Keywords: Age Factors ; Animals ; Body Weight ; Cats ; Dogs ; Humans ; *Longevity ; Pets/*physiology
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    Topics: Biology , Chemistry and Pharmacology , Computer Science , Medicine , Natural Sciences in General , Physics
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  • 13
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    American Association for the Advancement of Science (AAAS)
    Publication Date: 2016-01-20
    Description: 〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Notes: 〈/span〉Kintisch, Eli -- New York, N.Y. -- Science. 2015 Dec 4;350(6265):1148-51. doi: 10.1126/science.350.6265.1148. Epub 2015 Dec 3.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Record origin:〈/span〉 〈a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26785455" target="_blank"〉PubMed〈/a〉
    Keywords: Animals ; Bison ; *Conservation of Natural Resources ; *Herbivory ; *Parks, Recreational ; *Permafrost ; Siberia ; *Taiga
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  • 14
    Publication Date: 2016-01-30
    Description: Cystic fibrosis (CF) is caused by mutations in the gene that encodes the cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR) anion channel. In humans and pigs, the loss of CFTR impairs respiratory host defenses, causing airway infection. But CF mice are spared. We found that in all three species, CFTR secreted bicarbonate into airway surface liquid. In humans and pigs lacking CFTR, unchecked H(+) secretion by the nongastric H(+)/K(+) adenosine triphosphatase (ATP12A) acidified airway surface liquid, which impaired airway host defenses. In contrast, mouse airways expressed little ATP12A and secreted minimal H(+); consequently, airway surface liquid in CF and non-CF mice had similar pH. Inhibiting ATP12A reversed host defense abnormalities in human and pig airways. Conversely, expressing ATP12A in CF mouse airways acidified airway surface liquid, impaired defenses, and increased airway bacteria. These findings help explain why CF mice are protected from infection and nominate ATP12A as a potential therapeutic target for CF.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Notes: 〈/span〉Shah, Viral S -- Meyerholz, David K -- Tang, Xiao Xiao -- Reznikov, Leah -- Abou Alaiwa, Mahmoud -- Ernst, Sarah E -- Karp, Philip H -- Wohlford-Lenane, Christine L -- Heilmann, Kristopher P -- Leidinger, Mariah R -- Allen, Patrick D -- Zabner, Joseph -- McCray, Paul B Jr -- Ostedgaard, Lynda S -- Stoltz, David A -- Randak, Christoph O -- Welsh, Michael J -- 5T32GM007337/GM/NIGMS NIH HHS/ -- DK054759/DK/NIDDK NIH HHS/ -- F30 HL123239/HL/NHLBI NIH HHS/ -- F30HL123239/HL/NHLBI NIH HHS/ -- HL091842/HL/NHLBI NIH HHS/ -- HL117744/HL/NHLBI NIH HHS/ -- HL51670/HL/NHLBI NIH HHS/ -- K08HL097071/HL/NHLBI NIH HHS/ -- Howard Hughes Medical Institute/ -- New York, N.Y. -- Science. 2016 Jan 29;351(6272):503-7. doi: 10.1126/science.aad5589.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Author address: 〈/span〉Department of Medicine, University of Iowa, Iowa City, IA 52242, USA. Department of Molecular Physiology and Biophysics, Pappajohn Biomedical Institute, Roy J. and Lucille A. Carver College of Medicine, University of Iowa, Iowa City, IA 52242, USA. ; Department of Pathology, University of Iowa, Iowa City, IA 52242, USA. ; Department of Medicine, University of Iowa, Iowa City, IA 52242, USA. Howard Hughes Medical Institute, University of Iowa, Iowa City, IA 52242, USA. ; Department of Medicine, University of Iowa, Iowa City, IA 52242, USA. ; Department of Pediatrics University of Iowa, Iowa City, IA 52242, USA. ; Department of Microbiology, University of Iowa, Iowa City, IA 52242, USA. ; Department of Pediatrics University of Iowa, Iowa City, IA 52242, USA. Department of Microbiology, University of Iowa, Iowa City, IA 52242, USA. ; Department of Medicine, University of Iowa, Iowa City, IA 52242, USA. Department of Molecular Physiology and Biophysics, Pappajohn Biomedical Institute, Roy J. and Lucille A. Carver College of Medicine, University of Iowa, Iowa City, IA 52242, USA. Department of Biomedical Engineering, College of Engineering, University of Iowa, Iowa City, IA 52242, USA. ; Department of Medicine, University of Iowa, Iowa City, IA 52242, USA. Department of Molecular Physiology and Biophysics, Pappajohn Biomedical Institute, Roy J. and Lucille A. Carver College of Medicine, University of Iowa, Iowa City, IA 52242, USA. Howard Hughes Medical Institute, University of Iowa, Iowa City, IA 52242, USA.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Record origin:〈/span〉 〈a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26823428" target="_blank"〉PubMed〈/a〉
    Keywords: Acids/metabolism ; Animals ; Bicarbonates/metabolism ; Cystic Fibrosis/*metabolism/*microbiology ; H(+)-K(+)-Exchanging ATPase/genetics/*metabolism ; Humans ; Hydrogen-Ion Concentration ; Lung/*metabolism/*microbiology ; Mice ; Mice, Inbred CFTR/genetics/metabolism ; Mice, Transgenic ; Swine
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  • 15
    Publication Date: 2016-01-02
    Description: Several recent studies link parental environments to phenotypes in subsequent generations. In this work, we investigate the mechanism by which paternal diet affects offspring metabolism. Protein restriction in mice affects small RNA (sRNA) levels in mature sperm, with decreased let-7 levels and increased amounts of 5' fragments of glycine transfer RNAs (tRNAs). In testicular sperm, tRNA fragments are scarce but increase in abundance as sperm mature in the epididymis. Epididymosomes (vesicles that fuse with sperm during epididymal transit) carry RNA payloads matching those of mature sperm and can deliver RNAs to immature sperm in vitro. Functionally, tRNA-glycine-GCC fragments repress genes associated with the endogenous retroelement MERVL, in both embryonic stem cells and embryos. Our results shed light on sRNA biogenesis and its dietary regulation during posttesticular sperm maturation, and they also link tRNA fragments to regulation of endogenous retroelements active in the preimplantation embryo.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Notes: 〈/span〉Sharma, Upasna -- Conine, Colin C -- Shea, Jeremy M -- Boskovic, Ana -- Derr, Alan G -- Bing, Xin Y -- Belleannee, Clemence -- Kucukural, Alper -- Serra, Ryan W -- Sun, Fengyun -- Song, Lina -- Carone, Benjamin R -- Ricci, Emiliano P -- Li, Xin Z -- Fauquier, Lucas -- Moore, Melissa J -- Sullivan, Robert -- Mello, Craig C -- Garber, Manuel -- Rando, Oliver J -- DP1ES025458/DP/NCCDPHP CDC HHS/ -- R01HD080224/HD/NICHD NIH HHS/ -- UL1 TR000161/TR/NCATS NIH HHS/ -- UL1 TR001453/TR/NCATS NIH HHS/ -- Howard Hughes Medical Institute/ -- New York, N.Y. -- Science. 2016 Jan 22;351(6271):391-6. doi: 10.1126/science.aad6780. Epub 2015 Dec 31.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Author address: 〈/span〉Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Pharmacology, University of Massachusetts Medical School, Worcester, MA 01605, USA. ; Program in Molecular Medicine, University of Massachusetts Medical School, Worcester, MA 01605, USA. Program in Bioinformatics and Integrative Biology, University of Massachusetts Medical School, Worcester, MA 01605, USA. ; Department of Obstetrics, Gynecology and Reproduction, Universite Laval, Centre Hospitalier Universitaire de Quebec Research Center, Quebec City, Quebec G1V 4G2, Canada. ; RNAi Therapeutics Institute, University of Massachusetts Medical School, Worcester, MA 01605, USA. ; Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Pharmacology, University of Massachusetts Medical School, Worcester, MA 01605, USA. RNAi Therapeutics Institute, University of Massachusetts Medical School, Worcester, MA 01605, USA. ; Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Pharmacology, University of Massachusetts Medical School, Worcester, MA 01605, USA. RNAi Therapeutics Institute, University of Massachusetts Medical School, Worcester, MA 01605, USA. Howard Hughes Medical Institute, University of Massachusetts Medical School, Worcester, MA 01605, USA. ; Program in Molecular Medicine, University of Massachusetts Medical School, Worcester, MA 01605, USA. RNAi Therapeutics Institute, University of Massachusetts Medical School, Worcester, MA 01605, USA. Howard Hughes Medical Institute, University of Massachusetts Medical School, Worcester, MA 01605, USA. ; Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Pharmacology, University of Massachusetts Medical School, Worcester, MA 01605, USA. oliver.rando@umassmed.edu.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Record origin:〈/span〉 〈a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26721685" target="_blank"〉PubMed〈/a〉
    Keywords: Animals ; Blastocyst/metabolism ; Diet, Protein-Restricted ; Epididymis/metabolism ; *Fertilization ; *Gene Expression Regulation ; Male ; Mice ; MicroRNAs/metabolism ; RNA, Transfer, Gly/*metabolism/*physiology ; Retroelements/genetics ; *Sperm Maturation ; Spermatozoa/*metabolism ; Testis/metabolism
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  • 16
    Publication Date: 2016-01-23
    Description: Differentiated macrophages can self-renew in tissues and expand long term in culture, but the gene regulatory mechanisms that accomplish self-renewal in the differentiated state have remained unknown. Here we show that in mice, the transcription factors MafB and c-Maf repress a macrophage-specific enhancer repertoire associated with a gene network that controls self-renewal. Single-cell analysis revealed that, in vivo, proliferating resident macrophages can access this network by transient down-regulation of Maf transcription factors. The network also controls embryonic stem cell self-renewal but is associated with distinct embryonic stem cell-specific enhancers. This indicates that distinct lineage-specific enhancer platforms regulate a shared network of genes that control self-renewal potential in both stem and mature cells.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Notes: 〈/span〉Soucie, Erinn L -- Weng, Ziming -- Geirsdottir, Laufey -- Molawi, Kaaweh -- Maurizio, Julien -- Fenouil, Romain -- Mossadegh-Keller, Noushine -- Gimenez, Gregory -- VanHille, Laurent -- Beniazza, Meryam -- Favret, Jeremy -- Berruyer, Carole -- Perrin, Pierre -- Hacohen, Nir -- Andrau, J-C -- Ferrier, Pierre -- Dubreuil, Patrice -- Sidow, Arend -- Sieweke, Michael H -- P01AG036695/AG/NIA NIH HHS/ -- New York, N.Y. -- Science. 2016 Feb 12;351(6274):aad5510. doi: 10.1126/science.aad5510. Epub 2016 Jan 21.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Author address: 〈/span〉Centre d'Immunologie de Marseille-Luminy, Universite Aix-Marseille, UM2, Campus de Luminy, Case 906, 13288 Marseille Cedex 09, France. INSERM, U1104, Marseille, France. CNRS, UMR 7280, Marseille, France. Centre de Recherche en Cancerologie de Marseille, INSERM (U1068), CNRS (U7258), Universite Aix-Marseille (UM105), Marseille, France. sieweke@ciml.univ-mrs.fr erinn.soucie@inserm.fr arend@stanford.edu. ; Department of Pathology, Stanford University, Stanford, CA 94305-5324, USA. ; Centre d'Immunologie de Marseille-Luminy, Universite Aix-Marseille, UM2, Campus de Luminy, Case 906, 13288 Marseille Cedex 09, France. INSERM, U1104, Marseille, France. CNRS, UMR 7280, Marseille, France. ; Centre d'Immunologie de Marseille-Luminy, Universite Aix-Marseille, UM2, Campus de Luminy, Case 906, 13288 Marseille Cedex 09, France. INSERM, U1104, Marseille, France. CNRS, UMR 7280, Marseille, France. Max-Delbruck-Centrum fur Molekulare Medizin in der Helmholtz-Gemeinschaft, 10 Robert-Rossle-Strasse, 13125 Berlin, Germany. ; Broad Institute of Harvard University and MIT, Cambridge, MA 02142, USA. ; Centre d'Immunologie de Marseille-Luminy, Universite Aix-Marseille, UM2, Campus de Luminy, Case 906, 13288 Marseille Cedex 09, France. INSERM, U1104, Marseille, France. CNRS, UMR 7280, Marseille, France. Institut de Genetique Moleculaire de Montpellier, CNRS UMR 5535, 1919 Route de Mende, 34293 Montpellier, France. ; Centre de Recherche en Cancerologie de Marseille, INSERM (U1068), CNRS (U7258), Universite Aix-Marseille (UM105), Marseille, France. ; Department of Pathology, Stanford University, Stanford, CA 94305-5324, USA. Department of Genetics, Stanford University, Stanford, CA 94305, USA. sieweke@ciml.univ-mrs.fr erinn.soucie@inserm.fr arend@stanford.edu. ; Centre d'Immunologie de Marseille-Luminy, Universite Aix-Marseille, UM2, Campus de Luminy, Case 906, 13288 Marseille Cedex 09, France. INSERM, U1104, Marseille, France. CNRS, UMR 7280, Marseille, France. Max-Delbruck-Centrum fur Molekulare Medizin in der Helmholtz-Gemeinschaft, 10 Robert-Rossle-Strasse, 13125 Berlin, Germany. sieweke@ciml.univ-mrs.fr erinn.soucie@inserm.fr arend@stanford.edu.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Record origin:〈/span〉 〈a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26797145" target="_blank"〉PubMed〈/a〉
    Keywords: Animals ; Cell Differentiation/*genetics ; Cell Lineage/*genetics ; Cell Proliferation ; Cells, Cultured ; Down-Regulation ; Embryonic Stem Cells/*cytology ; Enhancer Elements, Genetic/*physiology ; *Gene Expression Regulation ; Gene Regulatory Networks ; Macrophages/*cytology ; MafB Transcription Factor/metabolism ; Mice ; Proto-Oncogene Proteins c-maf/metabolism ; Single-Cell Analysis ; Transcriptional Activation
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  • 17
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    American Association for the Advancement of Science (AAAS)
    Publication Date: 2016-03-19
    Description: 〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Notes: 〈/span〉Loreto, Elgion Lucio Silva -- Wallau, Gabriel Luz -- New York, N.Y. -- Science. 2016 Mar 18;351(6279):1273. doi: 10.1126/science.351.6279.1273-b.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Author address: 〈/span〉Departamento de Bioquimica e Biologia Molecular, Universidade Federal de Santa Maria, Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil. ; Departamento de Entomologia, Centro de Pesquisas Aggeu Magalhaes-FIOCRUZ-CPqAM, Recife, PE, Brazil. gabriel.wallau@cpqam.fiocruz.br.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Record origin:〈/span〉 〈a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26989241" target="_blank"〉PubMed〈/a〉
    Keywords: Animals ; Culicidae/drug effects/*microbiology ; Dengue/*prevention & control/transmission ; Insecticides/pharmacology ; Mosquito Control/*methods ; Risk ; *Wolbachia
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  • 18
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    American Association for the Advancement of Science (AAAS)
    Publication Date: 2016-02-26
    Description: 〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Notes: 〈/span〉Currie, Janet -- Grenfell, Bryan -- Farrar, Jeremy -- New York, N.Y. -- Science. 2016 Feb 19;351(6275):815-6. doi: 10.1126/science.aad8521.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Author address: 〈/span〉Princeton University, Woodrow Wilson School, Princeton, NJ 08540, USA. jcurrie@princeton.edu. ; Princeton University, Woodrow Wilson School, Princeton, NJ 08540, USA. ; Wellcome Trust, 215 Euston Road, London NW1 2BE, UK.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Record origin:〈/span〉 〈a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26912880" target="_blank"〉PubMed〈/a〉
    Keywords: Animals ; Communicable Disease Control/*methods/*organization & administration ; Delivery of Health Care ; Disease Reservoirs ; Epidemics/*prevention & control ; *Global Health ; Hemorrhagic Fever, Ebola/epidemiology/prevention & control ; Humans ; International Cooperation ; Zika Virus Infection/epidemiology/prevention & control ; Zoonoses/prevention & control/transmission
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  • 19
    Publication Date: 2016-01-02
    Description: CRISPR/Cas9-mediated genome editing holds clinical potential for treating genetic diseases, such as Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD), which is caused by mutations in the dystrophin gene. To correct DMD by skipping mutant dystrophin exons in postnatal muscle tissue in vivo, we used adeno-associated virus-9 (AAV9) to deliver gene-editing components to postnatal mdx mice, a model of DMD. Different modes of AAV9 delivery were systematically tested, including intraperitoneal at postnatal day 1 (P1), intramuscular at P12, and retro-orbital at P18. Each of these methods restored dystrophin protein expression in cardiac and skeletal muscle to varying degrees, and expression increased from 3 to 12 weeks after injection. Postnatal gene editing also enhanced skeletal muscle function, as measured by grip strength tests 4 weeks after injection. This method provides a potential means of correcting mutations responsible for DMD and other monogenic disorders after birth.〈br /〉〈br /〉〈a href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4760628/" target="_blank"〉〈img src="https://static.pubmed.gov/portal/portal3rc.fcgi/4089621/img/3977009" border="0"〉〈/a〉   〈a href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4760628/" target="_blank"〉This paper as free author manuscript - peer-reviewed and accepted for publication〈/a〉〈br /〉〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Notes: 〈/span〉Long, Chengzu -- Amoasii, Leonela -- Mireault, Alex A -- McAnally, John R -- Li, Hui -- Sanchez-Ortiz, Efrain -- Bhattacharyya, Samadrita -- Shelton, John M -- Bassel-Duby, Rhonda -- Olson, Eric N -- DK-099653/DK/NIDDK NIH HHS/ -- HL-077439/HL/NHLBI NIH HHS/ -- HL-093039/HL/NHLBI NIH HHS/ -- HL-111665/HL/NHLBI NIH HHS/ -- R01 DK099653/DK/NIDDK NIH HHS/ -- R01 HL077439/HL/NHLBI NIH HHS/ -- R01 HL093039/HL/NHLBI NIH HHS/ -- R01 HL111665/HL/NHLBI NIH HHS/ -- U01 HL100401/HL/NHLBI NIH HHS/ -- U01-HL-100401/HL/NHLBI NIH HHS/ -- U54 HD 087351/HD/NICHD NIH HHS/ -- New York, N.Y. -- Science. 2016 Jan 22;351(6271):400-3. doi: 10.1126/science.aad5725. Epub 2015 Dec 31.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Author address: 〈/span〉Department of Molecular Biology, University of Texas Southwestern Medical Center, Dallas, TX 75390, USA. Hamon Center for Regenerative Science and Medicine, University of Texas Southwestern Medical Center, Dallas, TX 75390, USA. Sen. Paul D. Wellstone Muscular Dystrophy Cooperative Research Center, University of Texas Southwestern Medical Center, Dallas, TX 75390, USA. ; Department of Internal Medicine, University of Texas Southwestern Medical Center, Dallas, TX 75390, USA. ; Department of Molecular Biology, University of Texas Southwestern Medical Center, Dallas, TX 75390, USA. Hamon Center for Regenerative Science and Medicine, University of Texas Southwestern Medical Center, Dallas, TX 75390, USA. Sen. Paul D. Wellstone Muscular Dystrophy Cooperative Research Center, University of Texas Southwestern Medical Center, Dallas, TX 75390, USA. eric.olson@utsouthwestern.edu.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Record origin:〈/span〉 〈a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26721683" target="_blank"〉PubMed〈/a〉
    Keywords: Animals ; *CRISPR-Cas Systems ; Dependovirus ; Disease Models, Animal ; Dystrophin/*genetics ; Exons/genetics ; Female ; Forelimb/physiopathology ; Genetic Therapy/*methods ; Genome/genetics ; Hand Strength ; Male ; Mice ; Mice, Inbred mdx ; Muscle, Skeletal/metabolism ; Muscular Dystrophy, Duchenne/genetics/*therapy ; Myocardium/metabolism
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  • 20
    Publication Date: 2016-04-23
    Description: Sauropod dinosaurs exhibit the largest ontogenetic size range among terrestrial vertebrates, but a dearth of very young individuals has hindered understanding of the beginning of their growth trajectory. A new specimen of Rapetosaurus krausei sheds light on early life in the smallest stage of one of the largest dinosaurs. Bones record rapid growth rates and hatching lines, indicating that this individual weighed ~3.4 kilograms at hatching. Just several weeks later, when it likely succumbed to starvation in a drought-stressed ecosystem, it had reached a mass of ~40 kilograms and was ~35 centimeters tall at the hip. Unexpectedly, Rapetosaurus limb bones grew isometrically throughout their development. Cortical remodeling, limb isometry, and thin calcified hypertrophic metaphyseal cartilages indicate an active, precocial growth strategy.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Notes: 〈/span〉Curry Rogers, Kristina -- Whitney, Megan -- D'Emic, Michael -- Bagley, Brian -- New York, N.Y. -- Science. 2016 Apr 22;352(6284):450-3. doi: 10.1126/science.aaf1509. Epub 2016 Apr 21.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Author address: 〈/span〉Biology and Geology Departments, Macalester College, St. Paul, MN 55105, USA. rogersk@macalester.edu. ; Department of Biology, University of Washington, Seattle, WA 98185-1800, USA. ; Biology Department, Adelphi University, Garden City, NY 11530-0701, USA. ; Department of Earth Sciences, University of Minnesota, Minneapolis, MN 55455-1333, USA.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Record origin:〈/span〉 〈a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27102482" target="_blank"〉PubMed〈/a〉
    Keywords: Animals ; Body Weight ; *Bone Development ; Bone and Bones/*anatomy & histology ; Calcification, Physiologic ; Cartilage/anatomy & histology/growth & development ; Dinosaurs/*anatomy & histology/*growth & development ; Droughts ; Ecosystem ; Extremities/anatomy & histology/growth & development ; Madagascar ; Starvation/veterinary
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  • 21
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    American Association for the Advancement of Science (AAAS)
    Publication Date: 2016-02-26
    Description: 〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Notes: 〈/span〉Stevens, Beth -- Muthukumar, Allie K -- New York, N.Y. -- Science. 2016 Feb 19;351(6275):813. doi: 10.1126/science.aaf2849.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Author address: 〈/span〉Department of Neurology, F. M. Kirby Neurobiology Center, Boston Children's Hospital, Boston, MA 02115, USA. beth.stevens@childrens.harvard.edu. ; Department of Neurology, F. M. Kirby Neurobiology Center, Boston Children's Hospital, Boston, MA 02115, USA.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Record origin:〈/span〉 〈a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26912878" target="_blank"〉PubMed〈/a〉
    Keywords: Animals ; Astrocytes/*metabolism ; Cerebellar Cortex/*cytology ; Female ; Hedgehog Proteins/*metabolism ; Male ; Neurons/*metabolism ; Receptors, G-Protein-Coupled/*metabolism
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  • 22
    Publication Date: 2016-04-30
    Description: Sleep has been described in animals ranging from worms to humans. Yet the electrophysiological characteristics of brain sleep, such as slow-wave (SW) and rapid eye movement (REM) activities, are thought to be restricted to mammals and birds. Recording from the brain of a lizard, the Australian dragon Pogona vitticeps, we identified SW and REM sleep patterns, thus pushing back the probable evolution of these dynamics at least to the emergence of amniotes. The SW and REM sleep patterns that we observed in lizards oscillated continuously for 6 to 10 hours with a period of ~80 seconds. The networks controlling SW-REM antagonism in amniotes may thus originate from a common, ancient oscillator circuit. Lizard SW dynamics closely resemble those observed in rodent hippocampal CA1, yet they originate from a brain area, the dorsal ventricular ridge, that has no obvious hodological similarity with the mammalian hippocampus.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Notes: 〈/span〉Shein-Idelson, Mark -- Ondracek, Janie M -- Liaw, Hua-Peng -- Reiter, Sam -- Laurent, Gilles -- New York, N.Y. -- Science. 2016 Apr 29;352(6285):590-5. doi: 10.1126/science.aaf3621.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Author address: 〈/span〉Max Planck Institute for Brain Research, Frankfurt am Main, Germany.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Record origin:〈/span〉 〈a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27126045" target="_blank"〉PubMed〈/a〉
    Keywords: Animals ; Biological Evolution ; Brain/*physiology ; CA1 Region, Hippocampal/physiology ; Lizards/*physiology ; Sleep, REM/*physiology
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  • 23
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    American Association for the Advancement of Science (AAAS)
    Publication Date: 2016-04-02
    Description: 〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Notes: 〈/span〉Leslie, Mitch -- New York, N.Y. -- Science. 2016 Apr 1;352(6281):21-3. doi: 10.1126/science.352.6281.21.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Record origin:〈/span〉 〈a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27034353" target="_blank"〉PubMed〈/a〉
    Keywords: Animals ; B-Lymphocytes/*immunology ; Diabetes Mellitus, Type 1/immunology ; Infection/*immunology ; Inflammation/*immunology ; Lymph Nodes/cytology/*immunology ; Mice ; Pancreas/immunology ; T-Lymphocytes/*immunology
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  • 24
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    American Association for the Advancement of Science (AAAS)
    Publication Date: 2016-04-23
    Description: 〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Notes: 〈/span〉Monahan, Patrick -- New York, N.Y. -- Science. 2016 Apr 22;352(6284):395. doi: 10.1126/science.352.6284.395. Epub 2016 Apr 21.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Record origin:〈/span〉 〈a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27102456" target="_blank"〉PubMed〈/a〉
    Keywords: Animals ; *Bone Development ; Bone and Bones/*anatomy & histology ; Dinosaurs/*anatomy & histology/*growth & development
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  • 25
    Publication Date: 2016-01-23
    Description: Ecological intensification, or the improvement of crop yield through enhancement of biodiversity, may be a sustainable pathway toward greater food supplies. Such sustainable increases may be especially important for the 2 billion people reliant on small farms, many of which are undernourished, yet we know little about the efficacy of this approach. Using a coordinated protocol across regions and crops, we quantify to what degree enhancing pollinator density and richness can improve yields on 344 fields from 33 pollinator-dependent crop systems in small and large farms from Africa, Asia, and Latin America. For fields less than 2 hectares, we found that yield gaps could be closed by a median of 24% through higher flower-visitor density. For larger fields, such benefits only occurred at high flower-visitor richness. Worldwide, our study demonstrates that ecological intensification can create synchronous biodiversity and yield outcomes.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Notes: 〈/span〉Garibaldi, Lucas A -- Carvalheiro, Luisa G -- Vaissiere, Bernard E -- Gemmill-Herren, Barbara -- Hipolito, Juliana -- Freitas, Breno M -- Ngo, Hien T -- Azzu, Nadine -- Saez, Agustin -- Astrom, Jens -- An, Jiandong -- Blochtein, Betina -- Buchori, Damayanti -- Chamorro Garcia, Fermin J -- Oliveira da Silva, Fabiana -- Devkota, Kedar -- Ribeiro, Marcia de Fatima -- Freitas, Leandro -- Gaglianone, Maria C -- Goss, Maria -- Irshad, Mohammad -- Kasina, Muo -- Pacheco Filho, Alipio J S -- Kiill, Lucia H Piedade -- Kwapong, Peter -- Parra, Guiomar Nates -- Pires, Carmen -- Pires, Viviane -- Rawal, Ranbeer S -- Rizali, Akhmad -- Saraiva, Antonio M -- Veldtman, Ruan -- Viana, Blandina F -- Witter, Sidia -- Zhang, Hong -- New York, N.Y. -- Science. 2016 Jan 22;351(6271):388-91. doi: 10.1126/science.aac7287.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Author address: 〈/span〉Instituto de Investigaciones en Recursos Naturales, Agroecologia y Desarrollo Rural (IRNAD), Sede Andina, Universidad Nacional de Rio Negro (UNRN) and Consejo Nacional de Investigaciones Cientificas y Tecnicas (CONICET), Mitre 630, CP 8400, San Carlos de Bariloche, Rio Negro, Argentina. lgaribaldi@unrn.edu.ar. ; Departamento de Ecologia, Universidade de Brasilia, Campus Universitario Darcy Ribeiro, Brasilia - DF, 70910-900, Brazil; Centre for Ecology, Evolution and Environmental Changes (CE3C), Faculdade de Ciencias da Universidade de Lisboa 1749-016 Lisboa, Portugal & Naturalis Biodiversity Center, postbus 9517, 2300, RA, Leiden, Netherlands. ; Institut national de la recherche agronomique, UR406 Abeilles et Environnement, 228 route de l'Aerodrome, CS40509, F84914, Avignon Cedex 9, France. ; Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations, Viale delle Terme di Caracalla 00153, Rome, Italy. ; Departamento de Zoologia, Universidade Federal da Bahia, Instituto de Biologia, Rua Barao de Geremoabo, S/N, Campus de Ondina, CEP 40170110, Salvador, BA, Brazil. ; Departamento de Zootecnia-Centro de Ciencias Agrarias, Universidade Federal do Ceara, Campus Universitario do Pici, CEP 60021970, Fortaleza, CE, Brazil. ; IPBES Secretariat, Intergovernmental Platform on Biodiversity and Ecosystem Services (IPBES), UN Campus, Platz der Vereinten Nationen 1, D-53113, Bonn, Germany. ; Laboratorio Ecotono, Universidad Nacional del Comahue-CONICET, Instituto de Investigaciones en Biodiversidad y Medioambiente, Quintral 1250, CP 8400, San Carlos de Bariloche, Rio Negro, Argentina. ; Norwegian Institute for Nature Research, Post Office Box 5685 Sluppen, NO-7485, Trondheim, Norway. ; Key Laboratory for Insect-Pollinator Biology of the Ministry of Agriculture, Institute of Apicultural Research, Chinese Academy of Agricultural Sciences, 100093, Beijing, China. ; Pontificia Universidade Catolica do Rio Grande do Sul (PUCRS), Av. Ipiranga, 6681, CEP 90619900, Porto Alegre, RS, Brazil. ; Department of Plant Protection, Faculty of Agriculture, Bogor Agricultural University. Jln. Kamper, Darmaga, Bogor, 16680, West Java, Indonesia. ; Laboratorio investigaciones en Abejas (LABUN), Departamento de Biologia, Universidad Nacional de Colombia, Sede Bogota, CP11001, Bogota, Colombia. ; Departamento de Educacao em Ciencias Agrarias e da Terra, Universidade Federal de Sergipe, Campus do Sertao, Rodovia Engenheiro Jorge Neto. Silos KM 0, CEP 49680000, Nossa Senhora da Gloria, SE, Brazil. ; Institute of Agriculture and Animal Science, Rampur, Chitwan, Nepal. ; Embrapa Semiarido, BR 428, Km 152, C.P. 23, zona rural, CEP 56302970, Petrolina, PE, Brazil. ; Jardim Botanico do Rio de Janeiro (JBRJ), Rua Pacheco Leao 915, CEP 22460030, Rio de Janeiro, RJ, Brazil. ; Laboratorio de Ciencias Ambientais, Universidade Estadual do Norte Fluminense Darcy Ribeiro, CEP 28013620, Campos dos Goytacazes, RJ, Brazil. ; University of Zimbabwe, Faculty of Agriculture, Crop Science Department, Post Office Box MP167, Mt Pleasant, Harare, Zimbabwe. ; Conservation and Management of Pollinators for Sustainable Agriculture through Ecosystem Approach project, Honey Bee Research Institute, National Agricultural Research Centre, Park Road, Post Office Box 44000, Islamabad, Pakistan. ; Kenya Agricultural and Livestock Research Organisation-Sericulture, Post Office Box 7816 code 01000 Thika, Kenya. ; College of Agriculture and Natural Sciences, School of Biological Sciences, University of Cape Coast, Cape Coast, Ghana. ; Embrapa Recursos Geneticos e Biotecnologia, Parque Estacao Biologica, W5 Norte (final), CEP 70770917, Brasilia, DF, Brazil. ; Instituto do Meio Ambiente e Recursos Hidricos (INEMA)-UR Extremo Sul, Rua Viena, no. 425, Bairro Dinnah Borges, CEP 45820970, Eunapolis, BA, Brazil. ; G.B. Pant Institute of Himalayan Environment and Development, Kosi-Katarmal, Almora-263 643, Uttarakhand. India. ; Department of Plant Pest Diseases, Faculty of Agriculture, University of Brawijaya. Jl. Veteran, Malang 65145, East Java, Indonesia. ; Universidade de Sao Paulo, Escola Politecnica, Av. Prof. Luciano Gualberto Travessa 3, n.158, CEP 05508010, Sao Paulo, SP, Brazil. ; South African National Biodiversity Institute, Kirstenbosch Research Centre, Private Bag X7, Claremont, 7735, South Africa. Conservation Ecology and Entomology, Stellenbosch University, Private Bag X1, 7602, Matieland, South Africa. ; Centro de Pesquisa Emilio Schenk, Fundacao Estadual de Pesquisa Agropecuaria (Fepagro Vale do Taquari), 1 degrees Distrito, Fonte Grande, Caixa Postal 12, CEP 95860000, Taquari, RS, Brazil.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Record origin:〈/span〉 〈a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26798016" target="_blank"〉PubMed〈/a〉
    Keywords: Africa ; Animals ; Asia ; *Bees ; *Biodiversity ; *Crop Production ; Crops, Agricultural/*growth & development ; Flowers/growth & development ; *Pollination
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    American Association for the Advancement of Science (AAAS)
    Publication Date: 2016-04-29
    Description: 〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Notes: 〈/span〉Wade, Lizzie -- New York, N.Y. -- Science. 2016 Apr 8;352(6282):129-30. doi: 10.1126/science.352.6282.129. Epub 2016 Apr 7.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Record origin:〈/span〉 〈a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27124429" target="_blank"〉PubMed〈/a〉
    Keywords: Animals ; *Anthozoa ; Biodiversity ; Colombia ; Conservation of Natural Resources/*methods ; *Coral Reefs ; *Ships
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  • 27
    Publication Date: 2016-04-30
    Description: Sahl et al in their Comment raise criticisms of our work that fall into three classes: image artifacts, resolution criteria, and comparative performance on live cells. We explore each of these in turn.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Notes: 〈/span〉Li, Dong -- Betzig, Eric -- Howard Hughes Medical Institute/ -- New York, N.Y. -- Science. 2016 Apr 29;352(6285):527. doi: 10.1126/science.aad8396. Epub 2016 Apr 28.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Author address: 〈/span〉National Laboratory of Biological Macromolecules, Institute of Biophysics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100101, P.R. China. Janelia Research Campus, Howard Hughes Medical Institute, Ashburn, VA 20147. lidong@ibp.ac.cn betzige@janelia.hhmi.org. ; Janelia Research Campus, Howard Hughes Medical Institute, Ashburn, VA 20147. lidong@ibp.ac.cn betzige@janelia.hhmi.org.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Record origin:〈/span〉 〈a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27126031" target="_blank"〉PubMed〈/a〉
    Keywords: Animals ; Cytoskeleton/*ultrastructure ; *Endocytosis ; Imaging, Three-Dimensional/*methods ; Microscopy, Fluorescence/*methods ; Organelles/*ultrastructure
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    American Association for the Advancement of Science (AAAS)
    Publication Date: 2016-04-02
    Description: 〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Notes: 〈/span〉Shoubridge, Eric A -- New York, N.Y. -- Science. 2016 Apr 1;352(6281):31-2. doi: 10.1126/science.aaf5248. Epub 2016 Mar 31.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Author address: 〈/span〉Montreal Neurological Institute, Department of Human Genetics, McGill University, Montreal, Quebec, Canada. eric@ericpc.mni.mcgill.ca.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Record origin:〈/span〉 〈a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27034357" target="_blank"〉PubMed〈/a〉
    Keywords: Animals ; Humans ; Leigh Disease/*genetics/*therapy ; Mitochondria/*metabolism ; Oxygen/*metabolism ; Von Hippel-Lindau Tumor Suppressor Protein/*genetics
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  • 29
    Publication Date: 2016-02-27
    Description: Rasmussen and Svensson correctly point out that there is currently no satisfactory method to fully align the Greenland and Cariaco Basin records of climate change. However, our approach using interstadial onsets as tie-points allows direct comparison between radiocarbon dates and Greenland climate records. Crucially, both the standard Greenland and the merged Greenland-Cariaco time scales show that interstadial warming was associated with megafaunal genetic transitions.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Notes: 〈/span〉Cooper, Alan -- Turney, Chris -- Hughen, Konrad -- New York, N.Y. -- Science. 2016 Feb 26;351(6276):927. doi: 10.1126/science.aad8016.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Author address: 〈/span〉University of Adelaide, Australian Centre for Ancient DNA, School of Earth and Environmental Sciences, and Environment Institute, Adelaide, Australia. alan.cooper@adelaide.edu.au. ; Climate Change Research Centre, School of Biological, Earth and Environmental Sciences, University of New South Wales, Sydney, Australia. ; Department of Marine Chemistry and Geochemistry, Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution, Woods Hole, MA, USA.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Record origin:〈/span〉 〈a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26917762" target="_blank"〉PubMed〈/a〉
    Keywords: Animals ; *Extinction, Biological ; Global Warming/*history ; Humans
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  • 30
    Publication Date: 2016-03-12
    Description: 〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Notes: 〈/span〉Li, Junsheng -- Wang, Wei -- Axmacher, Jan Christoph -- Zhang, Yuanyuan -- Zhu, Yanpeng -- New York, N.Y. -- Science. 2016 Mar 11;351(6278):1160. doi: 10.1126/science.351.6278.1160-a.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Author address: 〈/span〉Biodiversity Research Center, Chinese Research Academy of Environmental Sciences, Chaoyang District, Beijing, 100012, China. lijsh@craes.org.cn wang.wei@craes.org.cn. ; UCL Department of Geography, University College London, London, WC1E 6BT, UK. ; Biodiversity Research Center, Chinese Research Academy of Environmental Sciences, Chaoyang District, Beijing, 100012, China.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Record origin:〈/span〉 〈a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26965616" target="_blank"〉PubMed〈/a〉
    Keywords: Animals ; China ; *Conservation of Natural Resources ; Plants/*classification ; Vertebrates/*classification
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  • 31
    Publication Date: 2016-04-30
    Description: Systems in thermodynamic equilibrium are not only characterized by time-independent macroscopic properties, but also satisfy the principle of detailed balance in the transitions between microscopic configurations. Living systems function out of equilibrium and are characterized by directed fluxes through chemical states, which violate detailed balance at the molecular scale. Here we introduce a method to probe for broken detailed balance and demonstrate how such nonequilibrium dynamics are manifest at the mesosopic scale. The periodic beating of an isolated flagellum from Chlamydomonas reinhardtii exhibits probability flux in the phase space of shapes. With a model, we show how the breaking of detailed balance can also be quantified in stationary, nonequilibrium stochastic systems in the absence of periodic motion. We further demonstrate such broken detailed balance in the nonperiodic fluctuations of primary cilia of epithelial cells. Our analysis provides a general tool to identify nonequilibrium dynamics in cells and tissues.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Notes: 〈/span〉Battle, Christopher -- Broedersz, Chase P -- Fakhri, Nikta -- Geyer, Veikko F -- Howard, Jonathon -- Schmidt, Christoph F -- MacKintosh, Fred C -- P50GM068763/GM/NIGMS NIH HHS/ -- R13GM085967/GM/NIGMS NIH HHS/ -- New York, N.Y. -- Science. 2016 Apr 29;352(6285):604-7. doi: 10.1126/science.aac8167.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Author address: 〈/span〉Drittes Physikalisches Institut, Georg-August-Universitat, 37077 Gottingen, Germany. The Kavli Institute for Theoretical Physics, University of California, Santa Barbara, CA 93106, USA. ; The Kavli Institute for Theoretical Physics, University of California, Santa Barbara, CA 93106, USA. Arnold-Sommerfeld-Center for Theoretical Physics and Center for NanoScience, Ludwig-Maximilians-Universitat Munchen, Theresienstrasse 37, D-80333 Munchen, Germany. Lewis-Sigler Institute for Integrative Genomics and Joseph Henry Laboratories of Physics, Princeton University, Princeton, NJ 08544, USA. ; Drittes Physikalisches Institut, Georg-August-Universitat, 37077 Gottingen, Germany. The Kavli Institute for Theoretical Physics, University of California, Santa Barbara, CA 93106, USA. Department of Physics, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, MA 02139, USA. ; Department of Molecular Biophysics and Biochemistry, Yale University, New Haven, CT, USA. ; Drittes Physikalisches Institut, Georg-August-Universitat, 37077 Gottingen, Germany. The Kavli Institute for Theoretical Physics, University of California, Santa Barbara, CA 93106, USA. fcmack@gmail.com christoph.schmidt@phys.uni-goettingen.de. ; The Kavli Institute for Theoretical Physics, University of California, Santa Barbara, CA 93106, USA. Department of Physics and Astronomy, Vrije Universiteit, Amsterdam, Netherlands. fcmack@gmail.com christoph.schmidt@phys.uni-goettingen.de.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Record origin:〈/span〉 〈a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27126047" target="_blank"〉PubMed〈/a〉
    Keywords: Animals ; Chlamydomonas reinhardtii/*physiology ; Cilia/physiology ; Dogs ; Epithelial Cells/physiology ; Flagella/*physiology ; Madin Darby Canine Kidney Cells ; Microscopy/methods ; Models, Biological ; *Motion ; Thermodynamics
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  • 32
    Publication Date: 2016-03-19
    Description: Tumor-derived extracellular vesicles (tEVs) are important signals in tumor-host cell communication, yet it remains unclear how endogenously produced tEVs affect the host in different areas of the body. We combined imaging and genetic analysis to track melanoma-derived vesicles at organismal, cellular, and molecular scales to show that endogenous tEVs efficiently disseminate via lymphatics and preferentially bind subcapsular sinus (SCS) CD169(+) macrophages in tumor-draining lymph nodes (tdLNs) in mice and humans. The CD169(+) macrophage layer physically blocks tEV dissemination but is undermined during tumor progression and by therapeutic agents. A disrupted SCS macrophage barrier enables tEVs to enter the lymph node cortex, interact with B cells, and foster tumor-promoting humoral immunity. Thus, CD169(+) macrophages may act as tumor suppressors by containing tEV spread and ensuing cancer-enhancing immunity.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Notes: 〈/span〉Pucci, Ferdinando -- Garris, Christopher -- Lai, Charles P -- Newton, Andita -- Pfirschke, Christina -- Engblom, Camilla -- Alvarez, David -- Sprachman, Melissa -- Evavold, Charles -- Magnuson, Angela -- von Andrian, Ulrich H -- Glatz, Katharina -- Breakefield, Xandra O -- Mempel, Thorsten R -- Weissleder, Ralph -- Pittet, Mikael J -- 1R01CA164448/CA/NCI NIH HHS/ -- 1R33CA202064/CA/NCI NIH HHS/ -- F31-CA196035/CA/NCI NIH HHS/ -- P01-CA069246/CA/NCI NIH HHS/ -- P50-CA86355/CA/NCI NIH HHS/ -- R01 AI097052/AI/NIAID NIH HHS/ -- R01-AI084880/AI/NIAID NIH HHS/ -- R01EB010011/EB/NIBIB NIH HHS/ -- R21-CA190344/CA/NCI NIH HHS/ -- T32CA79443/CA/NCI NIH HHS/ -- U19 CA179563/CA/NCI NIH HHS/ -- U54-CA126515/CA/NCI NIH HHS/ -- Canadian Institutes of Health Research/Canada -- New York, N.Y. -- Science. 2016 Apr 8;352(6282):242-6. doi: 10.1126/science.aaf1328. Epub 2016 Mar 17.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Author address: 〈/span〉Center for Systems Biology, Massachusetts General Hospital Research Institute, Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA 02114, USA. ; Center for Systems Biology, Massachusetts General Hospital Research Institute, Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA 02114, USA. Graduate Program in Immunology, Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA 02115, USA. ; Department of Neurology, Massachusetts General Hospital Research Institute, Harvard Medical School, Charlestown, MA 02129, USA. ; Department of Microbiology and Immunobiology, Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA 02115, USA. ; Institute of Pathology, University Hospital Basel, 4031 Basel, Switzerland. ; Center for Immunology and Inflammatory Diseases, Massachusetts General Hospital Research Institute, Harvard Medical School, Charlestown, MA 02129, USA. ; Center for Systems Biology, Massachusetts General Hospital Research Institute, Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA 02114, USA. mpittet@mgh.harvard.edu.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Record origin:〈/span〉 〈a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26989197" target="_blank"〉PubMed〈/a〉
    Keywords: Animals ; B-Lymphocytes/*immunology/ultrastructure ; Cell Communication ; Extracellular Vesicles/*immunology ; Humans ; *Immune Tolerance ; Lymph Nodes/immunology ; Lymphatic Vessels/immunology ; Macrophages/chemistry/*immunology ; Melanoma/*immunology/pathology ; Melanoma, Experimental/immunology/pathology ; Mice ; Mice, Inbred C57BL ; Sialic Acid Binding Ig-like Lectin 1/analysis/immunology ; Skin Neoplasms/*immunology/pathology
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  • 33
    Publication Date: 2016-02-06
    Description: SH3 and multiple ankyrin repeat domains 3 (SHANK3) haploinsufficiency is causative for the neurological features of Phelan-McDermid syndrome (PMDS), including a high risk of autism spectrum disorder (ASD). We used unbiased, quantitative proteomics to identify changes in the phosphoproteome of Shank3-deficient neurons. Down-regulation of protein kinase B (PKB/Akt)-mammalian target of rapamycin complex 1 (mTORC1) signaling resulted from enhanced phosphorylation and activation of serine/threonine protein phosphatase 2A (PP2A) regulatory subunit, B56beta, due to increased steady-state levels of its kinase, Cdc2-like kinase 2 (CLK2). Pharmacological and genetic activation of Akt or inhibition of CLK2 relieved synaptic deficits in Shank3-deficient and PMDS patient-derived neurons. CLK2 inhibition also restored normal sociability in a Shank3-deficient mouse model. Our study thereby provides a novel mechanistic and potentially therapeutic understanding of deregulated signaling downstream of Shank3 deficiency.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Notes: 〈/span〉Bidinosti, Michael -- Botta, Paolo -- Kruttner, Sebastian -- Proenca, Catia C -- Stoehr, Natacha -- Bernhard, Mario -- Fruh, Isabelle -- Mueller, Matthias -- Bonenfant, Debora -- Voshol, Hans -- Carbone, Walter -- Neal, Sarah J -- McTighe, Stephanie M -- Roma, Guglielmo -- Dolmetsch, Ricardo E -- Porter, Jeffrey A -- Caroni, Pico -- Bouwmeester, Tewis -- Luthi, Andreas -- Galimberti, Ivan -- New York, N.Y. -- Science. 2016 Mar 11;351(6278):1199-203. doi: 10.1126/science.aad5487. Epub 2016 Feb 4.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Author address: 〈/span〉Developmental Molecular Pathways, Novartis Institutes for Biomedical Research, Basel, Switzerland. ; Friedrich Miescher Institute, Basel, Switzerland. ; Analytical Sciences and Imaging, Novartis Institutes for Biomedical Research, Basel, Switzerland. ; Neuroscience, Novartis Institutes for Biomedical Research, Cambridge, USA. ; Developmental Molecular Pathways, Novartis Institutes for Biomedical Research, Basel, Switzerland. ivan.galimberti@novartis.com.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Record origin:〈/span〉 〈a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26847545" target="_blank"〉PubMed〈/a〉
    Keywords: Amino Acid Sequence ; Animals ; Autism Spectrum Disorder/*drug therapy/enzymology/genetics ; Chromosome Deletion ; Chromosome Disorders/genetics ; Chromosomes, Human, Pair 22/genetics ; Disease Models, Animal ; Down-Regulation ; Gene Knockdown Techniques ; Humans ; Insulin-Like Growth Factor I/metabolism ; Mice ; Molecular Sequence Data ; Multiprotein Complexes/metabolism ; Nerve Tissue Proteins/*genetics ; Neurons/enzymology ; Phosphorylation ; Protein Phosphatase 2/metabolism ; Protein-Serine-Threonine Kinases/*antagonists & inhibitors/metabolism ; Protein-Tyrosine Kinases/*antagonists & inhibitors/metabolism ; Proteomics ; Proto-Oncogene Proteins c-akt/genetics/metabolism ; Rats ; Signal Transduction ; TOR Serine-Threonine Kinases/metabolism
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  • 34
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    American Association for the Advancement of Science (AAAS)
    Publication Date: 2016-04-23
    Description: 〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Notes: 〈/span〉Hulme, Philip E -- Le Roux, Johannes J -- New York, N.Y. -- Science. 2016 Apr 22;352(6284):422. doi: 10.1126/science.352.6284.422-b. Epub 2016 Apr 21.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Author address: 〈/span〉The Bio-Protection Research Centre, Lincoln University, Lincoln 7647, Canterbury, New Zealand. philip.hulme@lincoln.ac.nz. ; The Bio-Protection Research Centre, Lincoln University, Lincoln 7647, Canterbury, New Zealand. Centre for Invasion Biology, Department of Botany and Zoology, Stellenbosch University, Matieland 7602, South Africa.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Record origin:〈/span〉 〈a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27102471" target="_blank"〉PubMed〈/a〉
    Keywords: Animals ; *Biological Evolution ; Conservation of Natural Resources/*methods ; *Extinction, Biological ; Humans
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  • 35
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    American Association for the Advancement of Science (AAAS)
    Publication Date: 2016-04-29
    Description: Despite decades of study, there are still many unanswered questions about metastasis, the process by which a localized cancer becomes a systemic disease. One of these questions is the nature of the tumor cells that give rise to metastases. Although conventional models suggest that metastases are seeded by single cells from the primary tumor, there is growing evidence that seeding requires the collective action of tumor cells traveling together in clusters. Here, we review this evidence, which comes from analysis of both experimental models and patient samples. We present a model of metastatic dissemination that highlights the activities of clusters of tumor cells that retain and require their epithelial properties.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Notes: 〈/span〉Cheung, Kevin J -- Ewald, Andrew J -- P30 CA006973/CA/NCI NIH HHS/ -- New York, N.Y. -- Science. 2016 Apr 8;352(6282):167-9. doi: 10.1126/science.aaf6546.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Author address: 〈/span〉Translational Research Program, Public Health Sciences Division, Fred Hutchinson Cancer Research Center, Seattle, WA 98109, USA. ; Departments of Cell Biology, Oncology, and Biomedical Engineering, Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine, 855 North Wolfe Street, Baltimore, MD 21205, USA. andrew.ewald@jhmi.edu.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Record origin:〈/span〉 〈a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27124449" target="_blank"〉PubMed〈/a〉
    Keywords: Animals ; Epithelial Cells/pathology ; Humans ; Mice ; *Models, Biological ; Neoplasm Metastasis/*pathology ; Neoplasm Seeding ; Neoplasms, Experimental/pathology ; Neoplastic Cells, Circulating/*pathology
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  • 36
    Publication Date: 2016-03-26
    Description: Cell assembly sequences during learning are "replayed" during hippocampal ripples and contribute to the consolidation of episodic memories. However, neuronal sequences may also reflect preexisting dynamics. We report that sequences of place-cell firing in a novel environment are formed from a combination of the contributions of a rigid, predominantly fast-firing subset of pyramidal neurons with low spatial specificity and limited change across sleep-experience-sleep and a slow-firing plastic subset. Slow-firing cells, rather than fast-firing cells, gained high place specificity during exploration, elevated their association with ripples, and showed increased bursting and temporal coactivation during postexperience sleep. Thus, slow- and fast-firing neurons, although forming a continuous distribution, have different coding and plastic properties.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Notes: 〈/span〉Grosmark, Andres D -- Buzsaki, Gyorgy -- MH102840/MH/NIMH NIH HHS/ -- MH54671/MH/NIMH NIH HHS/ -- NS075015/NS/NINDS NIH HHS/ -- R01 MH107396/MH/NIMH NIH HHS/ -- New York, N.Y. -- Science. 2016 Mar 25;351(6280):1440-3. doi: 10.1126/science.aad1935.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Author address: 〈/span〉Department of Neuroscience, Columbia University Medical Center, New York, NY 10019, USA. The Neuroscience Institute, School of Medicine, New York University, New York, NY 10016, USA. ; The Neuroscience Institute, School of Medicine, New York University, New York, NY 10016, USA. Center for Neural Science, New York University, New York, NY 10016, USA. gyorgy.buzsaki@nyumc.org.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Record origin:〈/span〉 〈a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27013730" target="_blank"〉PubMed〈/a〉
    Keywords: Action Potentials ; Animals ; Hippocampus/cytology/*physiopathology ; Learning/*physiology ; Male ; Maze Learning ; Neuronal Plasticity ; Pyramidal Cells/*physiology ; Rats ; Rats, Inbred LEC ; Sleep/physiology
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  • 37
    Publication Date: 2016-01-28
    Description: Viruses that infect the intestine include major human pathogens (retroviruses, noroviruses, rotaviruses, astroviruses, picornaviruses, adenoviruses, herpesviruses) that constitute a serious public health problem worldwide. These viral pathogens are members of a large, complex viral community inhabiting the intestine termed "the enteric virome." Enteric viruses have intimate functional and genetic relationships with both the host and other microbial constituents that inhabit the intestine, such as the bacterial microbiota, their associated phages, helminthes, and fungi, which together constitute the microbiome. Emerging data indicate that enteric viruses regulate, and are in turn regulated by, these other microbes through a series of processes termed "transkingdom interactions." This represents a changing paradigm in intestinal immunity to viral infection. Here we review recent advances in the field and propose new ways in which to conceptualize this important area.〈br /〉〈br /〉〈a href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4751997/" target="_blank"〉〈img src="https://static.pubmed.gov/portal/portal3rc.fcgi/4089621/img/3977009" border="0"〉〈/a〉   〈a href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4751997/" target="_blank"〉This paper as free author manuscript - peer-reviewed and accepted for publication〈/a〉〈br /〉〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Notes: 〈/span〉Pfeiffer, Julie K -- Virgin, Herbert W -- R01 AI074668/AI/NIAID NIH HHS/ -- R01 AI111918/AI/NIAID NIH HHS/ -- R01 DK 101354/DK/NIDDK NIH HHS/ -- R21 AI114927/AI/NIAID NIH HHS/ -- R24 OD019793/OD/NIH HHS/ -- U19 AI109725/AI/NIAID NIH HHS/ -- New York, N.Y. -- Science. 2016 Jan 15;351(6270). pii: aad5872. doi: 10.1126/science.aad5872. Epub 2016 Jan 14.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Author address: 〈/span〉Department of Microbiology, University of Texas Southwestern Medical Center, Dallas, TX 75390, USA. julie.pfeiffer@utsouthwestern.edu virgin@wustl.edu. ; Department of Pathology and Immunology, Washington University School of Medicine, St. Louis, MO 63110, USA. julie.pfeiffer@utsouthwestern.edu virgin@wustl.edu.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Record origin:〈/span〉 〈a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26816384" target="_blank"〉PubMed〈/a〉
    Keywords: Animals ; Bacteria/immunology/virology ; Bacteriophages/physiology ; Fungi/immunology ; Host-Pathogen Interactions/immunology ; Humans ; Intestinal Diseases/*immunology/*virology ; Intestines/*immunology/*virology ; Microbiota/*immunology ; Virus Diseases/*immunology ; Viruses/*immunology
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  • 38
    Publication Date: 2016-01-09
    Description: The cortico-hippocampal circuit is critical for storage of associational memories. Most studies have focused on the role in memory storage of the excitatory projections from entorhinal cortex to hippocampus. However, entorhinal cortex also sends inhibitory projections, whose role in memory storage and cortico-hippocampal activity remains largely unexplored. We found that these long-range inhibitory projections enhance the specificity of contextual and object memory encoding. At the circuit level, these gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA)-releasing projections target hippocampal inhibitory neurons and thus act as a disinhibitory gate that transiently promotes the excitation of hippocampal CA1 pyramidal neurons by suppressing feedforward inhibition. This enhances the ability of CA1 pyramidal neurons to fire synaptically evoked dendritic spikes and to generate a temporally precise form of heterosynaptic plasticity. Long-range inhibition from entorhinal cortex may thus increase the precision of hippocampal-based long-term memory associations by assessing the salience of mnemonormation to the immediate sensory input.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Notes: 〈/span〉Basu, Jayeeta -- Zaremba, Jeffrey D -- Cheung, Stephanie K -- Hitti, Frederick L -- Zemelman, Boris V -- Losonczy, Attila -- Siegelbaum, Steven A -- 1R01MH100510/MH/NIMH NIH HHS/ -- 1R01MH100631/MH/NIMH NIH HHS/ -- R01NS036658/NS/NINDS NIH HHS/ -- Howard Hughes Medical Institute/ -- New York, N.Y. -- Science. 2016 Jan 8;351(6269):aaa5694. doi: 10.1126/science.aaa5694.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Author address: 〈/span〉Department of Neuroscience, Kavli Brain Institute, Columbia University Medical Center, 1051 Riverside Drive, New York, NY 10032, USA. jayeeta.basu@nyumc.org sas8@columbia.edu. ; Department of Neuroscience, Kavli Brain Institute, Columbia University Medical Center, 1051 Riverside Drive, New York, NY 10032, USA. ; University of Texas at Austin, Austin, TX 78712, USA.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Record origin:〈/span〉 〈a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26744409" target="_blank"〉PubMed〈/a〉
    Keywords: Animals ; CA1 Region, Hippocampal/*physiology ; CA3 Region, Hippocampal/physiology ; Dendrites/physiology ; Entorhinal Cortex/*physiology ; Evoked Potentials/physiology ; GABAergic Neurons/physiology ; Inhibitory Postsynaptic Potentials/*physiology ; Memory, Long-Term/*physiology ; Mice ; Neuronal Plasticity/*physiology ; Pyramidal Cells/physiology ; Synapses/physiology ; gamma-Aminobutyric Acid/physiology
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  • 39
    Publication Date: 2016-03-12
    Description: The MYC oncogene codes for a transcription factor that is overexpressed in many human cancers. Here we show that MYC regulates the expression of two immune checkpoint proteins on the tumor cell surface: the innate immune regulator CD47 (cluster of differentiation 47) and the adaptive immune checkpoint PD-L1 (programmed death-ligand 1). Suppression of MYC in mouse tumors and human tumor cells caused a reduction in the levels of CD47 and PD-L1 messenger RNA and protein. MYC was found to bind directly to the promoters of the Cd47 and Pd-l1 genes. MYC inactivation in mouse tumors down-regulated CD47 and PD-L1 expression and enhanced the antitumor immune response. In contrast, when MYC was inactivated in tumors with enforced expression of CD47 or PD-L1, the immune response was suppressed, and tumors continued to grow. Thus, MYC appears to initiate and maintain tumorigenesis, in part, through the modulation of immune regulatory molecules.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Notes: 〈/span〉Casey, Stephanie C -- Tong, Ling -- Li, Yulin -- Do, Rachel -- Walz, Susanne -- Fitzgerald, Kelly N -- Gouw, Arvin M -- Baylot, Virginie -- Gutgemann, Ines -- Eilers, Martin -- Felsher, Dean W -- 1F32CA177139/CA/NCI NIH HHS/ -- 5T32AI07290/AI/NIAID NIH HHS/ -- CA 089305/CA/NCI NIH HHS/ -- CA 170378/CA/NCI NIH HHS/ -- CA 184384/CA/NCI NIH HHS/ -- U01 CA 114747/CA/NCI NIH HHS/ -- U01 CA 188383/CA/NCI NIH HHS/ -- New York, N.Y. -- Science. 2016 Apr 8;352(6282):227-31. doi: 10.1126/science.aac9935. Epub 2016 Mar 10.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Author address: 〈/span〉Division of Oncology, Departments of Medicine and Pathology, Stanford University School of Medicine, Stanford, CA 94305, USA. ; Comprehensive Cancer Center Mainfranken, Core Unit Bioinformatics, Biocenter, University of Wurzburg, Am Hubland, 97074 Wurzburg, Germany. ; Division of Oncology, Departments of Medicine and Pathology, Stanford University School of Medicine, Stanford, CA 94305, USA. Institute of Pathology, University Hospital Bonn, 53127 Bonn, Germany. ; Comprehensive Cancer Center Mainfranken, Core Unit Bioinformatics, Biocenter, University of Wurzburg, Am Hubland, 97074 Wurzburg, Germany. Theodor Boveri Institute, Biocenter, University of Wurzburg, Am Hubland, 97074 Wurzburg, Germany. ; Division of Oncology, Departments of Medicine and Pathology, Stanford University School of Medicine, Stanford, CA 94305, USA. dfelsher@stanford.edu.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Record origin:〈/span〉 〈a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26966191" target="_blank"〉PubMed〈/a〉
    Keywords: Animals ; Antigens, CD274/*genetics ; Antigens, CD47/*genetics ; Cell Line, Tumor ; Cell Transformation, Neoplastic/genetics/*immunology ; Down-Regulation ; *Gene Expression Regulation, Neoplastic ; Gene Knockdown Techniques ; Humans ; Immune Tolerance/*genetics ; Jurkat Cells ; Lymphoma/genetics/immunology ; Mice ; Precursor T-Cell Lymphoblastic Leukemia-Lymphoma/genetics/immunology ; Promoter Regions, Genetic ; Proto-Oncogene Proteins c-myc/genetics/*metabolism ; RNA, Small Interfering/genetics
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  • 40
    Publication Date: 2016-01-20
    Description: The final identity and functional properties of a neuron are specified by terminal differentiation genes, which are controlled by specific motifs in compact regulatory regions. To determine how these sequences integrate inputs from transcription factors that specify cell types, we compared the regulatory mechanism of Drosophila Rhodopsin genes that are expressed in subsets of photoreceptors to that of phototransduction genes that are expressed broadly, in all photoreceptors. Both sets of genes share an 11-base pair (bp) activator motif. Broadly expressed genes contain a palindromic version that mediates expression in all photoreceptors. In contrast, each Rhodopsin exhibits characteristic single-bp substitutions that break the symmetry of the palindrome and generate activator or repressor motifs critical for restricting expression to photoreceptor subsets. Sensory neuron subtypes can therefore evolve through single-bp changes in short regulatory motifs, allowing the discrimination of a wide spectrum of stimuli.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Notes: 〈/span〉Rister, Jens -- Razzaq, Ansa -- Boodram, Pamela -- Desai, Nisha -- Tsanis, Cleopatra -- Chen, Hongtao -- Jukam, David -- Desplan, Claude -- K99EY023995/EY/NEI NIH HHS/ -- R01 EY13010/EY/NEI NIH HHS/ -- New York, N.Y. -- Science. 2015 Dec 4;350(6265):1258-61. doi: 10.1126/science.aab3417.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Author address: 〈/span〉Center for Developmental Genetics, Department of Biology, New York University, 100 Washington Square East, New York, NY 10003-6688, USA. ; Center for Developmental Genetics, Department of Biology, New York University, 100 Washington Square East, New York, NY 10003-6688, USA. cd38@nyu.edu.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Record origin:〈/span〉 〈a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26785491" target="_blank"〉PubMed〈/a〉
    Keywords: Animals ; Base Pairing ; Drosophila Proteins/*genetics ; Drosophila melanogaster/genetics/growth & development ; *Gene Expression Regulation, Developmental ; Mutation ; Photoreceptor Cells, Invertebrate/*physiology ; Promoter Regions, Genetic/*genetics ; Rhodopsin/*genetics ; Transcription Factors/metabolism ; Vision, Ocular/*genetics
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  • 41
    Publication Date: 2016-01-20
    Description: Migratory species depend on a suite of interconnected sites. Threats to unprotected links in these chains of sites are driving rapid population declines of migrants around the world, yet the extent to which different parts of the annual cycle are protected remains unknown. We show that just 9% of 1451 migratory birds are adequately covered by protected areas across all stages of their annual cycle, in comparison with 45% of nonmigratory birds. This discrepancy is driven by protected area placement that does not cover the full annual cycle of migratory species, indicating that global efforts toward coordinated conservation planning for migrants are yet to bear fruit. Better-targeted investment and enhanced coordination among countries are needed to conserve migratory species throughout their migratory cycle.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Notes: 〈/span〉Runge, Claire A -- Watson, James E M -- Butchart, Stuart H M -- Hanson, Jeffrey O -- Possingham, Hugh P -- Fuller, Richard A -- New York, N.Y. -- Science. 2015 Dec 4;350(6265):1255-8. doi: 10.1126/science.aac9180.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Author address: 〈/span〉School of Geography, Planning and Environmental Management, University of Queensland, Brisbane, QLD, 4072, Australia. National Center for Ecological Analysis and Synthesis (NCEAS), University of California, Santa Barbara, Santa Barbara, CA 93101, USA. claire.runge@uqconnect.edu.au. ; School of Geography, Planning and Environmental Management, University of Queensland, Brisbane, QLD, 4072, Australia. Global Conservation Program, Wildlife Conservation Society, New York, NY, USA. ; BirdLife International, Wellbrook Court, Cambridge CB3 0NA, UK. ; School of Biological Sciences, University of Queensland, Brisbane, QLD 4072, Australia. ; School of Biological Sciences, University of Queensland, Brisbane, QLD 4072, Australia. Department of Life Sciences, Imperial College London, Silwood Park, Ascot, Berkshire SL5 7PY, England, UK.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Record origin:〈/span〉 〈a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26785490" target="_blank"〉PubMed〈/a〉
    Keywords: *Animal Migration ; Animals ; *Birds ; Breeding ; *Conservation of Natural Resources ; Population Dynamics ; Seasons
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  • 42
    Publication Date: 2016-01-20
    Description: 〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Notes: 〈/span〉Hurtley, Stella -- Roberts, Leslie -- Ray, L Bryan -- Purnell, Beverly A -- Ash, Caroline -- New York, N.Y. -- Science. 2015 Dec 4;350(6265):1180-1. doi: 10.1126/science.350.6265.1180.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Record origin:〈/span〉 〈a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26785472" target="_blank"〉PubMed〈/a〉
    Keywords: Aging/*genetics ; Animals ; Health ; Humans ; Mitochondria/metabolism ; Stem Cells/physiology ; Telomere/*genetics ; *Telomere Homeostasis
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  • 43
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    American Association for the Advancement of Science (AAAS)
    Publication Date: 2016-01-20
    Description: 〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Notes: 〈/span〉Ford, Adam T -- New York, N.Y. -- Science. 2015 Dec 4;350(6265):1175. doi: 10.1126/science.aad7134.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Author address: 〈/span〉Department of Integrative Biology at the University of Guelph, Guelph, Ontario, Canada. adamford@uoguelph.ca.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Record origin:〈/span〉 〈a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26785465" target="_blank"〉PubMed〈/a〉
    Keywords: Animals ; *Animals, Wild ; Antelopes ; *Dogs ; Endangered Species ; *Food Chain ; *Grassland ; *Herbivory ; Humans ; Plants
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  • 44
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    American Association for the Advancement of Science (AAAS)
    Publication Date: 2016-01-20
    Description: 〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Notes: 〈/span〉Cleary, Allison S -- New York, N.Y. -- Science. 2015 Dec 4;350(6265):1174-5. doi: 10.1126/science.aad7103.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Author address: 〈/span〉Pennsylvania State University College of Medicine, Hershey PA 17078, USA. acleary@hmc.psu.edu.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Record origin:〈/span〉 〈a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26785463" target="_blank"〉PubMed〈/a〉
    Keywords: Animals ; Breast Neoplasms/genetics/metabolism/*pathology ; Clone Cells/metabolism/pathology ; Female ; Mammary Neoplasms, Experimental/genetics/metabolism/*pathology ; Mice ; Neoplasms, Basal Cell/genetics/metabolism/pathology ; Wnt1 Protein/genetics/*metabolism ; ras Proteins/genetics/metabolism
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