Various topics such as CO 2 emissions, industry, human activities, and electricity distribution grids have attracted considerable attention because of the current state of crude oil production. Furthermore, estimations of solar radiation levels and of the efficiencies of photovoltaics (PVs), concentrated solar power (CSP), and solar chimney towers, as well as other renewable energy sources such as wind, tidal, and geothermal, have all been investigated. Here, an overview is presented of the potential future demands and possible supply of solar energy in relation to Iraq. Solar and wind energy sources, which are clean, inexhaustible, and environmentally friendly, are presented as renewable energy resources. Those systems that combine various sources of energy are called hybrids and they have received considerable attention in recent decades. The fundamental characteristics of solar radiation in Iraq are summarized, and the selection of those sites with potential for development of solar plants is based on the local maximum solar radiation. Furthermore, longitudinal and latitudinal orientation, wind, solar intensity, dust, temperature, rain, humidity, and pollution factors are all considered in the calculation of PV/CSP efficiencies. A study of the variation of annual radiation levels was conducted. The average UV radiation was found to comprise 3.25% of the global radiation. Therefore, most of the 47% reduction in received incoming global solar UV radiation is due to scattering and absorption in the atmosphere. Details regarding the desalination of underground or polluted water resources to support solar energy systems and plants and to preserve a clean low-dust environment are presented.
Energy, Environment Protection, Nuclear Power Engineering