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  • 1
  • 2
    Call number: Z 06.0500
    Type of Medium: Journal available for loan
    Pages: 30 cm
    ISSN: 1824-7741
    Former Title: Vorgänger Geologisch-paläontologische Mitteilungen, Innsbruck
    Language: German , English
    Note: Ersch. unregelmäßig , Beiträge teilweise in Englisch
    Branch Library: GFZ Library
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  • 3
    Monograph non-lending collection
    Monograph non-lending collection
    Leiden : Nijhoff ; 1.2009 -
    Call number: IASS 17.92082
    Type of Medium: Monograph non-lending collection
    ISSN: 1876-8814
    Language: English
    Branch Library: IASS Library
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  • 4
    Monograph available for loan
    Monograph available for loan
    Leningrad : Gidrometeorolog. Izd.
    Call number: MOP 33767
    Type of Medium: Monograph available for loan
    Pages: 663 S.
    Language: Russian
    Note: In kyrill. Schr., russ.
    Location: MOP - must be ordered
    Branch Library: GFZ Library
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  • 5
    Monograph available for loan
    Monograph available for loan
    Stuttgart : Schweizerbart Science Publishers ; Volume 1, number 1 (1978)-
    Call number: M 18.91571
    Type of Medium: Monograph available for loan
    Pages: 134 Seiten
    ISSN: 2363-7196
    Series Statement: Global tectonics and metallogeny : special issue Vol. 10/2-4
    Classification:
    Tectonics
    Parallel Title: Erscheint auch als Global tectonics and metallogeny
    Language: English
    Location: Upper compact magazine
    Branch Library: GFZ Library
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  • 6
    Call number: AWI G6-19-92375
    In: Berichte / Christian-Albrechts-Universität zu Kiel, Institut für Geowissenschaften, Nr. 9
    Type of Medium: Monograph available for loan
    Pages: 278 Seiten , Illustrationen
    ISSN: 0175-9302
    Series Statement: Berichte / Christian-Albrechts-Universität zu Kiel, Institut für Geowissenschaften 9
    Language: German
    Note: Zugleich: Dissertation, Christian-Albrechts-Universität zu Kiel, 1999 , INHALTSVERZEICHNIS 1. Einleitung 1.1 Kenntnisstand und offene Fragen 1.2 Fragestellung und Ziele dieser Arbeit 2. Umweltbedingungen in den Arbeitsgebieten 2.1 Hydrographie, Eisverhältnisse und NAO 2.2 Zur Variation von Wassertiefe und Breite der Dänemarkstraße und zur Vereisung Islands während des letzten Glazials 3. Methoden 3.1 Auswahl der Kernstationen 3.2 Probennahme und Analysen (Übersicht) 3.3 Zur Rekonstruktion von Paläobedingungen im Oberflächenwasser Zur Aussage stabiler Isotopenverhältnisse in planktischen Foraminiferen Zur Messung stabiler Isotopenverhältnisse Zur Massenspektrometrie Zur Rekonstruktion von Oberflächentemperaturen Alkane und Alkohole als Maß für Staubeintrag Eistranspmtiertes Material und vulkanische Aschen 3.4 Zur Rekonstruktion von Paläobedingungen im Zwischen-/ Tiefenwasser Häufigkeit von Cibicides- und anderen benthischen Arten (inkl. Taxonomie) Stabile Isotopenverhältnisse in benthischen Foraminiferen 3.5 AMS 14C-Datierungen Probenreinigung 3. 6 Hauptelementanalysen von vulkanischen Asche-Leithorizonten 3. 7 Geomagnetische Meßgrößen und magnetische Suszeptibiltät 3.8 Techniken zur Spektralanalyse 4. Methodische Ergebnisse 4.1 Zum Einfluß der Probenreinigung auf δ18O-/ δ13C-Werte 4.2 Probleme bei der langfristigen Reproduzierbarkeit von δ18O-Zeitreihen 4.3 Einfluß der Korngröße und Artendefinition planktischer Foraminiferen auf SST-Rekonstruktionen in hohen Breiten 4.4 Vergleich der stabilen Isotopenwerte von Cibicides lobatulus und Cibicidoides wuellerstorfi 5. Stratigraphische Grundlagen und Tiefenprofile der Klimasignale 5.1 Stratigraphische Korrelation zwischen parallel-gekernten GKG- und SL-/KL-Profilen 5.2 Flanktische δ18O-/ δ13C-Kurven, 14C-Alter und biostratigraphische Fixpunkte Westliches Islandbecken Kern PS2644 Kern PS2646 Kern PS2647 Kern 23351 Vøring-Plateau Kern 23071 Kern 23074 5.3 Benthische δ18O-/ δ13C-Werte in Kern PS2644 5.4 Siliziklastische Sedimentkomponenten: Eistransportiertes Material Westliches Islandbecken Kern PS2644 Kern PS2646 Kern PS2647 Vøring-Plateau Kern 23071 Kern 23074 5.5 Vulkanische Glasscherben in Kern PS2644: Wind- und Eiseintrag 5.6 Geochemie und Alter einzelner Tephralagen als Leithorizonte Westliches Islandbecken Kern PS2644 Kern PS2646 Kern PS2647 Vøring-Plateau Kern 23071 Kern 23074 5.7 Magnetische Suszeptibilität in den Kernen PS2644, PS2646 und PS2647 Kern PS2644 Kern PS2646 und PS2647 5.8 Geomagnetische Feldintensität und Richtungsänderungen in Kern PS2644 5.9 Variation von Planktonfauna und -flora Westliches Islandbecken: Kern PS2644 Kern PS2646 und PS2647 Vøring-Plateau: Kern 23071 und 23074 5.10 Benthische Foraminiferen in Kern PS2644 6. Entwicklung von Temperatur und Salzgehalt nördlich der Dänemark-Straße 6.1 Variation der Oberflächentemperatur nach Planktonforaminiferen 6.2 Variation der Oberflächentemperatur nach Uk37 6.3 Variation der Oberflächensalinität 7. Die Feinstratigraphie von Kern PS2644 als Basis für eine Eichung der 14C-Altersskala 22 - 55 ka 7.1 Korrelation zwischen den Klimasignalen in Kern PS2644 und der GISP2-Klimakurve zum Kalibrieren der 14C-Alter und Erstellen eines Altersmodells Tephrachronologische Marker Korrelationsparameter und -regeln Sonderfälle/ Probleme bei der Korrelation 7.2 Alters-stratigraphische Korrelation der Klimakurven von Kern 23071 und 23074 7.3 Variation der Altersanomalien zwischen 20 und 55 14C-ka 7.4 Variabilität des planktischen 14C-Reservoiralters in Schmelzwasserbeeinflußten Seegebieten Variation der planktischen 14C-Alter unmittelbar an der Basis von Heinrich-Ereignis 4 Unterschiede zwischen planktischen und benthischen 14C-Altern in der westlichen Islandsee. Zur Erklärung der inversen Altersdifferenzen 7.5 Differenz zwischen 14C- und Kalenderalter: Zeitliche Variation unter Einfluß des Erdmagnetfeldes - Modell und Befund 7.6 Sedimentationsraten der Kerne 23071, 23074 und PS2644 nach dem GISP2-Altersmodell Vøring-Plateau: Kerne 23071 und 23074 Südwest-Islandsee: Kern PS2644 8. Klimaoszillationen im Europäischen Nordmeer in der Zeit und Frequenzdomäne 8.1 "Der Einzelzyklus" in den Klimakurven von Kern PS2644 8.2 Zur Veränderlichkeit der Warm- und Kaltextreme sowie Zyklenlänge Besonderheiten in der Zyklenlänge Variation der Kalt-(Stadiale) Variation der Interstadiale 8.3 Periodizitäten der Klimasignale im Frequenzband der D.-Oe.-Zyklen. Der D.-Oe.-Zyklus von 1470 J., seine Multiplen und harmonischen Schwingungen Weitere Frequenzen: 1000-1150 Jahre- und 490- 510 Jahre-Zyklizitäten Höhere Frequenzen im Bereich von Jahrhunderten und Dekaden 8.4 Phasenbeziehungen und (örtliche) Steuemngsmechanismen der Dansgaard-Oeschger-Zyklen 9. Schlußfolgerungen Danksagung Literaturverzeichnis Anhang
    Location: AWI Reading room
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  • 7
    Journal available for loan
    Journal available for loan
    München : Altop Verlag ; 2007 -
    Call number: Z 19.92410
    Type of Medium: Journal available for loan
    Pages: 30 cm
    ISSN: 1865-4266
    Former Title: Vorg. Nachhaltiges Wirtschaften in Deutschland
    Language: German
    Note: Ungezählte Beil. ab 2010: Special , Ersch. jährl. 4x
    Branch Library: IASS Library
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  • 8
    Unknown
    London : Penguin Books
    ISBN: 9780141985206
    Language: English
    Branch Library: IASS Library
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  • 9
    Call number: 3/S 07.0034(2016)
    In: Annual report
    Type of Medium: Monograph available for loan
    Pages: 51 Seiten
    ISSN: 1865-6439 , 1865-6447
    Parallel Title: Erscheint auch als Annual report ... / Helmholtz Association of German Research Centres
    Language: English
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  • 10
    Type of Medium: Monograph available for loan
    Pages: Bände (Loseblattsammlung)
    ISBN: 9783963144509 , 3963144505
    Subsequent Title: Fortsetzung von EnEV und Energieausweise ...
    Language: German
    Branch Library: PIK Library
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  • 11
    Call number: S 90.0066(162,1)
    In: Geologisches Jahrbuch / A
    Type of Medium: Series available for loan
    Pages: 261 Seiten , Ill., 1 DVD-ROM (12 cm) und 1 Tafel-Beil. ([2] S.)
    ISBN: 9783510968534
    Series Statement: Geologisches Jahrbuch 162
    Classification:
    Engineering Geophysics
    Language: German
    Location: Lower compact magazine
    Branch Library: GFZ Library
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  • 12
    Call number: (DE-599)GBV03709842X
    Type of Medium: Monograph available for loan
    Language: German
    Location: MOP - must be ordered
    Branch Library: GFZ Library
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  • 13
    Call number: AWI A3-20-93434
    In: Meteorologische Abhandlungen / Institut für Meteorologie und Geophysik der Freien Universität Berlin, Band XXXII, Heft 1
    Type of Medium: Series available for loan
    Pages: 121 Seiten , Illustrationen
    Series Statement: Meteorologische Abhandlungen / Institut für Meteorologie und Geophysik der Freien Universität Berlin 32,1
    Language: German
    Note: Zugleich: Dissertation, Freie Unversität Berlin, [ca. 1963] , INHALTSVERZEICHNIS PROBLEMSTELLUNG UND ZIELSETZUNG 1. BEMERKUNGEN ZUM BEOBACHTUNGSGELÄNDE UND ZUM BEOBACHTUNGSMATERIAL 1.1 Das Beobachtungsgelände 1.2 Das Beobachtungsmaterial 2. HOMOGENITÄTSBETRACHTUNGEN 2.1 Temperatur 2.2 Niederschlag 2.3 Wind 2.4 Sonnenschein und Bewölkung 3. TEMPERATURVERHÄLTNISSE 3.1 Monats- und Jahreswerte 3.2 Tageswerte 3.3 Pentadenwerte 3.4 Häufigkeitsbetrachtungen 3.5 Interdiurne Veränderlichkeit 3.6 Der tägliche Gang 3.7 Vorkommen bestimmter Schwellenwerte 3.71 Frost- und Eistage 3.72 Sommer- und Tropentage 4. DER WASSERGEHALT DER LUFT 4.1 Monats- und Jahreswerte 4.2 Tageswerte 4.3 Häufigkeitsbetrachtungen 4.4 Interdiurne Veränderlichkeit 4.5 Der tägliche Gang 5. BEWÖLKUNGSVERHÄLTNISSE 5.1 Monats- und Jahreswerte 5.2 Tageswerte 5.3 Häufigkeitsbetrachtungen 5.4 Der tägliche Gang 5.5 Heitere und trübe Tage 5.6 Nebel 6. SONNENSCHEIN 6.1 Monats- und Jahreswerte 6.2 Tageswerte 6.3 Der tägliche Gang 7. NIEDERSCHLAGSVERHÄLTNISSE 7.1 Monats- und Jahreswerte 7.2 Niederschlagsbereitschaft 7.3 Tageswerte 7.4 Der tägliche Gang 7.5 Häufigkeitsbetrachtungen 7.6 Niederschlags- und Trockenperioden 7.7 Niederschlag und Wind· 7.8 Schneeverhältnisse 7.81 Schneefall und Schneedecke 7.82 Schneehöhe 7.9 Gewitter 8. WINDVERHÄLTNISSE 8.1 Windrichtung 8.2 Windgeschwindigkeit 8.21 Der jährliche Gang 8.22 Häufigkeitsbetrachtungen 8.23 Sturmtage und Windstillen 8.24 Der tägliche Gang 9.ZUSAMMENFASSUNG VERZEICHNIS DER TEXTTABELLEN VERZEICHNIS DER ABBILDUNGEN LITERATURVERZEICHNIS TABELLENANHANG
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  • 14
    Call number: AWI A3-20-93434-2
    In: Meteorologische Abhandlungen / Institut für Meteorologie und Geophysik der Freien Universität Berlin, Band XXXII, Heft 2
    Type of Medium: Series available for loan
    Pages: 218 Seiten , Illustrationen
    Series Statement: Meteorologische Abhandlungen / Institut für Meteorologie und Geophysik der Freien Universität Berlin 32,2
    Language: German
    Note: Zugleich: Dissertation, Freie Unversität Berlin, [ca. 1963] , INHALTSVERZEICHNIS PROBLEMSTELLUNG UND ZIELSETZUNG 1. BEMERKUNGEN ZUM BEOBACHTUNGSGELÄNDE UND ZUM BEOBACHTUNGSMATERIAL 1.1 Das Beobachtungsgelände 1.2 Das Beobachtungsmaterial 2. HOMOGENITÄTSBETRACHTUNGEN 2.1 Temperatur 2.2 Niederschlag 2.3 Wind 2.4 Sonnenschein und Bewölkung 3. TEMPERATURVERHÄLTNISSE 3.1 Monats- und Jahreswerte 3.2 Tageswerte 3.3 Pentadenwerte 3.4 Häufigkeitsbetrachtungen 3.5 Interdiurne Veränderlichkeit 3.6 Der tägliche Gang 3.7 Vorkommen bestimmter Schwellenwerte 3.71 Frost- und Eistage 3.72 Sommer- und Tropentage 4. DER WASSERGEHALT DER LUFT 4.1 Monats- und Jahreswerte 4.2 Tageswerte 4.3 Häufigkeitsbetrachtungen 4.4 Interdiurne Veränderlichkeit 4.5 Der tägliche Gang 5. BEWÖLKUNGSVERHÄLTNISSE 5.1 Monats- und Jahreswerte 5.2 Tageswerte 5.3 Häufigkeitsbetrachtungen 5.4 Der tägliche Gang 5.5 Heitere und trübe Tage 5.6 Nebel 6. SONNENSCHEIN 6.1 Monats- und Jahreswerte 6.2 Tageswerte 6.3 Der tägliche Gang 7. NIEDERSCHLAGSVERHÄLTNISSE 7.1 Monats- und Jahreswerte 7.2 Niederschlagsbereitschaft 7.3 Tageswerte 7.4 Der tägliche Gang 7.5 Häufigkeitsbetrachtungen 7.6 Niederschlags- und Trockenperioden 7.7 Niederschlag und Wind· 7.8 Schneeverhältnisse 7.81 Schneefall und Schneedecke 7.82 Schneehöhe 7.9 Gewitter 8. WINDVERHÄLTNISSE 8.1 Windrichtung 8.2 Windgeschwindigkeit 8.21 Der jährliche Gang 8.22 Häufigkeitsbetrachtungen 8.23 Sturmtage und Windstillen 8.24 Der tägliche Gang 9.ZUSAMMENFASSUNG VERZEICHNIS DER TEXTTABELLEN VERZEICHNIS DER ABBILDUNGEN LITERATURVERZEICHNIS TABELLENANHANG
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  • 15
    Monograph available for loan
    Monograph available for loan
    Madrid : Secc
    Call number: PIK N 456-17-90913
    Type of Medium: Monograph available for loan
    Pages: 536 Seiten
    Series Statement: Ministerio de Transportes Turismo Y Comunicaciones : Publicación Serie A 114
    Parallel Title: 1,1=6; 2,1=13 von Publicaciones / D / Ministerio del Aire, Subsecretaria de Aviación Civil, Servicio Meteorológico Nacional
    Language: Spanish
    Branch Library: PIK Library
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  • 16
    Call number: PIK N 453-17-91096
    Type of Medium: Monograph available for loan
    Pages: 50 Seiten , Illustrationen, Diagramme
    Language: German
    Branch Library: PIK Library
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  • 17
    Call number: IASS 15.89494
    Type of Medium: Monograph available for loan
    Pages: Losebl.-Ausg.
    Edition: Stand: Oktober 2010
    ISBN: 9783768501828
    Language: German
    Branch Library: IASS Library
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  • 18
    Monograph available for loan
    Monograph available for loan
    [Edgecumbe, N.Z.] : A. Muller
    Call number: M 15.89146
    Description / Table of Contents: An account of the results of the 2 March 1987 earthquake in the eastern Bay of Plenty and the aftermath's effects on the people and places on the Rangitaiki Plains
    Type of Medium: Monograph available for loan
    Pages: 223 S., , Ill.
    Language: English
    Branch Library: GFZ Library
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  • 19
    Monograph available for loan
    Monograph available for loan
    Garmisch-Partenkirchen : Institut für atmosphärische Umweltforschung der Fraunhofer- Gesellschaft
    Call number: MOP 44829 / Mitte
    Type of Medium: Monograph available for loan
    Pages: 25 S. , graph. Darst.
    Language: English
    Location: MOP - must be ordered
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  • 20
    Call number: MOP 19538/1d-6d
    Type of Medium: Monograph available for loan
    Pages: 111 S.
    ISSN: 0486-2287
    Language: Russian
    Note: In kyrill. Schr.
    Location: MOP - must be ordered
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  • 21
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    Amsterdam : Elsevier
    Physics Letters B 294 (1992), S. 466-478 
    ISSN: 0370-2693
    Source: Elsevier Journal Backfiles on ScienceDirect 1907 - 2002
    Topics: Physics
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 22
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    Amsterdam : Elsevier
    Physics Letters B 317 (1993), S. 474-484 
    ISSN: 0370-2693
    Source: Elsevier Journal Backfiles on ScienceDirect 1907 - 2002
    Topics: Physics
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 23
    Publication Date: 2022-05-19
    Description: Spherical Slepian functions (or ‘Slepian functions’) are mathematical functions which can be used to decompose potential fields, as represented by spherical harmonics, into smaller regions covering part of a spherical surface. This allows a spatio-spectral trade-off between aliasing of the signal at the boundary edges while constraining it within a region of interest. While Slepian functions have previously been applied to crustal magnetic data, this work further applies Slepian functions to flows on the core-mantle boundary. There are two main reasons for restricting flow models to certain parts of the core surface. Firstly, we have reason to believe that different dynamics operate in different parts of the core while, secondly, the modelled flow is ambiguous over certain parts of the surface. Spherical Slepian functions retain many of the advantages of our usual flow description, concerning for example the boundary conditions it must satisfy, and allowing easy calculation of the power
    Language: English
    Type: info:eu-repo/semantics/conferenceObject
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  • 24
    Publication Date: 2022-04-08
    Description: Effective policies to mitigate climate change need to be accompanied by a socially just transition. Based on experiences of past and ongoing transition policies in coal regions in Europe and with indications to the specificity of framework conditions and challenges and to the potential effectiveness and transferability of approaches, this paper presents lessons learnt which can be inspirational for similar transitions in other coal regions and for transitions in other sectors.
    Keywords: ddc:300
    Repository Name: Wuppertal Institut für Klima, Umwelt, Energie
    Language: English
    Type: report , doc-type:report
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  • 25
    Publication Date: 2022-04-08
    Description: Diese Fallstudie untersuchte den durch die geringe Wettbewerbsfähigkeit des Steinkohlebergbaus ausgelösten Strukturwandel im Ruhrgebiet vom Ende der 1950er Jahre bis 2015. Mit Hilfe verschiedener qualitativer und quantitativer Methoden der empirischen Sozial- und Wirtschaftsforschung analysierte sie den Strukturwandelprozess und die in Reaktion auf diesen Prozess umgesetzte Strukturpolitik mit dem Ziel, dieses Wissen für zukünftige Strukturwandelprozesse in anderen (Kohle-)Regionen zur Verfügung zu stellen. Eine Diskursanalyse half zu erkennen, wer warum welche strukturpolitischen Ansätze unterstützte - und gibt damit Hinweise auf die mögliche Relevanz von Erfahrungen für andere Regionen.
    Keywords: ddc:600
    Repository Name: Wuppertal Institut für Klima, Umwelt, Energie
    Language: German
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  • 26
    Publication Date: 2022-04-08
    Description: This case study examined the structural change in the Ruhr area caused by the low international competitiveness of German hard coal mining over the period from the late 1950s to 2015. It analysed the structural change process and the structural policies implemented as a reaction to this process with the objective to make this knowledge available for future structural change processes in other (coal) regions by deploying various qualitative and quantitative methods of empirical social and economic research. A discourse analysis helped to recognise who supported which structural policy approaches and why - and thus gives indications of the possible relevance of experiences for other regions.
    Keywords: ddc:600
    Repository Name: Wuppertal Institut für Klima, Umwelt, Energie
    Language: English
    Type: report , doc-type:report
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  • 27
    Publication Date: 2022-04-08
    Description: This case study examined the structural change in Lusatia caused by the system change from a centrally planned economy to a market economy in the period 1990-2015. It analysed the structural change process and the structural policies implemented as a reaction to this process with the objective to make this knowledge available for future structural change processes in other (coal) regions by deploying various qualitative and quantitative methods of empirical social and economic research. A discourse analysis helped to recognise who supported which structural policy approaches and why - and thus gives indications of the possible relevance of experiences for other regions.
    Keywords: ddc:300
    Repository Name: Wuppertal Institut für Klima, Umwelt, Energie
    Language: English
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  • 28
    Publication Date: 2022-04-08
    Description: Diese Fallstudie untersuchte den durch den Systemwechsel von der Plan- zur Marktwirtschaft ausgelösten Strukturwandel in der Lausitz im Zeitraum 1990-2015. Mit Hilfe verschiedener qualitativer und quantitativer Methoden der empirischen Sozial- und Wirtschaftsforschung analysierte sie den Strukturwandelprozess und die in Reaktion auf diesen Prozess umgesetzte Strukturpolitik mit dem Ziel, dieses Wissen für zukünftige Strukturwandelprozesse in anderen (Kohle-)Regionen zur Verfügung zu stellen. Eine Diskursanalyse half zu erkennen, wer warum welche strukturpolitischen Ansätze unterstützte - und gibt damit Hinweise auf die mögliche Relevanz von Erfahrungen für andere Regionen.
    Keywords: ddc:600
    Repository Name: Wuppertal Institut für Klima, Umwelt, Energie
    Language: German
    Type: report , doc-type:report
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  • 29
    Publication Date: 2022-04-08
    Description: In Europe, turbot aquaculture has a high potential for sustainable production, but the low tolerance to fishmeal replacement in the diet represents a big issue. Therefore, this study investigated the effects of more sustainable feed formulations on growth and feed performance, as well as nutritional status of juvenile turbot in recirculating aquaculture systems. In a 16-week feeding trial with 20 g juvenile turbot, one control diet containing traditional fishmeal, fish oil and soy products and two experimental diets where 20% of the fishmeal was replaced either with processed animal proteins (PAP) or with terrestrial plant proteins (PLANT) were tested. Irrespective of diets, growth performance was similar between groups, whereas the feed performance was significantly reduced in fish of the PAP group compared to the control. Comparing growth, feed utilisation and biochemical parameters, the results indicate that the fish fed on PAP diet had the lowest performance. Fish fed the PLANT diet had similar feed utilisation compared to the control, whereas parameters of the nutritional status, such as condition factor, hepato-somatic index and glycogen content showed reduced levels after 16 weeks. These effects in biochemical parameters are within the physiological range and therefore not the cause of negative performance. Since growth was unaffected, the lower feed performance of fish that were fed the PAP formulation might be balanced by the cost efficient formulation in comparison to the commercial and the PLANT formulations. Present study highlights the suitability of alternative food formulation for farmed fish.
    Repository Name: EPIC Alfred Wegener Institut
    Type: Article , isiRev , info:eu-repo/semantics/article
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  • 30
    Publication Date: 2022-04-08
    Description: Les algues comportent des substances naturelles très prometteuses, exploitables pour la nutrition humaine, l’industrie pharmaceutique et agroalimentaire. L’Algérie possède près de 1600 km de côte, renfermant une diversité algale considérable. Une telle diversité, sousexploitée, constitue un réel potentiel pour la recherche et l’industrie. Dans la présente étude, l’accent sera mis sur la composition chimique en acides gras des algues marines Cystoseira sauvageauana et Laurencia pinnatifida collectées dans la région côtière de Tipasa. Le profil en acides gras des algues a été déterminé après avoir effectué une extraction des lipides suivie d’une estérification des acides gras et caractérisation de ces derniers par chromatographie en phase gazeuse (CPG).Les acides gras identifiés chez les deux espèces étudiées varient du C14 à C20, l'acide palmitique (C16:0) étant le composé majoritaire. En outre, l’acide arachidonique (C20:4) et l’acide eicosapentaénoïque EPA (C20:5) constituent les principaux acides gras polyinsaturés (AGPI).
    Description: Algae contain very promising natural substances that can be used for human nutrition, the pharmaceutical industry and food processing. Algeria has nearly 1600 km of coastline, containing a considerable algal diversity. Such diversity, which is under-exploited, constitutes a real potential for research and industry. This study will focus on the chemical composition of fatty acids of the marine algae Cystoseira sauvageauana and Laurencia pinnatifida collected in the coastal region of Tipaza. The fatty acid profile of the algae was determined after performing lipid extraction followed by esterification of the fatty acids and characterization of the latter by gas chromatography (GC). The fatty acids identified in the two species studied range from C14 to C20, with palmitic acid (C16:0) being the major compound. In addition, arachidonic acid (C20:4) and eicosapentaenoic acid EPA (C20:5) are the main polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA).
    Description: Published
    Description: Refereed
    Keywords: Chemical composition ; Laurencia pinnatifida ; Fatty acids ; Algal diversity ; Food processing ; Acides gras polyinsaturés (AGPI) ; Cystoseira sauvageauan ; Acide arachidonique ; Acide eicosapentaénoïque ; Acide palmitique ; Eicosapentaenoic acid ; Palmitic acid ; Arachidonic acid ; ASFA_2015::P::Polyunsaturated fatty acids ; ASFA_2015::G::Gas chromatography ; ASFA_2015::B::Botanical resources
    Repository Name: AquaDocs
    Type: Journal Contribution
    Format: pp.4-9
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  • 31
    Publication Date: 2022-04-08
    Description: The paper considers the results of the study of modern terraces on the coast of the Lodeyny Peninsula in the Barents Sea. According to field observations, decoding of space and geodetic maps and volumetric modeling, signs of three terraces have been identified. Two terraces having a rear seam, a cliff, a brow and horizontal platforms have been studied in more detail. The rear seams are located at 7 and 30 m, and the edges at 10 and 40 m above the sea level. The third terrace is confined to the level of 40–60 m, and has not been studied in detail. According to estimates, the first two terraces were formed about 3,300 and 6,000 years ago respectively. The 1st terrace characterizes the period of slow land rise by 10 m, at the speed up to 3 mm/year, which began about 3,300 years ago and continues to the present. It is characterized by a uniform sea retreat of about 15 mm/year. The erosion products of this terrace are common in the lateral zone and represent modern marine sediments, including beaches forming a new terrace. The 2nd terrace characterizes to the dynamics of rapid land rise by 30 m at a speed of about 11 mm/year, which occurred in the period from 6,000 to 3,300 years ago. The erosion products of this terrace are most common on the coast and are found at a distance of 100 m to 2–3 km from the shore. It is assumed that the speed of movement of the coastline during the retreat of the sea was different and reached up to 900 mm/year. According to the authors, preliminary data indicate the instability of the territory and the manifestation of block movements, which may have a negative impact on the development of infrastructure.
    Description: В статье рассмотрены результаты изучения современных террас на побережье Баренцева моря в районе п-ва Лодейный. По данным натурных наблюдений, дешифрирования космических и геодезических карт и объемного моделирования выявлены признаки трех террас. Более детально изучены две террасы, у которых присутствуют тыловой шов, обрыв, бровка и горизонтальные площадки. Тыловые швы располагаются на отметках 7 и 30 м, а бровки – на отметках 10 и 40 м над уровнем моря. Третья терраса приурочена к уровню 40–60 м, детально не изучена. По расчетным данным первые две террасы образовались около 3 300 и 6 000 лет назад. 1-я терраса характеризует период медленного подъема суши на 10 м со скоростью около 3 мм/год, начавшийся около 3 300 лет назад и продолжающийся по настоящее время. Продукты размыва этой террасы распространены в латеральной зоне и представляют современные морские отложения, в том числе пляжи, формирующие новую террасу. 2-я терраса характеризует динамику быстрого подъема суши на 30 м со скоростью около 11 мм/год, произошедшего в период от 6 000 до 3 300 лет назад. Продукты размыва этой террасы имеют наибольшее распространение на побережье и встречаются на расстоянии от 100 м до 2–3 км от берега. Предполагается, что скорость перемещения береговой линии при отступлении моря была различной и достигала до 900 мм/год. По мнению авторов, предварительные данные свидетельствуют о нестабильности территории и проявлении блоковых подвижек, что может оказать негативное воздействие на развитие инфраструктуры.
    Description: Published
    Description: Refereed
    Keywords: Arctic coast ; Transformation of the shores ; Арктическое побережье ; Tрансформация берегов ; ASFA_2015::T::Terraces ; ASFA_2015::A::Arctic zone ; ASFA_2015::A::Arctic waters ; ASFA_2015::B::Bays ; ASFA_2015::B::Beach cusps ; ASFA_2015::B::Beach features
    Repository Name: AquaDocs
    Type: Journal Contribution
    Format: pp.38-49
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  • 32
    Publication Date: 2022-04-12
    Repository Name: EPIC Alfred Wegener Institut
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  • 33
    facet.materialart.
    Unknown
    In:  EPIC320. Crustaceologen-Tagung, Kiel, Germany, Zoologisches Museum Kiel, 2022-04-07-2022-04-10
    Publication Date: 2022-04-12
    Description: Large marine herbivores, such as sea urchins, consume huge amounts of benthic primary production and can control local stocks of marine macrophytes. By contrast, small mesograzers, such as peracarid crustaceans, are abundant on seaweeds but have only low per capita feeding rates. Accordingly, it is difficult to predict their impact on marine macrophyte biomass. We examined the damage induced by the feeding of the herbivorous amphipods Sunamphitoe lessoniophila and Bircenna sp. on the large kelp species Lessonia berteroana in northern-central Chile, southeast Pacific. The amphipods construct burrows in the stipes of subtidal individuals of the kelp inducing a characteristic sequence of progressive tissue degeneration in infested stipes. The composition of the amphipod assemblages inside the burrows varied between the different stages of infestation. Aggregations of amphipods within the burrows and the specific microhabitat preference of the amphipods result in localized feeding, inducing stipe breakage and loss of considerable amounts of algal biomass. The estimated loss of biomass of single stipes ranged from 1 to 77%. For the entire local kelp population, the estimated loss of biomass induced by the herbivorous amphipods amounted to 24–44%. Our results demonstrate that small herbivorous crustaceans can cause huge damage to large kelp species when their feeding activity is focussed on structurally valuable algal tissue.
    Repository Name: EPIC Alfred Wegener Institut
    Type: Conference , notRev
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  • 34
    Publication Date: 2022-04-12
    Description: Iodine has a significant impact on promoting the formation of new ultrafine aerosol particles and accelerating tropospheric ozone loss, thereby affecting radiative forcing and climate. Therefore, understanding the long-term natural evolution of iodine, and its coupling with climate variability, is key to adequately assess its effect on climate on centennial to millennial timescales. Here, using two Greenland ice cores (NEEM and RECAP), we report the Arctic iodine variability during the last 127,000 years. We find the highest and lowest iodine levels recorded during interglacial and glacial periods, respectively, modulated by ocean bioproductivity and sea ice dynamics. Our sub-decadal resolution measurements reveal that high frequency iodine emission variability occurred in pace with Dansgaard/Oeschger events, highlighting the rapid Arctic ocean-ice-atmosphere iodine exchange response to abrupt climate changes. Finally, we discuss if iodine levels during past warmer-than-present climate phases can serve as analogues of future scenarios under an expected ice-free Arctic Ocean. We argue that the combination of natural biogenic ocean iodine release (boosted by ongoing Arctic warming and sea ice retreat) and anthropogenic ozone-induced iodine emissions may lead to a near future scenario with the highest iodine levels of the last 127,000 years.
    Repository Name: EPIC Alfred Wegener Institut
    Type: Article , isiRev , info:eu-repo/semantics/article
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  • 35
    Publication Date: 2022-04-12
    Description: The repeated proximity of West Antarctic Ice Sheet (WAIS) ice to the eastern Ross Sea continental shelf break during past ice age cycles has been inferred to directly influence sedimentary processes occurring on the continental slope, such as turbidity current and debris flow activity; thus, the records of these processes can be used to study the past history of the WAIS. Ross Sea slope sediments may additionally provide an archive on the history and interplay of density-driven or geostrophic oceanic bottom currents with ice-sheet-driven depositional mechanisms. We investigate the upper 121 m of Hole U1525A, collected during International Ocean Discovery Program (IODP) Expedition 374 in 2018. Hole U1525A is located on the southwestern external levee of the Hillary Canyon (Ross Sea, Antarctica) and the depositional lobe of the nearby trough-mouth fan. Using core descriptions, grain size analysis, and physical properties datasets, we develop a lithofacies scheme that allows construction of a detailed depositional model and environmental history of past ice sheet-ocean interactions at the eastern Ross Sea continental shelf break/slope since ~2.4 Ma. The earliest Pleistocene interval (~2.4- ~ 1.4 Ma) represents a hemipelagic environment dominated by ice-rafting and reworking/deposition by relatively persistent bottom current activity. Finely interlaminated silty muds with ice-rafted debris (IRD) layers are interpreted as contourites. Between ~1.4 and ~0.8 Ma, geostrophic bottom current activity was weaker and turbiditic processes more common, likely related to the increased proximity of grounded ice at the shelf edge. Silty, normally-graded laminations with sharp bases may be the result of flow-stripped turbidity currents overbanking the canyon levee during periods when ice was grounded at or proximal to the shelf edge. A sandy, IRD- and foraminifera-bearing interval dated to ~1.18 Ma potentially reflects warmer oceanographic conditions and a period of stronger Antarctic Slope Current flow. This may have enhanced upwelling of warm Circumpolar Deep Water onto the shelf, leading to large-scale glacial retreat at that time. The thickest interval of turbidite interlamination was deposited after ~1 Ma, following the onset of the Mid-Pleistocene Transition, interpreted as a time when most ice sheets grew and glacial periods were longer and more extreme. Sedimentation after ~0.8 Ma was dominated by glacigenic debris flow deposition, as the trough mouth fan that dominates the eastern Ross Sea continental slope prograded and expanded over the site. These findings will help to improve estimations of WAIS ice extent in future Ross Sea shelf-based modelling studies, and provide a basis for more detailed analysis of the inception and growth of the WAIS under distinct oceanographic conditions.
    Repository Name: EPIC Alfred Wegener Institut
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  • 36
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    Unknown
    Alfred Wegener Institute
    In:  EPIC3Bremerhaven, Alfred Wegener Institute
    Publication Date: 2022-04-12
    Repository Name: EPIC Alfred Wegener Institut
    Type: Data Processing Reports , notRev
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  • 37
    facet.materialart.
    Unknown
    Alfred Wegener Institute
    In:  EPIC3Bremerhaven, Alfred Wegener Institute
    Publication Date: 2022-04-12
    Repository Name: EPIC Alfred Wegener Institut
    Type: Data Processing Reports , notRev
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  • 38
    Publication Date: 2022-04-04
    Description: Attenuation of trace organic compounds (TrOCs) in a river occurs to a large extent in its hyporheic zone. A major part of the attenuation of polar TrOCs is of microbial origin. As microbial activity depends on temperature and redox conditions, seasonal differences in TrOC attenuation are likely. We investigated TrOC attenuation at a river influenced by treated wastewater during two sampling campaigns, one in summer and one in winter. In addition to redox conditions and temperature, we also determined residence times of porewater in sediment using three methods: (a) non‐parametric deconvolution of electrical conductivity time series, (b) the model VFLUX 2.0 based on temperature time series (only summer), and (c) applying Darcy's law to differences in hydraulic heads (only summer). Contrary to our expectations, we found higher attenuation for 12 out of 18 TrOCs in winter, while three TrOCs were better attenuated in summer. Sediment conditions varied between seasons as more of the top sandy layer with a higher hydraulic permeability accumulated on the river bed in summer. As a result, residence times in the sediment were shorter in summer. In winter, longer residence times, lower temperatures, and a steeper oxygen gradient in sediment coincided with higher TrOC attenuation. Further research is needed to understand our unexpected findings and underlying mechanisms.
    Description: Key Points: The attenuation of 12 out of 18 trace organic compounds (TrOCs) in the hyporheic zone was higher in winter while three TrOCs were attenuated better in summer. Residence times in sediment were longer and more diverse in winter. The extent of the oxic sediment was similar between seasons but the gradient from the oxic to anoxic zone was steeper in winter.
    Description: Deutsche Forschungsgemeinschaft (DFG) http://dx.doi.org/10.13039/501100001659
    Description: EC | H2020 | H2020 Priority Excellent Science | H2020 Marie Skłodowska‐Curie Actions (MSCA) http://dx.doi.org/10.13039/100010665
    Description: University of Western Australia ‐ University Postgraduate Award
    Description: Australian Government Research Training Program Scholarship
    Description: Bundesministerium für Bildung und Forschung (BMBF) http://dx.doi.org/10.13039/501100002347
    Description: https://doi.org/10.18728/igb-fred-578.0
    Keywords: ddc:628.162
    Language: English
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  • 39
    Publication Date: 2022-04-04
    Description: Fe(III) hydroxides stabilize organic carbon (OC) and P in soils. Observations of rising stream Fe concentrations are controversially posited to result from a flushing of iron‐rich deeper soil layers or a decrease of competing electron acceptors inhibiting Fe reduction (NO3− $\mathrm{N}{{\mathrm{O}}_{3}}^{-}$ and SO42− $\mathrm{S}{{\mathrm{O}}_{4}}^{2-}$). Here, we argue that catchment topography constrains the release of Fe, OC, and P to streams. We therefore incubated organic topsoil and mineral subsoil and modified the availability of NO3− $\mathrm{N}{{\mathrm{O}}_{3}}^{-}$. We found that Fe leaching was highest in topsoil. Fe, OC, and P released at quantities proportional to their ratios in the source soil. Supply of NO3− $\mathrm{N}{{\mathrm{O}}_{3}}^{-}$ reduced Fe leaching to 18% and increased pore water OC:Fe and P:Fe ratios. Subsoil, however, was an insignificant Fe source (〈0.5%). Here, the leached quantities of Fe, OC and P were highly disproportionate to the soil source with an excess of released OC and P. We tested if experimental findings scale up using data from 88 German catchments representing gradients in NO3− $\mathrm{N}{{\mathrm{O}}_{3}}^{-}$ concentration and topography. Average stream Fe concentrations increased with decreasing NO3− $\mathrm{N}{{\mathrm{O}}_{3}}^{-}$ and were high in catchments with shallow topography where high groundwater levels support reductive processes and topsoils are hydrologically connected to streams; but Fe concentrations were low in catchments with steep topography where flow occurs primarily through subsoils. OC:Fe and P:Fe ratios in the streams similarly varied by NO3− $\mathrm{N}{{\mathrm{O}}_{3}}^{-}$ and topography. This corroborates the findings from the laboratory experiment and suggests that catchment topography and competing electron acceptors constrain the formation of Fe‐reducing conditions and control the release of Fe, OC, and P to streams.
    Description: Plain Language Summary: Iron is the second most abundant metal in the crust; its cycle is tightly connected to those of carbon, oxygen, and sulfur. The oxidized form (FeIII) is almost insoluble, but Fe can be mobilized by complexation or microbial Fe reduction. Both processes depend on availability of organic C. We found that Fe concentrations in streams were constrained by the topography of catchments and NO3− $\mathrm{N}{{\mathrm{O}}_{3}}^{-}$ abundance. Shallower catchments are characterized by higher groundwater tables connecting the organic topsoils efficiently to streams. NO3− $\mathrm{N}{{\mathrm{O}}_{3}}^{-}$ suppresses Fe reduction as a competing electron acceptor to Fe. We conclude that trends in soil wetness or atmospheric N deposition can change the stability of Fe and thus the release of PO43− $\mathrm{P}{{\mathrm{O}}_{4}}^{3-}$ and harmful metals to surface waters.
    Description: Key Points: Organic topsoils leach substantial amounts of Fe when incubated in the absence of NO3, a competing electron acceptor that inhibits Fe reduction. Shallow catchments with fluvially coupled topsoils and low NO3 availability release 200 fold more Fe than steep ones with high NO3 abundance. Catchment topography and NO3 availability explain 62%–64% of the variability of Fe concentration and OC:Fe and P:Fe ratios across 88 streams.
    Description: EFRE‐Europe
    Description: https://doi.org/10.4211/hs.43601618877945c5a46b715aa98db729
    Keywords: ddc:551.9
    Language: English
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  • 40
    Publication Date: 2022-04-04
    Description: Sewage disposal onto agricultural land may result in the high accumulation of organic wastes, which questions the applicability of typical elemental analysis used for the soil components. To monitor the contamination status of agricultural soils at a former sedimentation basin, after the long‐term cessation of wastewater irrigation, 110 locations (15–20 cm depth) and 4 boreholes (up to 100 cm depth) were sampled to determine pH, loss on ignition, and concentration of Ni, Cu, Pb, Zn, and Cr. Additionally, the applicability of portable X‐ray fluorescence (pXRF) for the soil samples highly influenced by the organic wastes was evaluated. The study revealed the presence of a relatively homogenous sewage waste layer (depth of 20 cm), characterized by slightly acidic to neutral pH (6.3–7.5), high organic matter (OM) accumulation (up to 49%), and elevated concentration (mg kg −1) ranges between: Pb (5–321), Cu (31–2828), Ni (10–193), Cr (14–966), and Zn (76–6639). The pXRF analysis revealed metal concentration increase in mineral samples (up to 50%). The regression models and correction factors demonstrated high correlation and significance of pXRF measurement with response to increasing OM content, with the lowest r 2 = 0.86 obtained for Ni. Correlation of pXRF and AES measurement illustrated element‐dependent response for soils high in organics. Zn, Cu, and Cr pXRF analysis led to a slight underestimation in lower values, but overall good correlations (0.87; 0.89; and 0.88 respectively). Pb and Ni pXRF measurement revealed higher deviation from the reference in both lower and higher concentrations (0.74 and 0.70, respectively).
    Description: German Federation of Industrial Research Associations http://dx.doi.org/10.13039/501100002723
    Description: Federal Ministry for Economic Affairs and Energy http://dx.doi.org/10.13039/501100006360
    Keywords: ddc:577.14
    Language: English
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  • 41
    Publication Date: 2022-04-01
    Description: Duvalo “volcano” is a site of anomalous geogenic degassing close to Ohrid (North Macedonia) not related to volcanic activity, despite its name. CO2 flux measurements made with the accumulation chamber (321 sites over ∼50,000 m2) showed fluxes up to nearly 60,000 g m−2 d−1, sustaining a total output of ∼67 t d−1. Soil gas samples were taken at 50 cm depth from sites with high CO2 fluxes and analyzed for their chemical and isotope composition. The gas is mainly composed by CO2 (〉90%) with significant concentrations of H2S (up to 0.55%) and CH4 (up to 0.32%). The isotope compositions of He (R/RA 0.10) and of CO2 (δ13C ∼ 0‰) exclude significant mantle contribution, while δ13C-CH4 (∼−35‰) and δ2H-CH4 (∼−170‰) suggest a thermogenic origin for CH4. The area is characterized by intense seismic activity and Duvalo corresponds to an active tectonic structure bordering the Ohrid graben. The production of H2S within the stratigraphic sequence may be explained by thermochemical reduction of sulfate. The uprising H2S is partially oxidized to sulfuric acid that, reacting with carbonate rocks, releases CO2. The tectonic structure of the area favors fluid circulation, sustaining H2S production and oxidation, CO2 production and allowing the escape of the gases to the atmosphere. In the end, Duvalo represents a tectonic-related CO2 degassing area whose gases originate mostly, if not exclusively, in the shallowest part of the crust (〈10 km). This finding highlights that even systems with trivial mantle contribution may sustain intense CO2 degassing (〉1,000 t km−2 d−1).
    Description: Published
    Description: e2021GC010198
    Description: 6A. Geochimica per l'ambiente e geologia medica
    Description: JCR Journal
    Keywords: Geogenic degassing ; CO2 fluxes ; 04. Solid Earth
    Repository Name: Istituto Nazionale di Geofisica e Vulcanologia (INGV)
    Type: article
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  • 42
    Publication Date: 2022-04-01
    Description: Il margine tirrenico dell’Italia centrale dalla Toscana alla Campania è caratterizzato dalla presenza di una fascia di apparati vulcanici, estinti o quiescenti, e mostra un assetto geodinamico con litosfera assottigliata, alti flussi di calore e forte degassamento di anidride carbonica (CO2) e altri gas di origine magmatica, mantellica o geotermica. I gas che risalgono si disciolgono in acquiferi profondi, se ospitati in rocce Mesozoiche carbonatiche, o superficiali, se ospitati in rocce clastiche o vulcaniche Neogeniche e Quaternarie. Tutti questi acquiferi rilasciano gas alla superficie attraverso sistemi aperti di faglie o fratture, generando zone di emissione anomala in atmosfera (fig. 1). In zone dove non vi è significativa emissione, il gas potrebbe però essere confinato nel sottosuolo da livelli impermeabili efficienti. Quando scavi o perforazioni attraversano questi livelli, il gas in pressione può fuoriuscire anche in maniera violenta (fig. 2). Numerosi incidenti di questo tipo sono avvenuti nei territori di Roma, di Fiumicino e ai Colli Albani. Sia le emissioni naturali che quelle di origine antropica possono rappresentare un pericolo per la salute umana o degli animali qualora i gas si accumulino in alte concentrazioni in depressioni del terreno, in scavi o in seminterrati.
    Description: Published
    Description: 45-51
    Description: 1TR. Georisorse
    Keywords: gas endogeni, piana del Tevere ; 04.04. Geology
    Repository Name: Istituto Nazionale di Geofisica e Vulcanologia (INGV)
    Type: book chapter
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  • 43
    Publication Date: 2022-04-01
    Description: Volcanic hazard assessment relies on the accurate knowledge of the eruptive style and recurrence of volcanic eruptions in the past. At El Hierro (Canary Islands) historical and prehistorical records are still poorly defined, and although the island was the location of one of the most recent eruptions (La Restinga, 2011 CE) of the Canarian archipelago, the recent subaerial volcanism is still poorly studied. Information about the age of Holocene volcanic activity as well as the stratigraphy of the deposits is scarce: few eruptions are dated so far, whereas the others are classified as pre-or Holocene events considering lava flow characteristics along the coast. Here, we report on the dating of eleven (M˜na Chamuscada, M˜na del Tesoro, Orchilla, Las Calcosas, M˜na Negra, Lomo Negro, Below Lomo Negro, Cuchillo del Roque, Malpaso Member, and M˜na del Guanche) Holocene subaerial eruptions, distributed along the three rift zones, combining paleomagnetic and 14C methods. We also provide geochemical analyses for nine of them. Results indicate that M˜na Chamuscada and M˜na del Tesoro occurred more recently than previously considered, setting them within the last two thousand years. Conversely, paleomagnetic and 14C ages found for Lomo Negro eruption are consistent with literature data (Villasante- Marcos and Pav´on-Carrasco, 2014) and constrain the occurrence of this event in the XVI century CE. Finally, for Malpaso Member deposits, the two 14C datings obtained by charcoals found below and above the trachytic layer set the eruption during the Holocene epoch, between ~7300 BCE and ~4700 BCE. For the other eruptions, in two cases (Orchilla and Las Calcosas) many possible time windows during the last 14 ka have been found, whereas a few possible ages have been obtained for the others. On the whole, the resulting chronological reconstruction of the recent activity of El Hierro indicates that eruptions occurred unevenly along the three main rifts, with nine eruptions in the WNW rift, six in the NE rift, and four in the SSE rift. We document at least two periods characterized by high eruptive frequency: an old one, between 8000 BCE and 1000 BCE, with eight eruptions, three of which characterized by more evolved compositions (phonotephrite and trachyte), and a recent one, between 1000 BCE and present day, with at least seven eruptions, mainly showing basanite compositions. The new data yield a significant improvement of Holocene eruption chronology, thus are instrumental for a correct evaluation of the volcanic hazard at El Hierro.
    Description: Published
    Description: 107526
    Description: 1A. Geomagnetismo e Paleomagnetismo
    Description: JCR Journal
    Keywords: Paleomagnetism ; El Hierro ; 04.05. Geomagnetism ; 04.08. Volcanology
    Repository Name: Istituto Nazionale di Geofisica e Vulcanologia (INGV)
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  • 44
    Publication Date: 2022-04-01
    Description: The Gutenberg–Richter law and the Omori law are both characterized by a scaling behavior. However, their relation is still an open question. Although several hypotheses have been formulated, a comprehen- sive geophysical mechanism is still missing to explain the observed variability of the scaling exponents b-value and p-value, e.g., correlating the seismic cycle to statistical seismology and tectonic processes. In this work, a model for describing the size-frequency scaling and the temporal evolution of seismicity is proposed starting from simple assumptions. The parameter describing how the number of earthquakes decreases after a major seismic event, p, turns out to be positively correlated to the exponent of the frequency-size distribution of seismicity, b, and related to tectonics. Our findings suggest that p ≈ 23 (b + 1). It implies that a relationship between fracturing regimes, “efficiency” of the seismic process, duration of the seismic sequences and geodynamic setting exists, with outstanding potential impact on seismic hazard. On the other hand, the Gutenberg–Richter law simply reflects the tendency of the segments of the Earth’s crust to reach mechanical stability via constrained energy-budget optimization. Each perturbation has a probability of growing an earthquake or not, depending on disorder within the fault zone and the energy accumulated in the adjoining volume, mainly controlling the evolution of seismic sequences. The results are consistent with the different energy sources related to the tectonic settings, i.e., gravitational in extensional regimes, having higher b and p values, and generating lower maximum magnitude earthquakes with respect to strike-slip and contractional settings, which are rather fueled by elastic energy, showing lower b and p values, and they may generate higher magnitude events.
    Description: Published
    Description: 117511
    Description: 3T. Fisica dei terremoti e Sorgente Sismica
    Description: JCR Journal
    Keywords: Gutenberg–Richter distribution ; fracturing and fault disorder ; Omori–Utsu law ; earthquake triggering ; tectonic setting ; 04.06. Seismology ; 04.07. Tectonophysics
    Repository Name: Istituto Nazionale di Geofisica e Vulcanologia (INGV)
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  • 45
    Publication Date: 2022-04-01
    Repository Name: EPIC Alfred Wegener Institut
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  • 46
    Publication Date: 2022-04-01
    Repository Name: EPIC Alfred Wegener Institut
    Type: Article , isiRev
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  • 47
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    In:  EPIC3The International Archives of the Photogrammetry, Remote Sensing and Spatial Information Sciences, XLVI-1, pp. 69-72
    Publication Date: 2022-04-01
    Repository Name: EPIC Alfred Wegener Institut
    Type: Article , isiRev
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  • 48
    Publication Date: 2022-04-02
    Description: This paper considers the possibility of applying the thermohaline method (using the construction of T,S-diagrams) to determine the quasi-heterogeneity of water layers in the Azov Sea drawing on the expedition data obtained in 2016–2020. The diagrams allowing to identify a two-layer water structure in the aquatic environment of the Azov Sea (excluding the area of Taganrog Bay) have been constructed. The analysis of water stratification in the conditions close to the natural regime of the sea (thus, including salinity), as well as in the present conditions of its salinization, has been carried out. The data obtained through the analysis of sample observations have been verified with mathematical methods; the explanations from the standpoint of T,S-analysis of the aquatic environment have been presented. The hydrological features of the salt regime of the Azov Sea are given with the specification of the situations during the advection of the Black Sea waters, which precondition a stable separation of the waters in the southern part of the sea into surface and bottom “water masses”. These possibilities are justified mathematically, and for the modern period of considerable salinization of the sea, in accordance with the theory of T,S-analysis of water masses, a classification assessment of the aquatic environment is proposed.
    Description: В работе рассмотрена возможность применения термохалинного способа (с построением T,S-диаграмм) определения квазиоднородности водных слоев в Азовском море на основании экспедиционных данных, полученных в период 2016–2020 гг. Построены диаграммы, позволяющие выявить в водной среде собственно Азовского моря (без учета Таганрогского залива) двухслойную структуру вод. Проведен анализ стратификации вод в условиях, близких к естественному режиму моря (а следовательно, и солености), а также в современных условиях его осолонения. Математическими приемами подтверждены данные анализа выборочных наблюдений и предложены объяснения с позиций T,S-анализа водной среды. Приводятся гидрологические особенности солевого режима Азовского моря с конкретизацией ситуаций в периоды адвекции черноморских вод, вследствие которой возникали условия для устойчивого разделения водной среды на юге моря на поверхностную и придонную «водные массы». Эти возможности обосновываются математически, а для современного периода значительного осолонения моря в соответствии с теорией T,S-анализа водных масс предлагается классификационная оценка водной среды.
    Description: Published
    Description: Refereed
    Keywords: Salinity effects ; Water stability ; Thermohaline method ; T,S-diagrams ; Water structure ; Водные массы ; Структура воды ; Устойчивость вод ; Термохалинный способ ; ASFA_2015::T::Thermohaline circulation ; ASFA_2015::W::Water temperature data ; ASFA_2015::W::Water masses
    Repository Name: AquaDocs
    Type: Journal Contribution
    Format: pp.33-44
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  • 49
    Publication Date: 2022-04-02
    Description: Age composition and linear growth rate in the ark clam (Anadara kagoshimensis) population in the Kerch Strait are investigated. Based on the analysis of seasonal annual growth rings and chevron grooves on the hinge ligament of the ark clam, the age of this species has been examined, which, in this population, was found to be 7 years (6+). Based on the age and annual length gain of the molluscs in the course of their ontogenesis, a theoretical growth curve is presented; it has been calculated following the von Bertalanffy growth equation, where L∞, k, and t are the parameters equaling to 50.2, 0.428, and 0.022, respectively. The highest growth rate was observed in the first year of life, 17 mm; however, later on, it was consistently decreasing and did not exceed 2 mm/year in the oldest individuals. The relationship between the ark clam’s growth rate (PL) and its length, approximated by the inverse linear function is presented. Based on the parameters of the von Bertalanffy growth equation, a theoretical maximum age of the investigated species has been calculated; it was found to be 8.74 years. It has been shown that the linear growth rate of the ark clam in various areas of the Azov and Black Sea Basin is determined by the water salinity to a considerable extent, because in the desalinated areas (Azov Sea, Kerch Strait, Danube River Delta and Northwestern Black Sea with 10–14 ‰ salinity), the growth rate of this mollusc was 1.5–2 times lower than in the Southeastern Black Sea (18 ‰).
    Description: Исследована возрастная структура и скорость линейного роста популяции анадары (Anadara kagoshimensis) в Керченском проливе. На основе анализа сезонных годовых слоев роста и шевронных борозд на лигаментной площадке анадары изучен возраст этого вида, который в популяции составляет 7 лет (6+). На основе возраста и годового прироста моллюсков в течение онтогенеза представлена теоретическая кривая роста, рассчитанная по уравнению Берталанфи, где L∞, k, t — параметры, равные 50,2, 0,428 и 0,022, соответственно. Максимальная скорость роста наблюдалась в первый год жизни — 17 мм, однако в дальнейшем она устойчиво снижалась и у наиболее старых особей не превышала 2 мм/год. Показана связь скорости роста (PL) с длиной анадары, которая аппроксимируется обратной линейной функцией. На основе параметров уравнения Берталанфи рассчитан теоретически максимальный возраст исследуемого вида, который составил 8,74 года. Показано, что скорость линейного роста анадары в различных акваториях Азово-Черноморского бассейна в значительной степени определяется соленостью вод, поскольку в опресненных районах (Азовское море, Керченский пролив, дельта Дуная, северо-западная часть Черного моря с соленостью 10–14 ‰) темп роста моллюска был в 1,5–2 раза ниже, чем в юго-восточной части Черного моря (18 ‰).
    Description: Published
    Description: Refereed
    Keywords: Anadara kagoshimensis ; Growth rings ; Chevron grooves ; Salinity effects ; Von Bertalanffy equation ; Ark clam ; Годовые слои ; Анадара ; Шевронные борозды ; ASFA_2015::A::Age composition ; ASFA_2015::G::Growth rate ; ASFA_2015::M::Marine molluscs
    Repository Name: AquaDocs
    Type: Journal Contribution
    Format: pp.45-55
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  • 50
    Publication Date: 2022-04-02
    Description: The Azov limans of the Krasnodar Territory are of major fishery importance, as they serve as the spawning grounds for valuable semi-anadromous fish species. Roach and zander at their early stages of development are highly susceptible to the negative effects of various abiotic environmental factors, which makes them very dependent on the hydrochemical status of the water bodies during the spawning season. As the hydrochemical regime, in turn, closely depends on the hydrological regime and the overgrowth area of the limans, it can be used as a criterion parameter that affects the success of spawning of the semi-anadromous fish species and growth of their juveniles. This paper proposes a system of hydrochemical scoring and establishes the criteria for the typification of the limans based on their suitability for spawning and growing of zander and roach following the data collected in the spring season of 2017–2021. Based on the analysis of the hydrochemical data, 3 main blocks for the typification of limans according to their suitability for spawning of semi-anadromous fish species were identified: gas conditions, ionic composition and the content of biogenic components in water along with an assessment of the primary production of phytoplankton. It has been found out that the Azov limans of the Krasnodar Territory vary significantly in terms of the hydrochemical composition of their water. Some limans are characterized by pronounced fluctuations of the hydrochemical and ichthyological characteristics in interannual dynamics. Based on the hydrochemical criteria, the limans of the Kulikov-Ordynsk group (Bolshoy Bashtovy, Donchikov, Bolshoy Grushchany) and the Kulikovskiy Liman were the most favorable for the spawning of zander and roach, and the Ryasnoy, Boykievskiy and Kurchanskiy Limans were the least favorable. The low production coefficient in the water of most limans can be indicative of their high degree of overgrowth with macrophytes, which control is crucial in increasing the efficiency of natural reproduction of semi-anadromous fish species. The correlation between the criterion scoring of the limans based on the hydrochemical regime and the density of distribution of zander and roach juveniles has been established, which confirms the validity of this study.
    Description: Азовские лиманы Краснодарского края имеют важное рыбохозяйственное значение, поскольку они служат нерестилищами для ценных полупроходных видов рыб. Высокая чувствительность тарани и судака на ранних стадиях развития к негативному воздействию различных абиотических факторов окружающей среды делает их наиболее зависимыми от гидрохимического состояния водоемов в период размножения. Поскольку гидрохимический режим, в свою очередь, тесно зависит от гидрологического режима и уровня зарастаемости лиманов, его можно использовать в качестве критериального параметра, влияющего на успешность нереста полупроходных рыб и на рост их молоди. В работе предлагается балльная гидрохимическая оценка и выделяются критерии типизации лиманов по их пригодности для нереста и развития молоди судака и тарани на основе материалов, полученных в весенний период 2017–2021 гг. По результатам анализа гидрохимических данных было выделено 3 основных блока для типизации лиманов по их пригодности для воспроизводства полупроходных видов рыб: газовый режим, ионный состав и содержание в воде биогенных элементов с оценкой первичной продукции фитопланктона. Установлено, что азовские лиманы Краснодарского края значительно различаются между собой по гидрохимическому составу воды. Некоторые лиманы характеризуются выраженной вариабельностью гидрохимических и ихтиологических показателей в межгодовой динамике. По гидрохимическим критериям наиболее благоприятными для нереста судака и тарани являлись лиманы Куликово-Ордынской группы (Большой Баштовый, Дончиков, Большой Грущаный) и лиман Куликовский, неблагоприятными — лиманы Рясной, Бойкиевский и Курчанский. Низкий продукционный коэффициент в воде большинства лиманов может отражать высокую степень их зарастаемости макрофитами, борьба с которыми является основным приоритетным направлением для повышения эффективности естественного воспроизводства полупроходных видов рыб. Установлена корреляционная взаимосвязь критериальной оценки лиманов по гидрохимическому режиму и плотности распространения молоди судака и тарани, что подтверждает состоятельность данной работы.
    Description: Published
    Description: Refereed
    Keywords: Hydrochemical regime ; Roach ; Zander ; Juveniles ; Macrophytes ; Тарань ; Судак ; Полупроходные виды рыб ; Азовские лиманы ; Макрофиты ; ASFA_2015::A::Anadromous species ; ASFA_2015::A::Artificial rearing ; ASFA_2015::S::Spawning grounds
    Repository Name: AquaDocs
    Type: Journal Contribution
    Format: pp.18-32
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  • 51
    Publication Date: 2022-04-02
    Description: The stage of obtaining high-quality gonads was explored in the course of development of the biotechnology for artificial reproduction of the anadromous Azov-Black Sea shemaya Alburnus leobergi (Freyhof & Kottelat, 2007), a valuable species of the Azov Sea ichthyofauna. This research is aimed at the assessment of the maturity status of shemaya females and males after their wintering in the ponds of a fish farm on the Lower Don at a thermal constant of 849 degree days (DD) and at the evaluation of the reproductive parameters of shemaya females exposed to different doses of the pituitary extract. In all literary sources available, the information on this topic has been scarce and fragmentary, and in the foreign sources, it was entirely absent. Our investigation has shown that the gonads of 55 % of males were at 5th and 5th–6th stages of maturity. At the same time, females significantly differed by the degree of gonad maturity: 26.0 % of females had first-generation eggs at different stages of resorption, the sexual products of 15.8 % of females were at the 5th stage of maturity, and 58.2 % of females had immature sexual products at the 3rd–4th and 4th stages of maturity. The investigation of the effect of two doses (6.0 and 9.0 mg/kg) of the pituitary gland extract with application of the fractional method showed that 15.0 % and 16.7 % of injected shemaya females with the most mature eggs responded to the preliminary dose of the pituitary extract by ovulation of physiologically sound eggs (0.6 and 0.9 mg/kg, respectively). 20.0 % and 6.7 % of females responded to the provoking dose of pituitary hormone by ovulating physiologically high-quality eggs in accordance with the concentration applied. The fertilization rate of physiologically sound eggs in both scenarios had similar values (97.4 and 97.9 %). Since the thermal constant of 849 DD is excessive for the start of artificial reproduction of the Azov-Black Sea shemaya, it is necessary to conduct research in order to identify the thermal constant precluding the loss of the first-generation eggs caused by the incipient processes of resorption.
    Description: При разработке биотехники искусственного воспроизводства проходной черноморско-азовской шемаи Alburnus leobergi (Freyhof & Kottelat, 2007) — ценного вида азовской ихтиофауны — изучали этап получения качественных половых продуктов. Цель исследований — оценить состояние зрелости самок и самцов шемаи после зимнего выдерживания в зимовальных прудах рыбоводного хозяйства на Нижнем Дону при сумме тепла 849 градусо-дней (ГД) и репродуктивные показатели самок шемаи при воздействии разных доз гипофиза. Во всех доступных литературных источниках информация по данной теме была немногочисленной и фрагментарной; в зарубежных источниках ее не обнаружено вовсе. Исследования показали, что 55 % самцов имели половые продукты V и V– VI стадий зрелости. Самки в этот период значительно различались по степени зрелости половых продуктов: 26,0 % самок имели икру первой генерации в разных фазах резорбции, 15,8 % самок — половые продукты V стадии зрелости, 58,2 % самок — незрелые половые продукты III–IV и IV стадий зрелости. Исследование влияния двух доз гипофиза (6,0 и 9,0 мг/кг) дробным методом показало, что 15,0 и 16,7 % инъецированных самок шемаи с наиболее зрелой икрой ответили на предварительную дозу гипофиза овуляцией физиологически качественной икры (0,6 и 0,9 мг/кг, соответственно). На разрешающую дозу гормона гипофиза 20,0 и 6,7 % самок ответили овуляцией физиологически качественной икры соответственно примененным дозам. Степень оплодотворения физиологически качественной икры в обоих вариантах имела близкие значения (97,4 и 97,9 %). Поскольку сумма тепла 849 ГД является избыточной для начала воспроизводственных работ с черноморско-азовской шемаей, необходимо провести исследования для выявления уровня суммы тепла, который позволит избежать потерь икры первой генерации в результате начинающихся процессов резорбции.
    Description: Published
    Description: Refereed
    Keywords: Alburnus leobergi ; Hormonal stimulation ; Gonadosomatic index (GSI) ; Stages of maturity ; Artificial reproduction ; Pituitary gland extract ; Черноморско-азовская шемая ; Гормональная стимуляция ; Гонадосоматический индекс (ГСИ) ; Искусственное воспроизводство ; ООО «Рыбколхоз им. Мирошниченко» ; ASFA_2015::H::Hormones ; ASFA_2015::O::Oocytes ; ASFA_2015::S::Sexual maturity
    Repository Name: AquaDocs
    Type: Journal Contribution
    Format: pp.56-67
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  • 52
    Publication Date: 2022-04-02
    Description: Each species strives to expand its range and spreads in all directions. Its expansion occurs in the direction where biological and abiotic factors are similar to its native habitat. Entering the area with different conditions activates the mechanism of adaptation to new conditions. If such an adaptation is successful, the range of this species expands in this direction, otherwise this area remains unclaimed. Possible migration routes of exotic species run along the coast of Turkey through the coast of the Republic of Georgia or along the coasts of Bulgaria, Romania and the Crimean Peninsula. Taking into account the existing system of currents in the sea, the most likely option seems to be their invasion into the Russian sector of the Black Sea as a result of migration from the Sea of Marmara through the Bosphorus Strait and further along the direction of the Anatolian and Caucasian currents. Another way is with ballast water. In 1995–2014, 7 monitoring stations under the authority of AzNIIRKH operated near the Black Sea coast of the Krasnodar Territory on a year-round basis. They were equipped with all the necessary types of fishing gear (set nets with a mesh size from 25 to 200 mm, bottom set nets with a minimum mesh size of 6.5 and 10 mm, cast nets with 30 mm mesh, etc.). AzNIIRKH-trained observers were present at each haul of the fishing gear and conducted the necessary catch analyses. All unusual species were preserved by freezing or taxidermy and transferred to the institute. As a result of the operation of AzNIIRKH monitoring stations, in the catches of commercial fishing gear off the Black Sea coast of the Krasnodar Territory in 2005 and 2012, two exotic species have been recorded: Siganus luridus (Rüppell, 1828) and Lophius piscatorius Linnaeus, 1758.
    Description: Каждый вид стремится расширить зону своего обитания и распространяется во все стороны. Расширение его происходит в том направлении, где биологические и абиотические факторы сходны с его нативным ареалом. При проникновении в акваторию с отличными условиями включается механизм адаптации к новым условиям. Если виду удается приспособиться к этим условиям, ареал расширяется и в этом направлении; в противном случае данная акватория видом не осваивается. Возможные пути миграции экзотических видов пролегают вдоль берегов Турции через побережье Республики Грузия или вдоль побережий Болгарии, Румынии и полуострова Крым. Учитывая существующую в море систему течений, наиболее вероятной представляется версия проникновения их в российский сектор Черного моря в результате миграции из Мраморного моря через пролив Босфор и далее — по направлению Анатолийского и Кавказского течений. Еще один путь — с балластными водами судов. В период 1995–2014 гг. круглогодично у черноморского побережья Краснодарского края работало 7 контрольно-наблюдательных пунктов (КНП) АзНИИРХ. Оснащены они были всеми необходимыми видами орудий лова (ставные сети с размером ячеи от 25 до 200 мм, донные ставные невода с минимальным размером ячеи 6,5 и 10 мм, закидные невода с ячеей 30 мм и др.). Прошедшие подготовку в АзНИИРХ наблюдатели присутствовали при каждой выборке орудий лова и проводили необходимые анализы уловов. Все необычные виды ими фиксировались путем заморозки или изготовления чучел и передавались в институт. В результате работ КНП АзНИИРХ в уловах промысловых орудий лова у черноморского побережья Краснодарского края в 2005 и 2012 гг. были отмечены два экзотических вида: Siganus luridus (Rüppell, 1828) и Lophius piscatorius Linnaeus, 1758.
    Description: Published
    Description: Refereed
    Keywords: Mediterraneanization ; Lophius piscatorius ; Siganus luridus ; Abiotic factors ; Fishing gear ; Экзотические виды ; Медитерранизация ; Орудия лова ; ASFA_2015::R::Rare species ; ASFA_2015::I::Introduced species ; ASFA_2015::G::Geographical distribution
    Repository Name: AquaDocs
    Type: Journal Contribution
    Format: pp.89-95
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  • 53
    Publication Date: 2022-04-02
    Description: For a long time in the field of aquaculture existed the uncertainty, associated with the use of the ponds formed by water-retaining structures on watercourses (the so-called “riverbed ponds”), despite numerous attempts to resolve emerging contradictions legislatively—including another such attempt made last year by the adoption of Federal Law No. 163-FZ of June 11, 2021 “On the amendment of the Federal Law “On aquaculture (fish farming) and amendment of some legislative acts of the Russian Federation” and some legislative acts of Russian Federation”. The amendments introduced by this law establish new legal mechanisms for the use of riverbed ponds for the purposes of pond aquaculture, which makes their study particularly relevant. However, it will not be possible to fully understand the essence of these legislative changes without understanding the history and development of the legal framework applicable to these water bodies. In this regard, this article shows how riverbed ponds through numerous legislative changes were gradually introduced into the property circulation and how the principle of separation of the water resources of riverbed ponds and the land under them appeared, which means that the water in such ponds remains federal, but the land under them may be in other forms of ownership. This article also discusses the questions of the correlation of this principle with other principles of the legal regulation underlying water and land legislation, and how it is perceived by judicial practice. The author analyzed in detail the amendments, adopted by Federal Law of 11.06.2021 No. 163-FZ, concerning the regulation of riverbed ponds, proposed a classification of the legal basis for the use of water bodies in fish farming, and concluded what problems in the use of riverbed ponds remained, despite recent legislation attempts to eliminate them. Finally, this article suggests directions for further changes, according to which, as it seems to the author, the legislator could go to solve the identified problems.
    Description: На протяжении длительного времени в сфере аквакультуры сохраняется неопределенность в порядке использования прудов, образованных водоподпорными сооружениями на водотоках (т. н. «русловых прудов»), несмотря на многочисленные попытки законодательного урегулирования возникающих противоречий — включая очередную такую попытку, совершенную в прошлом году принятием Федерального закона от 11 июня 2021 г. No 163-ФЗ «О внесении изменений в Федеральный закон «Об аквакультуре (рыбоводстве) и о внесении изменений в отдельные законодательные акты Российской Федерации» и отдельные законодательные акты Российской Федерации». Поправки, внесенные указанным законом, устанавливают новые правовые механизмы использования русловых прудов для прудового рыбоводства, что делает их изучение особенно актуальным. Однако до конца понять суть произошедших изменений не удастся без осознания исторического развития правового режима данных водных объектов. В связи с этим в статье показано, как постепенно путем многочисленных законодательных изменений русловые пруды были введены в имущественный оборот, и появился принцип разделения водных ресурсов русловых прудов и земель под ними, из которого следует, что вода в таких прудах остается федеральной, а земельные участки под ними могут находиться в других формах собственности. Изучены вопросы о соотнесении обозначенного принципа с остальными принципами правового регулирования, лежащими в основе водного и земельного законодательств, и о его восприятии судебной практикой. Подробно проанализированы изменения, принятые Федеральным законом от 11.06.2021 No 163-ФЗ, в части, касающейся регулирования русловых прудов; с учетом указанных изменений предложена классификация оснований для использования водных объектов в рыбоводстве, а также сделан вывод о том, какие проблемы в использовании русловых прудов сохранились, несмотря на последние попытки законодателя их устранить. Наконец, предложены направления дальнейших изменений, по которым, как представляется автору, мог бы пойти законодатель для решения выявленных проблем.
    Description: Published
    Description: Refereed
    Keywords: Riverbed ponds ; Legislative acts ; Pond aquaculture ; Water use agreements ; Fish-breeding sites ; Русловые пруды ; Прудовая аквакультура ; Договоры водопользования ; Земли водного фонда ; Земли сельскохозяйственного назначения ; ASFA_2015::A::Aquaculture law ; ASFA_2015::F::Fish farms ; ASFA_2015::A::Agreements
    Repository Name: AquaDocs
    Type: Journal Contribution
    Format: pp.96-120
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  • 54
    Publication Date: 2022-04-02
    Description: The results of investigation of the pollution of the water and bottom sediments of the Caucasian Shelf in the Black Sea by heavy metals (copper, zinc, lead, cadmium, mercury) and arsenic, as well as their content in the Black Sea turbot Scophthalmus maeoticus (Pallas, 1814) are presented for 1995–2020. In the water and turbot, the determination of Zn, Cu, Pb, As, and Cd has been conducted using the method of atomic absorption with electrothermal atomization; mercury in all components of the ecosystems was measured using the method of atomic absorption with “cold steam”; in the bottom sediments, the content of Zn, Cu, Pb and As was identified using X-ray fluorescence method. In 1995–2020, in some water samples, the concentrations of zinc, copper and mercury exceeded the maximum permissible level established for the water bodies of fisheries importance, while the lead and cadmium were below it. The arsenic content during the entire observation period was extremely low. A noticeable decrease in the concentrations of zinc, lead and copper in the shelf waters of the Black Sea in the present period as compared with the years of the greatest pollution (1995–2002) was recorded. In the bottom sediments, the content of lead, zinc and mercury exceeded their content in the earth's crust for several years; for arsenic, the excess was recorded throughout the entire observation period. This mostly results from the peculiarities of the granulometric composition of the shelf bottom and, to a much lesser extent, from anthropogenic influence. The differences in the bioaccumulation of heavy metals and arsenic in the organs of the Black Sea turbot are shown. Out of the identified elements, only lead, mercury and arsenic in isolated cases exceeded the permissible level in the organs of the turbot in some years.
    Description: Представлены результаты исследований загрязнения тяжелыми металлами (медь, цинк, свинец, кадмий, ртуть) и мышьяком воды и донных отложений Кавказского шельфа Черного моря и собственно черноморского калкана Scophthalmus maeoticus (Pallas, 1814) в период с 1995 по 2020 г. В воде и калкане определение Zn, Cu, Pb, As и Cd проводили методом атомной абсорбции с электротермической атомизацией; ртути во всех элементах экосистемы — методом атомной абсорбции в «холодном паре»; Zn, Cu, Pb и As в донных отложениях — рентгенфлуоресцентным методом. В отдельных пробах воды концентрации цинка, меди и ртути превышали предельно допустимую концентрацию для рыбохозяйственных водоемов, в то время как концентрации свинца и кадмия — нет. Содержание мышьяка в течение всего периода наблюдений оставалось крайне низким. Было отмечено заметное снижение концентраций цинка, свинца и меди в воде шельфа Черного моря в современный период по сравнению с периодом наибольшего загрязнения (1995–2002 гг.). В донных осадках содержание свинца, цинка и ртути в течение ряда лет превышало содержание в земной коре; для мышьяка превышение наблюдалось в течение всего периода наблюдений. Очевидно, что данная ситуация в большей степени связана с особенностями гранулометрического состава дна шельфа, чем с антропогенным влиянием. Показаны различия в биоаккумуляции тяжелых металлов и мышьяка органами черноморского калкана. Из перечня определяемых элементов превышение допустимого уровня в органах калкана отмечалось в отдельные годы в единичных случаях для свинца, ртути и мышьяка.
    Description: Published
    Description: Refereed
    Keywords: Scophthalmus maeoticus ; Mercury ; Copper ; Zinc ; Arsenic ; Cadmium ; Maximum permissible level ; Bottom sediments ; Калкан ; Тяжелые металлы ; Накопление ; Донные отложения ; ASFA_2015::H::Heavy metals ; ASFA_2015::M::Marine pollution ; ASFA_2015::S::Sediment pollution
    Repository Name: AquaDocs
    Type: Journal Contribution
    Format: pp.68-88
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  • 55
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    Azov-Black Sea Branch of FSBSI VNIRO (AzNIIRKH) | Rostov-on-Don, Russia
    Publication Date: 2022-04-02
    Description: Vertical distribution of biogenic elements in Gelendzhik area in 2019 has been presented. Hydrochemical criteria for typification of the Azov limans of the Krasnodar Territory as the spawning grounds for semi-anadromous fish species have been enlisted. Use of the thermohaline method for determining the quasi-heterogeneity of the water masses in the Azov Sea is discussed. Age composition and linear growth of the invasive ark clam species (Anadara kagoshimensis (Tokunaga, 1906)) in the Kerch Strait have been estimated. Effect of different doses of pituitary hormone on the reproductive performance of shemaya females (Alburnus leobergi, Freyhof & Kottelat, 2007) has been studied. Heavy metals and arsenic in water, bottom sediments and Black Sea turbot (Scophthalmus maeoticus, Pall., 1814) in the Caucasian Shelf area in the Black Sea (1995–2020) have been traced. Exotic fish species off the Black Sea coast of the Krasnodar Territory are presented. Problems of using riverbed ponds in aquaculture (in the context of recent legislative changes) are considered.
    Description: Published
    Description: Refereed
    Keywords: Marine molluscs ; Alburnus leobergi ; Scophthalmus maeoticus ; Anadara kagoshimensis ; Salinity effects ; Macrophytes ; Загрязнение воды ; Цинк ; Ртуть ; Экзотические виды ; Черноморско-азовская шемая ; Калкан ; Анадара ; ASFA_2015::A::Aquaculture law ; ASFA_2015::F::Fish farms ; ASFA_2015::M::Marine pollution
    Repository Name: AquaDocs
    Type: Book/Monograph/Conference Proceedings
    Format: 120pp.
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  • 56
    Publication Date: 2022-04-04
    Description: Reliable knowledge of ice discharge dynamics for the Greenland Ice Sheet via its ice streams is essential if we are to understand its stability under future climate scenarios. Little however is known about the paleo ice-sheet configuration in areas still covered by ice. Here we use radio-echo sounding data to decipher the regional deformation history of the north-eastern Greenland Ice Sheet from its internal stratigraphy. We map folds deep below the surface that we attribute to the activity of a now-extinct ice stream, which shows strong similarities to the Northeast Greenland Ice Stream. We propose that locally this ancient ice flow regime reached much further inland than today’s and was ceased in the Holocene. The new insight that major ice streams may abruptly disappear will affect future approaches to understanding and modelling the response of Earth’s ice sheets to global warming.
    Repository Name: EPIC Alfred Wegener Institut
    Type: Conference , notRev
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  • 57
    Publication Date: 2022-04-04
    Description: We use satellite and airborne altimetry to estimate annual mass changes of the Greenland Ice Sheet. We estimate ice loss corresponding to a sea-level rise of 6.9 ± 0.4 mm from April 2011 to April 2020, with a highest annual ice loss rate of 1.4 mm/yr sea-level equivalent from April 2019 to April 2020. On a regional scale, our annual mass loss timeseries reveals 10–15 m/yr dynamic thickening at the terminus of Jakobshavn Isbræ from April 2016 to April 2018, followed by a return to dynamic thinning. We observe contrasting patterns of mass loss acceleration in different basins across the ice sheet and suggest that these spatiotemporal trends could be useful for calibrating and validating prognostic ice sheet models. In addition to resolving the spatial and temporal fingerprint of Greenland's recent ice loss, these mass loss grids are key for partitioning contemporary elastic vertical land motion from longer-term glacial isostatic adjustment (GIA) trends at GPS stations around the ice sheet. Our ice-loss product results in a significantly different GIA interpretation from a previous ice-loss product.
    Repository Name: EPIC Alfred Wegener Institut
    Type: Article , isiRev
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  • 58
    Publication Date: 2022-04-07
    Description: The higher frequency and intensity of sustained heat events have increased the demand for cooling energy across the globe. Current estimates of summer‐time energy demand are primarily based on Cooling Degree Days (CDD), representing the number of degrees a day's average temperature exceeds a predetermined comfort zone temperature. Through a comprehensive analysis of the historical energy demand data across the USA, we show that the commonly used CDD estimates fall significantly short (±25%) of capturing regional thermal comfort levels. Moreover, given the increasingly compelling evidence that air temperature alone is not sufficient for characterizing human thermal comfort, we extend the widely used CDD calculation to heat index, which accounts for both air temperature and humidity. Our results indicate significant mis‐estimation of regional thermal comfort when humidity is ignored. Our findings have significant implications for the security, sustainability, and resilience of the grid under climate change.
    Description: Plain Language Summary: Hotter summer days and more frequent and intense heatwaves are causing a sharp rise in demand for air conditioning across the globe. Accurate estimation of demand for space cooling is an integral component of resilient planning, operation, and management of the grid. One widely used metric for characterizing this demand is the Cooling Degree Days (CDD), which is calculated by measuring the difference between the mean daily temperature and a pre‐defined base temperature that represents a “comfort zone.” In this study, we analyze historical data on climate and energy demand and find that the most frequently used base temperature of 65°F in CDD calculations leads to mis‐characterizing comfort zones across different geographic areas in the United States. This can cause significant under‐ or over‐estimations of cooling energy demand. Moreover, we extend the temperature‐based CDD calculations to also account for the role of humidity and demonstrate the cost of ignoring humidity in CDD calculations under present and future climate conditions.
    Description: Key Points: Analysis of electricity demand shows that the widely used Cooling Degree Days (CDD) estimates fall short of capturing regional thermal comfort zones. Estimates of air conditioning penetration and affordability based on traditional calculation of CDD can lead to significant misestimation. Extending CDD calculations to include humidity improves the characterization of climate‐demand nexus under present and future climate.
    Description: National Science Foundation (NSF) http://dx.doi.org/10.13039/100000001
    Keywords: ddc:333.79
    Language: English
    Type: doc-type:article
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  • 59
    Publication Date: 2022-04-07
    Description: The role of soil moisture for organic matter decomposition rates remains poorly understood and underrepresented in Earth System Models (ESMs). We apply the Dual Arrhenius Michaelis‐Menten (DAMM) model to a selection of ESM soil temperature and moisture outputs to investigate their effects on decomposition rates, at different soil depths, for a historical period and a future climate period. Our key finding is that the inclusion of soil moisture controls has diverging effects on both the speed and direction of projected decomposition rates (up to ±20%), compared to a temperature‐only approach. In the top soil, the majority of these changes is driven by substrate availability. In deeper soil layers, oxygen availability plays a relatively stronger role. Owing to these different moisture controls along the soil depth, our study highlights the need for depth‐resolved inclusion of soil moisture effects on decomposition rates within ESMs. This is particularly important for C‐rich soils in regions which may be subject to strong future warming and vertically opposing moisture changes, such as the peat soils at northern high latitudes.
    Description: Plain Language Summary: Soils contain a lot of carbon (C). Earth System Models (ESMs) predict that the amount of C released from soils into the atmosphere as CO2 will increase in response to increased warming and microbial activity. Soil moisture also controls microbial C decomposition, but most ESMs do not yet describe this process very well. In this study we apply a simple equation to different ESMs, to see how both temperature and soil moisture change microbial decomposition under future climate. First, we show that the speed of C released into the atmosphere changes when we include soil moisture changes, compared to what is expected due to warming alone. Second, we found that the future speed at which carbon that can be decomposed in the topsoil mainly depends on how much carbon microbes have access to, but that in the deeper soil this process becomes much more affected by the absence/presence of oxygen. Including these soil moisture interactions in ESMs for different soil depths is important to predict whether soils will store more or less C in the future. Our findings are particularly relevant for high latitude soils which store large amounts of C, will warm fast, and experience frequent (re)wetting and drying.
    Description: Key Points: Considering soil moisture effects can change modeled decomposition rates by up to ±20% compared to considering only temperature effects. The majority of these changes are driven by substrate availability, in particular in the top soil. In the subsoil, oxygen availability becomes an increasingly important factor.
    Description: Norwegian Research Council
    Description: https://doi.org/10.5281/zenodo.5654554