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  • 1
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    Leiden: Brill | ZBW – Leibniz Information Centre for Economics Kiel, Hamburg
    Publication Date: 2019-02-14
    Description: The Gnassingbé clan has ruled the country since 1967. The demand for political alternance, initiated by institutional and electoral reforms, constituted the major contentious issue between the government and the challengers of the Gnassingbé regime throughout the survey period. An alliance of opposition parties and civil society groups organized peaceful demonstrations in opposition to the regime, which were often violently suppressed. Civil society organizations and representatives of the Christian church supported the demands of the opposition. The legislative elections of 20 December 2018, boycotted by the major opposition parties, resulted in an easy victory of the ruling party. The local elections, crucial for democratization at the grass-roots, but postponed time and again since 1987, were again postponed in December 2018 sine die. The human rights record of the government has improved but remains poor. Despite undeniable improvements to the framework and appearance of the regime's key institutions during the review period, democracy remains far from complete. However, the international community, notably Togo’s African peers, the AU and ECOWAS, followed a ‘laissez-faire’ approach in the interests of regional stability and their national interests in dealing with Togo. Economic growth remained stable at about 5% per annum. Public investment in infrastructure (e.g. roads, harbour) and increases in agricultural productivity, notably of export crops, had been the key drivers of economic growth. However, growth remains vulnerable to external shocks and the climate and has not been inclusive. Positive growth was overshadowed by increasing inter-personal and regional inequality as well as an increase in extreme poverty. Moreover, money-laundering, illegal money transfers and trafficking grew alarmingly. The business climate improved considerably nevertheless.
    Description: Author’s extended and up-dated version of ‘BTI 2020 – Togo Country Report’ (forthcoming)
    Description: RÉSUMÉ: Le clan Gnassingbé dirige le pays depuis 1967. La demande d'alternance politique, initiée par des réformes institutionnelles et électorales, a constitué le principal différend entre le gouvernement et les rivaux du régime de Gnassingbé tout au long de la période d'enquête. Une alliance de partis d'opposition et de groupes de la société civile a organisé des manifestations pacifiques contre le régime, qui ont souvent été réprimées avec violence. Les organisations de la société civile et les représentants de l'église chrétienne ont soutenu les revendications de l'opposition. Les élections législatives du 20 décembre 2018, boycottées par les principaux partis de l'opposition, ont permis une victoire facile du parti au pouvoir. Les élections locales, cruciales pour la démocratisation à la base, mais reportées à plusieurs reprises depuis 1987, ont été à nouveau reportées en décembre 2018 sine die. Le bilan du gouvernement en matière de droits de l'homme s'est amélioré mais reste médiocre. Malgré des améliorations indéniables du cadre et de l’apparence des principales institutions du régime au cours de la période considérée, la démocratie est loin d’être achevée. Cependant, la communauté internationale, notamment ses homologues africains du Togo, l’UA et la CEDEAO, a adopté une approche de «laisser-faire» dans l’intérêt de la stabilité régionale et de leurs intérêts nationaux face au Togo. La croissance économique est restée stable à environ 5% par an. Les investissements publics dans les infrastructures (par exemple, les routes et les ports) et l’augmentation de la productivité agricole, notamment des cultures d’exportation, ont été les principaux moteurs de la croissance économique. Cependant, la croissance reste vulnérable aux chocs extérieurs et au climat et n’a pas été inclusive. La croissance positive a été éclipsée par l'augmentation des inégalités interpersonnelles et régionales ainsi que par l'augmentation de l'extrême pauvreté. En outre, le blanchiment d’argent, les transferts d’argent illégal et le trafic se sont multipliés de manière alarmante. Le climat des affaires s’est néanmoins considérablement amélioré. ---------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------- ZUSAMMENFASSUNG: Der Gnassingbé-Clan hat das Land seit 1967 regiert. Die Forderungen nach institutionellen und Wahlrechtreformen sowie nach politischem Wandel bildeten während des Erhebungszeitraums das umstrittenste Thema zwischen der Regierung und den Herausforderern des Gnassingbé-Regimes. Ein Bündnis von Oppositionsparteien und zivilgesellschaftlichen Gruppen organisierte friedliche Demonstrationen gegen das Regime, die oft gewaltsam unterdrückt wurden. Zivilgesellschaftliche Organisationen und Vertreter der christlichen Kirche unterstützten die Forderungen der Opposition. Die Parlamentswahlen vom 20. Dezember 2018, die von den großen Oppositionsparteien boykottiert wurden, führten zu einem leichten Sieg der Regierungspartei. Die für die Demokratisierung an der Basis entscheidenden Kommunalwahlen, die seit 1987 immer wieder verschoben wurden, wurden im Dezember 2018 erneut auf unbestimmte Zeit verschoben. Die Menschenrechtsbilanz der Regierung hat sich verbessert, ist aber nach wie vor schlecht. Trotz unbestreitbarer Verbesserungen der Rahmenbedingungen und des Erscheinungsbildes der wichtigsten Institutionen des Regimes im Überprüfungszeitraum ist die Demokratisierung bei weitem nicht vollständig. Die internationale Gemeinschaft, insbesondere die afrikanischen peers des togosichen Präsidenten, die AU und die ECOWAS, verfolgten jedoch einen "Laissez-faire" -Ansatz im Interesse der regionalen Stabilität und ihrer nationalen Interessen im Umgang mit Togo. Das Wirtschaftswachstum blieb stabil bei etwa 5% pro Jahr. Öffentliche Investitionen in die Infrastruktur (z. B. Straßen, Häfen) und die Steigerung der landwirtschaftlichen Produktivität, insbesondere von Exportkulturen, waren die Hauptfaktoren des Wirtschaftswachstums. Das Wachstum bleibt jedoch anfällig für externe Schocks und das Wachstum war nicht inklusiv. Das positive Wachstum wurde durch die zunehmende Ungleichheit zwischen Personen und Regionen sowie durch die Zunahme extremer Armut überschattet. Darüber hinaus nahmen Geldwäsche, illegale Geldüberweisungen und Menschenhandel alarmierend zu. Das Geschäftsklima hat sich dennoch deutlich verbessert.
    Keywords: A14 ; F35 ; N97 ; O17 ; O55 ; Z13 ; ddc:330 ; Togo ; West Africa ; ECOWAS ; WAEMU ; Democratization ; Good Governance
    Repository Name: EconStor: OA server of the German National Library of Economics - Leibniz Information Centre for Economics
    Language: English
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  • 2
    Publication Date: 2019-01-29
    Description: In situ meteorological forcing and evaluation data, and bias-corrected reanalysis forcing data for cold regions modelling at ten sites: one maritime (Sapporo, Japan), one arctic (Sodankylä, Finland), three boreal (Old Aspen, Old Jack Pine and Old Black Spruce, Saskatchewan, Canada) and five mid-latitude alpine (Col de Porte, France; Reynolds Mountain East, Idaho, USA, Senator Beck and Swamp Angel, Colorado, USA; Weissfluhjoch, Switzerland). The long-term datasets are the reference sites chosen for evaluating models participating in the Earth System Model-Snow Model Intercomparison Project (ESM-SnowMIP). Periods covered by the in situ data vary between seven and twenty years of hourly meteorological data, with evaluation data (snow depth, snow water equivalent, albedo, soil temperature and surface temperature) available at varying temporal intervals. 30-year (1980-2010) time-series have been extracted from a global gridded surface meteorology dataset (Global Soil Wetness Project Phase 3) for the grid cells containing the reference sites, interpolated to one-hour timesteps and bias corrected.
    Type: Dataset
    Format: text/tab-separated-values, 210 data points
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  • 3
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    PANGAEA
    In:  Supplement to: Durán-Alarcón, Claudio; Boudevillain, Brice; Genthon, Christophe; Grazioli, Jacopo; Souverijns, Nils; van Lipzig, Nicole; Gorodetskaya, Irina V; Berne, Alexis (2019): The vertical structure of precipitation at two stations in East Antarctica derived from micro rain radars. The Cryosphere, 13(1), 247-264, https://doi.org/10.5194/tc-13-247-2019
    Publication Date: 2019-01-29
    Description: Antarctic precipitation is the main positive component in the surface mass balance of the Antarctic ice sheet, thus it is closely related to the evolution of the sea level worldwide. The lack of observations, at both surface and the vertical structure, have hindered the understanding of this important component. Recently a study of the vertical structure of the precipitation in Antarctica have been carried out using micro rain radar (MRR) observations (Durán-Alarcón et al., 2019, TC) at two different sites: Dumont d'Urville (DDU) and Princess Elisabeth (PE) stations. The present collection consists in 2-years of vertical profiles of effective reflectivity (Ze), mean Doppler velocity (W), spectral width (SW) and snowfall rate (S) derived from a K-band vertically-pointing micro rain radar (MRR), obtained at DDU in the framework of the Antarctic Precipitation Remote Sensing from Surface and Space project (APRES3). The observation range of the profiles is between 300 m and 3 km above ground level, with 100m and 1h of vertical and temporal resolutions, respectively. Vertical profiles were separated into surface precipitation and virga (i.e., precipitation that completely sublimes before reaching the surface) to evaluate the impact of virga on the structure of the vertical profiles. The strong katabatic winds blowing at DDU induce a decrease in Ze near to the ground due to the sublimation of the snowfall particles, and the W and SW increases as the height decreases. It was observed that virga is a frequent phenomenon at DDU, since more than a third (36%) of the profiles of precipitation observed with MRR corresponded to virga cases (more details in Durán-Alarcón et al., 2019, TC). This unique dataset of Antarctic precipitation observations in the low troposphere represents a great opportunity to better understand the current numerical models and satellite observations.
    Type: Dataset
    Format: application/x-netcdf, 10.0 MBytes
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  • 4
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    London: Taylor and Francis | ZBW – Leibniz Information Centre for Economics Kiel, Hamburg
    Publication Date: 2019-01-29
    Description: We introduce progressive consumption taxation into a real-business-cycle setup augmented with a detailed government sector. We calibrate the model to Bulgarian data for the period following the introduction of the currency board arrangement (1999-2016). We investigate the quantitative importance of the presence of of progressive taxation of consumption expenditures for the stabilization of cyclical fluctuations in Bulgaria. We find the quantitative effect of such a tax to be very small, and thus not important for either business cycle stabilization, or public finance issues.
    Keywords: E24 ; E32 ; ddc:330 ; business cycles ; progressive consumption taxation ; Bulgaria
    Repository Name: EconStor: OA server of the German National Library of Economics - Leibniz Information Centre for Economics
    Language: English
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  • 5
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    Brussels: The Economics and Econometrics Research Institute | ZBW – Leibniz Information Centre for Economics Kiel, Hamburg
    Publication Date: 2019-01-29
    Description: We show that in a exogenous growth model with non-market ("home") sector calibrated to Bulgarian data under the progressive taxation regime (1993-2007), the economy exhibits equilibrium indeterminacy due to the presence of non-market production. These results are in line with the findings in Benhabib and Farmer (1994, 1996) and Farmer (1999). Also, the findings in this paper are in contrast to Guo and Lansing (1988) who argue that progressive taxation works as an automatic stabilizer. Under the flat tax regime (2008-16), the economy calibrated to Bulgarian data displays saddle-path stability. The decrease in the average effective tax rate addresses the indeterminacy issue and eliminates the "stable focus" dynamics.
    Keywords: J46 ; D91 ; O41 ; ddc:330 ; Progressive taxation ; Non-market sector ; Home production ; Equilibrium (In)determinacy
    Repository Name: EconStor: OA server of the German National Library of Economics - Leibniz Information Centre for Economics
    Language: English
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  • 6
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    Freiburg i. Br.: Albert-Ludwigs-Universität Freiburg, Institut für Allgemeine Wirtschaftsforschung, Abteilung für Wirtschaftspolitik und Ordnungsökonomik
    Publication Date: 2019-01-29
    Description: [Einleitende Bemerkungen] Eine Reform der Grundsteuer ist unabweisbar geworden. Dies ist nicht dem politischen Willen von Bund oder Ländern geschuldet, sondern geht auf das Urteil des Bundesverfassungsgerichts vom 10. April 2018 zurück, wonach die Einheitsbewertung zur Ermittlung der Bemessungsgrundlage der Grundsteuer jedenfalls seit dem 1. Januar 2002 unvereinbar mit Art. 3 Abs. 1 Grundgesetz und somit verfassungswidrig ist. Diese Entscheidung war spätestens seit dem Jahr 2010 absehbar, als der Bundesfinanzhof feststellte, dass „[…] das weitere Unterbleiben einer allgemeinen Neubewertung des Grundvermögens […]“ für Stichtage nach dem 1.1.2007 mit der Verfassung nicht vereinbar ist (Pressemitteilung BFH vom 11. August 2010). Der Wissenschaftliche Beirat beim Bundesfinanzministerium legte im Dezember 2010 eine Stellungnahme zur Grundsteuerreform vor, die Möglichkeiten zu einer Neubewertung der Immobilien in Deutschland mit einigermaßen vertretbarem administrativem Aufwand aufzeigte. Gleichwohl haben Bund und Länder die vergangenen acht Jahre nicht für eine Reform nutzen können. Insbesondere unter den Ländern bestand keine Einigkeit, ob ein wertbasiertes Modell oder ein reines Flächenmodell zur Ermittlung der Bemessungsgrundlage der Grundsteuer herangezogen werden sollte. Diese Frontstellung besteht zwischen den beiden Lagern fort. Nur bleibt nun leider wenig Zeit, eine Reform der Grundsteuer auf den Weg zu bringen. Bis zum Ende des Jahres 2019 muss der Gesetzgeber die Grundsteuer reformiert haben und ein neues Bewertungsgesetz verabschiedet haben. Danach hat der Gesetzgeber fünf Jahre Zeit, also bis zum 31. Dezember 2024, die neuen Bewertungsregeln anzuwenden. Diese Frist ist für eine Bewertung aller Immobilien in Deutschland relativ kurz. Das Bundesfinanzministerium hat mittlerweile seine Vorschläge für eine Grundsteuerreform unterbreitet. Darin sind zwei Modelle enthalten, ein wertunabhängiges, flächenbasiertes Modell und ein wertabhängiges Modell, in das Boden- und Gebäudewertcharakteristika einfließen. Das Bundesfinanzministerium favorisiert sein wertabhängiges Grundsteuermodell. Vor diesem Hintergrund, und weil die Zeit drängt, spitzt sich die Debatte derzeit weiter zu. In diesem Beitrag soll daher das Für und Wider der unterschiedlichen Modelle beleuchtet werden. Zudem werden Weiterungen der Reform, insbesondere die Möglichkeit der formalen Überwälzung der Grundsteuer auf den Mieter diskutiert.
    Keywords: ddc:330
    Repository Name: EconStor: OA server of the German National Library of Economics - Leibniz Information Centre for Economics
    Language: German
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  • 7
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    Leiden: Brill | ZBW – Leibniz Information Centre for Economics Kiel, Hamburg
    Publication Date: 2019-01-29
    Description: Recognizing that identities are not static but instead forged in social interactions, this article explores how interplays of similarity and difference can stimulate identity development in organizations. Artistic interventions in organizations are conceived as opening spaces for interactions in which intercultural contention can stimulate identity development at the individual and organizational levels. The contribution draws on data generated from Webbased surveys of employees, managers, and artists who participated in artistic interventions in small and medium sized companies in Spain. Several tensions between their culturally distinct worlds emerge as drivers of a process in which the participants engage in identity development characterized by double-mirroring, coevolution, and resonance.
    Keywords: ddc:330 ; artistic interventions ; identity development ; intercultural interactions ; creative processes ; discursive perspective ; lexical analysis
    Repository Name: EconStor: OA server of the German National Library of Economics - Leibniz Information Centre for Economics
    Language: English
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  • 8
    Publication Date: 2019-01-31
    Description: We present consistent annual mean atmospheric histories and growth rates for the mainly anthropogenic halogenated compounds HCFC-22, HCFC-141b, HCFC-142b, HFC-134a, HFC-125, HFC-23, PFC-14 and PFC-116, which are all potentially useful oceanic transient tracers (tracers of water transport within the ocean), for the Northern and Southern Hemisphere with the aim of providing input histories of these compounds for the equilibrium between the atmosphere and surface ocean. We use observations of these halogenated compounds made by the Advanced Global Atmospheric Gases Experiment (AGAGE), the Scripps Institution of Oceanography (SIO), the Commonwealth Scientific and Industrial Research Organization (CSIRO), the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) and the University of East Anglia (UEA). Prior to the direct observational record, we use archived air measurements, firn air measurements and published model calculations to estimate the atmospheric mole fraction histories. The results show that the atmospheric mole fractions for each species, except HCFC-141b and HCFC-142b, have been increasing since they were initially produced. Recently, the atmospheric growth rates have been decreasing for the HCFCs (HCFC-22, HCFC-141b and HCFC-142b), increasing for the HFCs (HFC-134a, HFC-125, HFC-23) and stable with little fluctuation for the PFCs (PFC-14 and PFC-116) investigated here. The atmospheric histories (source functions) and natural background mole fractions show that HCFC-22, HCFC-141b, HCFC-142b, HFC-134a, HFC-125 and HFC-23 have the potential to be oceanic transient tracers for the next few decades only because of the recently imposed bans on production and consumption. When the atmospheric histories of the compounds are not monotonically changing, the equilibrium atmospheric mole fraction (and ultimately the age associated with that mole fraction) calculated from their concentration in the ocean is not unique, reducing their potential as transient tracers. Moreover, HFCs have potential to be oceanic transient tracers for a longer period in the future than HCFCs as the growth rates of HFCs are increasing and those of HCFCs are decreasing in the background atmosphere. PFC-14 and PFC-116, however, have the potential to be tracers for longer periods into the future due to their extremely long lifetimes, steady atmospheric growth rates and no explicit ban on their emissions. In this work, we also derive solubility functions for HCFC-22, HCFC-141b, HCFC-142b, HFC-134a, HFC-125, HFC-23, PFC-14 and PFC-116 in water and seawater to facilitate their use as oceanic transient tracers. These functions are based on the Clark–Glew–Weiss (CGW) water solubility function fit and salting-out coefficients estimated by the poly-parameter linear free-energy relationships (pp-LFERs). Here we also provide three methods of seawater solubility estimation for more compounds. Even though our intention is for application in oceanic research, the work described in this paper is potentially useful for tracer studies in a wide range of natural waters, including freshwater and saline lakes, and, for the more stable compounds, groundwaters.
    Type: Article , PeerReviewed
    Format: text
    Format: archive
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  • 9
    Publication Date: 2019-01-31
    Description: Abstract High-latitude cold-water coral reefs are particularly vulnerable to climate change due to enhanced CO2 uptake in these regions. To evaluate their physiological functioning and potential application as pH archives, we retrieved both recent and fossil samples of Lophelia pertusa along the Norwegian margin from Oslofjord (59°N), over to Trondheimsfjord, Sula and Lopphavet (70.6°N). Boron isotope analyses (δ11B) were undertaken using solution-based and laser ablation multi-collector inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (MC-ICP-MS; LA-ICP-MS), and secondary ion mass spectrometry (SIMS). Epi-fluorescence microscopy was employed to provide a rapid pre-screening routine for structure-specific subsampling in the coral skeleton. This integrated approach enabled us to assess heterogeneities within single specimens, as well as to investigate the role of local environmental influences including recent and past variations. All three mass spectrometry methods show substantial differences in the δ11B of the theca wall (TW) and the centres of calcification (COC's). Micro-bulk subsamples milled from the theca wall of modern specimens originating from different habitats but with comparable seawater pH (8–8.16) gave consistent δ11B values averaging 26.7 (±0.2‰, 2σ, n = 4), while COC subsamples systematically deviated towards lower B/Ca (by ~40%) and depleted δ11B values (minimum 22.7 ± 0.3‰, 2σ), implying a difference of at least 4‰ between TW and COC. SIMS and LA-ICP-MS measurements identified much larger internal heterogeneities with maximum variation of ~10‰ between the distinct skeletal structures; minimal SIMS δ11B values of ~17.3 ± 1.2‰ (2σ) were associated with the pure COC material. Our findings may be interpreted in terms of the occurrence of two main, but likely different, biomineralisation mechanisms in L. pertusa, with the COC's generally exhibiting minimal pH up-regulation, potentially supporting the use of bicarbonate in the early stages of biomineralisation. Furthermore, we highlight the potential utility of L. pertusa for palaeo-proxy studies if targeting the compositionally homogenous TW zones devoid of COC admixtures, which appear to provide highly reproducible measurements.
    Type: Article , PeerReviewed , info:eu-repo/semantics/article
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  • 10
    Publication Date: 2019-01-31
    Type: http://purl.org/eprint/type/Thesis
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  • 11
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    In:  Veröffentlichungen / Deutsche Geodätische Kommission. Reihe C, Dissertationen ; Heft Nr. 829
    Publication Date: 2019-01-31
    Type: http://purl.org/eprint/type/Thesis
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  • 12
    Publication Date: 2019-02-01
    Type: http://purl.org/escidoc/metadata/ves/publication-types/article
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  • 13
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    PANGAEA
    In:  Swiss Meteorological Agency, Payerne
    Publication Date: 2019-02-01
    Type: Dataset
    Format: text/tab-separated-values, 833716 data points
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  • 14
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    PANGAEA
    In:  Swiss Meteorological Agency, Payerne
    Publication Date: 2019-02-01
    Type: Dataset
    Format: text/tab-separated-values, 475 data points
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  • 15
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    PANGAEA
    In:  Swiss Meteorological Agency, Payerne
    Publication Date: 2019-02-01
    Type: Dataset
    Format: text/tab-separated-values, 417584 data points
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  • 16
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    PANGAEA
    In:  Swiss Meteorological Agency, Payerne
    Publication Date: 2019-02-01
    Type: Dataset
    Format: text/tab-separated-values, 869268 data points
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  • 17
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    PANGAEA
    In:  Swiss Meteorological Agency, Payerne
    Publication Date: 2019-02-01
    Type: Dataset
    Format: text/tab-separated-values, 283427 data points
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  • 18
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    PANGAEA
    In:  Swiss Meteorological Agency, Payerne
    Publication Date: 2019-02-01
    Type: Dataset
    Format: text/tab-separated-values, 1168114 data points
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  • 19
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    PANGAEA
    In:  Swiss Meteorological Agency, Payerne
    Publication Date: 2019-02-01
    Type: Dataset
    Format: text/tab-separated-values, 863756 data points
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  • 20
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    PANGAEA
    In:  Swiss Meteorological Agency, Payerne
    Publication Date: 2019-02-01
    Type: Dataset
    Format: text/tab-separated-values, 1492 data points
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  • 21
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    PANGAEA
    In:  Swiss Meteorological Agency, Payerne
    Publication Date: 2019-02-01
    Type: Dataset
    Format: text/tab-separated-values, 3357 data points
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  • 22
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    PANGAEA
    In:  Swiss Meteorological Agency, Payerne
    Publication Date: 2019-02-01
    Type: Dataset
    Format: text/tab-separated-values, 279428 data points
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  • 23
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    PANGAEA
    In:  Swiss Meteorological Agency, Payerne
    Publication Date: 2019-02-01
    Type: Dataset
    Format: text/tab-separated-values, 777456 data points
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  • 24
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    PANGAEA
    In:  Swiss Meteorological Agency, Payerne
    Publication Date: 2019-02-01
    Type: Dataset
    Format: text/tab-separated-values, 890904 data points
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  • 25
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    PANGAEA
    In:  Swiss Meteorological Agency, Payerne
    Publication Date: 2019-02-01
    Type: Dataset
    Format: text/tab-separated-values, 1361 data points
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  • 26
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    PANGAEA
    In:  Swiss Meteorological Agency, Payerne
    Publication Date: 2019-02-01
    Type: Dataset
    Format: text/tab-separated-values, 1205012 data points
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  • 27
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    PANGAEA
    In:  Swiss Meteorological Agency, Payerne
    Publication Date: 2019-02-01
    Type: Dataset
    Format: text/tab-separated-values, 431953 data points
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  • 28
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    PANGAEA
    In:  Swiss Meteorological Agency, Payerne
    Publication Date: 2019-02-01
    Type: Dataset
    Format: text/tab-separated-values, 3274 data points
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  • 29
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    PANGAEA
    In:  Swiss Meteorological Agency, Payerne
    Publication Date: 2019-02-01
    Type: Dataset
    Format: text/tab-separated-values, 285084 data points
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  • 30
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    PANGAEA
    In:  Swiss Meteorological Agency, Payerne
    Publication Date: 2019-02-01
    Type: Dataset
    Format: text/tab-separated-values, 1165216 data points
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  • 31
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    PANGAEA
    In:  Swiss Meteorological Agency, Payerne
    Publication Date: 2019-02-01
    Type: Dataset
    Format: text/tab-separated-values, 612 data points
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  • 32
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    PANGAEA
    In:  Swiss Meteorological Agency, Payerne
    Publication Date: 2019-02-01
    Type: Dataset
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    PANGAEA
    In:  Swiss Meteorological Agency, Payerne
    Publication Date: 2019-02-01
    Type: Dataset
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    PANGAEA
    In:  Swiss Meteorological Agency, Payerne
    Publication Date: 2019-02-01
    Type: Dataset
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    PANGAEA
    In:  Swiss Meteorological Agency, Payerne
    Publication Date: 2019-02-01
    Type: Dataset
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  • 36
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    PANGAEA
    In:  Koninklijk Nederlands Meteorologisch Instituut, De Bilt
    Publication Date: 2019-02-01
    Type: Dataset
    Format: text/tab-separated-values, 1204499 data points
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  • 37
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    Alfred Wegener Institute for Polar and Marine Research
    Publication Date: 2019-02-01
    Repository Name: EPIC Alfred Wegener Institut
    Type: "Berichte zur Polar- und Meeresforschung" , NonPeerReviewed
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  • 38
    Publication Date: 2019-01-31
    Language: English
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  • 39
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    Köln: Institut der deutschen Wirtschaft (IW)
    Publication Date: 2019-01-31
    Description: Das Urheberrecht soll allgemein einen Anreiz zur Schöpfung von Werken der Literatur, Kunst und Wissenschaft schaffen. Was aber, wenn der Künstler oder Autor eine Maschine ist? Im Zeitalter der Künstlichen Intelligenz (KI) schon lange keine Utopie mehr. Aus ökonomischer Sicht gibt es gute Gründe, warum keine Maschine Urheber sein kann und sollte. Nichtsdestotrotz stellt sich die Frage, ob es im KI-Kontext Handlungsbedarf in Form eines digitalen Updates des Urheberrechts oder ergänzender Rechtsnormen gibt.
    Keywords: ddc:330
    Repository Name: EconStor: OA server of the German National Library of Economics - Leibniz Information Centre for Economics
    Language: German
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  • 40
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    Köln: Institut der deutschen Wirtschaft (IW)
    Publication Date: 2019-01-31
    Description: Im vergangenen Jahr verhinderte die Bundesregierung zwei Transaktionen chinesischer Investoren und verschärfte nach 2017 im zweiten Jahr in Folge die Außenwirtschaftsverordnung. Dennoch waren Investoren aus China weiterhin sehr aktiv.
    Keywords: ddc:330
    Repository Name: EconStor: OA server of the German National Library of Economics - Leibniz Information Centre for Economics
    Language: German
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  • 41
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    Köln: Institut der deutschen Wirtschaft (IW)
    Publication Date: 2019-01-31
    Description: Ausschlaggebend für den starken Anstieg der Kinderzahlen waren eine steigende Zahl an potenziellen Müttern, mehr Geburten je potenzieller Mütter und eine substanzielle Zuwanderung von Kindern. Dadurch werden in den nächsten Jahren zusätzliche Kapazitäten in den Kitas und Grundschulen notwendig, auch wenn sich die Entwicklungen nicht fortsetzen sollten.
    Keywords: ddc:330
    Repository Name: EconStor: OA server of the German National Library of Economics - Leibniz Information Centre for Economics
    Language: German
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  • 42
    Publication Date: 2019-01-31
    Description: In the shadow of homeownership and public housing, social policy through the regulation of private rental markets is a neglected and underestimated field of social policy. This paper, therefore, presents unique new data on the development of private tenancy legislation through the binary coding of rent control, the protection of tenants from eviction, and rental housing rationing laws across more than 25 countries and 100 years. This long-run perspective reveals the dynamic effects of rent control on the rise of homeownership as the dominant tenure during the 20th century. We find that both rent regulation and rationing legislation effectively increased homeownership, but only up to a certain threshold. We suggest that the short-term lure of an inexpensive social policy for tenants has led to the long-term marginalization of rental markets in many countries.
    Keywords: C23 ; O18 ; R38 ; ddc:330 ; homeownership ; rent control ; tenure security ; housing rationing ; dynamic panel data model
    Repository Name: EconStor: OA server of the German National Library of Economics - Leibniz Information Centre for Economics
    Language: English
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  • 43
    Publication Date: 2019-01-31
    Description: For four years, a group of experts from public administration, academia and practice has collaborated to highlight the important aspects of corridor development, to provide a first integrated assessment for the entire corridor system and to prepare a draft of an integrated strategy. Of course, this is just a beginning and should be followed up by additional initiatives to produce an organisational framework that will allow intensified collaboration on the corridors, which are so important for the cohesion of Europe. Moreover, we hope that our insights will also stimulate the development of the OEM Corridor and similar investigations into other European corridors. Due to the international nature of the project topic, the working group comprises prominent experts of spatial development and infrastructural engineering from both academia and from planning practice, and from various countries along the corridor [...].
    Keywords: ddc:710
    Repository Name: EconStor: OA server of the German National Library of Economics - Leibniz Information Centre for Economics
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  • 44
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    Mannheim: ZEW - Leibniz-Zentrum für Europäische Wirtschaftsforschung
    Publication Date: 2019-01-31
    Description: This review summarizes the empirical literature on the effects of natural disasters and weather variations on international trade flows. A first result is that the body of literature is actually not as small as previously suggested. In total, I summarize 19 studies of 18 independent research teams and show that there is a large diversity in terms of motivations, data sets used, methodologies, and results. Still, some overarching conclusions can be drawn. Increases in average temperature seem to have a detrimental effect on export values (less on imports), mainly for manufactured and agricultural products. Given climate change, this is an important finding for projecting long-term developments of trade volumes. Imports seem to be less affected by temperature changes in the importing country. Findings on the effects of natural disasters are more ambiguous, but at least it can be said that exports seem to be affected negatively by occurrence and severity of disasters in the exporting country. Imports may decrease, increase, or remain unaffected by natural disasters. Regarding heterogeneous effects, small, poor, and hot countries with low degrees of institutional quality and political freedom seem to face the most detrimental effects on their trade flows. Possible directions of future research include analyzing spillover effects in-depth (in terms of time, space, and trade networks), considering adaptation, and using more granular data.
    Keywords: Q17 ; Q54 ; Q56 ; F14 ; F18 ; ddc:330 ; International Trade ; Climate Change ; Natural Disasters
    Repository Name: EconStor: OA server of the German National Library of Economics - Leibniz Information Centre for Economics
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  • 45
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    Freiburg: Albert-Ludwigs-Universität Freiburg, Wilfried-Guth-Stiftungsprofessur für Ordnungs- und Wettbewerbspolitik
    Publication Date: 2019-01-31
    Description: In recent years, a number of major terrorist attacks in EU member states has put the fight against homegrown and international terrorism at the top of the agenda of European policy-makers. This paper analyzes the costs of terrorism in the European Union from both a theoretical and empirical perspective in order to evaluate counter-terrorism policies by comparing their costs and benefits. Two important policy implications can be derived from our exercise. First, individuals' behavioral predispositions typically result in a biased perception of the risk of terrorism leading to too high a demand for counter-terrorism measures relative to what the objective probability of terrorist events suggests. This results in a tendency to favor repressive over preventive measures against terrorism. Second, uncoordinated European policies against terrorism have the potential to undermine the effectiveness of counter-terrorism measures. If there is a justification for the existence of the European Union (which an increasing number of populist parties in Europe seems to doubt), then it is to provide supranational answers to coordination failure in European counter-terrorism policies.
    Keywords: D74 ; H56 ; N44 ; ddc:330 ; terrorism ; home-grown terrorism ; European Union ; counter-terrorism policies ; coordination failure ; behavioral responses to terrorism
    Repository Name: EconStor: OA server of the German National Library of Economics - Leibniz Information Centre for Economics
    Language: English
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  • 46
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    Passau: Universität Passau, Wirtschaftswissenschaftlichen Fakultät
    Publication Date: 2019-01-31
    Description: This paper is the first to analyze the joint determinants of premiums and spreads in structured financial products, while also focusing on issuers' hedging costs. We evaluate more than 396,000 single stock discount certificates on an intraday basis in the German secondary market. We find that premiums and spreads are endogenous and negatively related to each other, and depend on different key determinants. The economically significant determinants of the premiums are mainly profit-related, i.e. dividends of the underlying, issuers' credit risk, lifecycle effect and competition, whereas hedging costs and risks are economically less important. However, initial hedging costs are also priced into the premium in the case of large inventory changes. The spread is mostly determined by hedging costs and risk components, such as initial hedging costs, rebalancing costs, volatility, scalper risk, and overnight gap risk, but also depends on dividends. Initial hedging costs appear to be more relevant than rebalancing costs.
    Keywords: D40 ; G12 ; G21 ; ddc:650 ; Discount certificates ; Derivatives ; Pricing ; Market microstructure ; Trading costs ; Hedging
    Repository Name: EconStor: OA server of the German National Library of Economics - Leibniz Information Centre for Economics
    Language: English
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  • 47
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    Passau: Universität Passau, Wirtschaftswissenschaftlichen Fakultät
    Publication Date: 2019-01-31
    Description: We examine the impact of dynamic hedging demand of German option and discount certificate markets on the autocorrelation of German stock price changes. We theoretically model the demand of liquidity providers in the discount certificate market, a structured financial product with a concave payoff profile, asking whether dynamic hedging by certificate issuers induces negative return autocorrelation in stock markets. We find empirical evidence that the hedging demand of option issuers has a positive impact on return autocorrelation, while the opposite holds for certificate issuers, whose hedging demand enhances the negative return autocorrelation in the stock market. We thus theoretically and empirically provide evidence that there are persistent spillover effects from option and certificate markets to stock markets due to dynamic hedging activities.
    Keywords: D40 ; G12 ; G21 ; ddc:650 ; Structured products ; Derivatives ; Dynamic hedging ; Stock return autocorrelation ; Market microstructure
    Repository Name: EconStor: OA server of the German National Library of Economics - Leibniz Information Centre for Economics
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  • 48
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    Wuppertal : Wuppertal Institut für Klima, Umwelt, Energie
    Publication Date: 2019-01-31
    Description: Mit fortschreitender Energiewende steigt der Anteil erneuerbarer Energien im Strommix. Deren Angebot variiert im Tagesverlauf, nach Wetterlage und saisonal. Um Angebot und Nachfrage zur Deckung zu bringen, benötigt es daher Speicher mit großen Kapazitäten. Von allen technologischen Optionen mit großer Speicherkapazität sind Wasser-Pumpspeicherwerke die einzige, die langjährig erprobt und wirtschaftlich ist. Diese könnten in Braunkohletagebauen, welche im Zuge der Energiewende aufgegeben werden, errichtet werden. Unsere Überschlagsrechnung am Beispiel eines Pumpspeicherwerks in den heutigen Tagebauen Hambach, Garzweiler und Inden zeigt, dass diese mit bis zu 400 GWh ein signifikantes technisches Speicherpotenzial haben. Dies entspricht etwa der kontinuierlichen Maximalleistung eines Kernkraftwerks über zwei Wochen. Im Kontext der Diskussion um den Braunkohleausstieg skizziert das Papier ein netzdienliches Nachnutzungskonzept für Braunkohletagebaue, das zumindest für einen Teil der heute in der Kohleförderung und -Verstromung Beschäftigten mögliche Zukunftsperspektiven bietet.
    Keywords: ddc:330
    Repository Name: Wuppertal Institut für Klima, Umwelt, Energie
    Language: German
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  • 49
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    Berlin : Vereinigung für ökologische Wirtschaftsforschung
    Publication Date: 2019-01-31
    Description: Die sozial-ökologische Forschung (SÖF) ist seit fast 20 Jahren ein Förderschwerpunkt des Bundesministeriums für Bildung und Forschung. Zur Weiterentwicklung dieses Förderschwerpunktes wurde bereits in der Vergangenheit ein Austausch mit relevanten Akteuren organisiert, um gemeinsam die Inhalte und Themenschwerpunkte der SÖF zu diskutieren. Ein neuer Agendaprozess ist 2018 gestartet. In einem ersten Schritt konnten bis Juni 2018 Themenvorschläge, sogenannte Agendapapiere, auf einer Plattform hochgeladen und kommentiert werden. Der vorliegende Beitrag ist im Rahmen dieses Prozesses entstanden. Aus Sicht der Autorinnen und Autoren stellt die Erforschung von Arbeit - insbesondere in Bezug zur sozial-ökologischen Forschung in den Feldern Mobilität, Ernährung und Energie - eine eklatante Forschungslücke innerhalb der sozial-ökologischen Forschung dar. Dabei sind etliche Bedarfsfelder geradezu auf unsere Arbeitsgesellschaft hin ausgerichtet. Wenn die Realität der Arbeitsgesellschaft thematisiert wird, geschieht dies jedoch meist ohne Berücksichtigung der damit einhergehenden ökologischen Effekte. Doch in kaum einem anderen Forschungsfeld sind soziale und ökologische Fragen so eng miteinander verzahnt wie in der Arbeitspolitik. Daher wollen sich die Autorinnen und Autoren in diesem Papier für eine sozial-ökologische Ausrichtung der Arbeitsforschung stark machen und plädieren für eine eigenständige Forschungsagenda zu sozial-ökologischer Arbeitspolitik.
    Keywords: ddc:300
    Repository Name: Wuppertal Institut für Klima, Umwelt, Energie
    Language: German
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  • 50
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    Wuppertal : Wuppertal Institute for Climate, Environment and Energy
    Publication Date: 2019-01-31
    Description: The new mechanism under Article 6.4 of the Paris Agreement is to be supervised by a body designated by the Conference of the Parties serving as the Meeting of the Parties to the Paris Agreement (CMA). However, so far there is no clarity what role exactly the supervisory body (Body) is to play. Against this background, this JIKO Policy Paper analyses different governance options for Art. 6.4. The paper first reflects the objectives of the new mechanism and on what the role of the mechanism as a whole should be. The paper then summarises what has already been agreed on the functioning of the mechanism and elaborates what steps will be needed to generate transferrable emission reductions under the Article 6.4 mechanism. On this basis, the paper develops criteria for how to decide what role the Body should have, and then discusses what role the Body and the other actors that are involved in the mechanism could have in each of the steps of the activity cycle.
    Keywords: ddc:320
    Repository Name: Wuppertal Institut für Klima, Umwelt, Energie
    Language: English
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  • 51
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    Wuppertal : Wuppertal Institute for Climate, Environment and Energy
    Publication Date: 2019-01-31
    Description: With the adoption of Article 6 of the Paris Agreement, former debates about generating carbon credits on the basis of national policies have resurged. National policies have not been eligible as project activities under the Kyoto Protocol's flexible mechanisms. The Paris Agreement opens the possibility for such policy crediting but also provides an entirely new context: Universal participation, ambitious long-term targets and nationally defined contributions (NDCs) that are to be made more ambitious over time. As this paper shows, these changes in the framework conditions add an additional layer of complexity to policy-based cooperation. The paper explores the potential for policy-based cooperation by first briefly presenting the regulatory basis provided by the Paris Agreement before outlining a prototype for policy-based cooperation and its key challenges.
    Keywords: ddc:320
    Repository Name: Wuppertal Institut für Klima, Umwelt, Energie
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  • 52
    Publication Date: 2019-01-31
    Description: No other region has warmed as much or as rapidly in the past decades as the Arctic. A new project, CACOON, investigates how the ecosystems are influenced by this warming. Funded by the British Natural Environment Research Council (NERC) and the German Federal Ministry of Education and Research (BMBF), CACOON will help to better predict changes to the Arctic coastal-marine environment. Arctic rivers (Fig. 1) annually carry around 13% of all dissolved organic carbon transported globally from land to ocean, despite the Arctic Ocean making up only approximately 1% of the Earth's ocean volume. Arctic shelf waters are therefore dominated by terrestrial carbon pools, so that shelf ecosystems are intimately linked to freshwater supplies. Arctic ecosystems also contain perennially frozen carbon that may be released by further warming. Climate change already thaws permafrost, reduces sea-ice and increases riverine discharge over much of the pan-Arctic, triggering important feedbacks (Mann et al. 2015). The importance of the near-shore region, consisting of several tightly connected ecosystems that include rivers, deltas, estuaries and the continental shelf, is however often overlooked. We need year-round studies to be able to predict the impact of shifting seasonality, fresher water, changing nutrient supply and greater proportions of permafrost-derived carbon on coastal waters
    Repository Name: EPIC Alfred Wegener Institut
    Type: Conference , NonPeerReviewed
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  • 53
    Publication Date: 2019-01-31
    Description: No other region has warmed as much or as rapidly in the past decades as the Arctic. A new project, CACOON, will investigate how coastal Arctic Ocean waters and planktonic communities will respond to changing freshwater inputs driven by on-going climate change. Funded by the British Natural Environment Research Council (NERC) and the German Federal Ministry of Education and Research (BMBF), CACOON will help to better understand and predict changes to the Arctic marine environment. Arctic rivers annually carry around 13% of all dissolved organic carbon transported globally from land to ocean, despite the Arctic Ocean (AO) making up only approximately 1% of the Earth’s ocean volume. Arctic shelf waters are therefore dominated by terrestrial carbon pools and shelf ecosystems intimately linked to freshwater supplies. Arctic ecosystems also contain perennially frozen carbon that may be released by further warming. Climate change already thaws permafrost, reduces sea-ice and increases riverine discharge over much of the pan-Arctic, triggering important feedbacks. The importance of the near-shore region, consisting of several tightly connected ecosystems that include rivers, deltas, estuaries and the continental shelf, is however often overlooked. We need year-round studies to be able to predict the impact of shifting seasonality, fresher water, changing nutrient supply and greater proportions of permafrost-derived carbon on coastal water processes. CACOON addresses this knowledge gap by investigating the near-shore regions of two major Arctic rivers, the Lena and Kolyma, which together drain 19% of the pan-Arctic watershed area. CACOON will quantify the effect of changing freshwater export and terrestrial permafrost thaw on the type and fate of river-borne organic matter (OM) delivered to Arctic coastal waters, and the resultant changes to ecosystem functioning in the coastal AO. We will achieve this though a combined observational, experimental and modelling study. We will conduct laboratory experiments to parameterise the susceptibility of terrigenous carbon to abiotic and biotic transformation and losses, then use the results from these to deliver a marine ecosystem model of the major biogeochemical cycles of carbon, nutrients and OM cycling in these regions.
    Repository Name: EPIC Alfred Wegener Institut
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  • 54
    Publication Date: 2019-01-31
    Description: Stratospheric ozone loss inside the Arctic polar vortex for the winters between 2004–2005 and 2012–2013 has been quantified using measurements from the space-borne Atmospheric Chemistry Experiment Fourier Transform Spectrometer (ACE-FTS). For the first time, an evaluation has been performed of six different ozone loss estimation methods based on the same single observational dataset to determine the Arctic ozone loss (mixing ratio loss profiles and the partial-column ozone losses between 380 and 550 K). The methods used are the tracer-tracer correlation, the artificial tracer correlation, the average vortex profile descent, and the passive subtraction with model output from both Lagrangian and Eulerian chemical transport models (CTMs). For the tracer-tracer, the artificial tracer, and the average vortex profile descent approaches, various tracers have been used that are also measured by ACE-FTS. From these seven tracers investigated (CH4, N2O, HF, OCS, CFC-11, CFC-12, and CFC-113), we found that CH4, N2O, HF, and CFC-12 are the most suitable tracers for investigating polar stratospheric ozone depletion with ACE-FTS v3.5. The ozone loss estimates (in terms of the mixing ratio as well as total column ozone) are generally in good agreement between the different methods and among the different tracers. However, using the average vortex profile descent technique typically leads to smaller maximum losses (by approximately 15–30 DU) compared to all other methods. The passive subtraction method using output from CTMs generally results in slightly larger losses compared to the techniques that use ACE-FTS measurements only. The ozone loss computed, using both measurements and models, shows the greatest loss during the 2010–2011 Arctic winter. For that year, our results show that maximum ozone loss (2.1–2.7 ppmv) occurred at 460 K. The estimated partial-column ozone loss inside the polar vortex (between 380 and 550 K) using the different methods is 66–103, 61–95, 59–96, 41–89, and 85–122 DU for March 2005, 2007, 2008, 2010, and 2011, respectively. Ozone loss is difficult to diagnose for the Arctic winters during 2005–2006, 2008–2009, 2011–2012, and 2012–2013, because strong polar vortex disturbance or major sudden stratospheric warming events significantly perturbed the polar vortex, thereby limiting the number of measurements available for the analysis of ozone loss.
    Repository Name: EPIC Alfred Wegener Institut
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  • 55
    Publication Date: 2019-01-31
    Description: With Germany's nuclear phase-out, 23 reactors need to be dismantled in the near future. Initiated by the dire financial situation of the affected utilities in 2014, a major discourse on ensuring financial liability led to a redistribution of liabilities and finances, with the utilities remaining in charge of dismantling, while liability for interim and final storage now transferred to the public. This paper assesses whether the new regulation will ultimately be to the benefit of the public. It introduces a two-stage stochastic optimization framework which encompasses the different dismantling phases and resulting waste flows and storage levels of low- and intermediate-level waste (LLW and ILW) as well as the associated costs. Results show that storage risk - proclaimed as a major barrier to efficient decommissioning - is not a major driver for the optimal decommissioning schedule. However, a delay of ten years might now increase interim storage costs borne by the public by over 20%. By contrast, lacking knowledge and limited machinery is a major unaccounted cost driver, which might quickly eat-up the buffer currently included in utility funds in order to deal with dismantling uncertainties. Our analysis reveals the storage gate as the new crucial interface between utilities and the public storage provider.
    Keywords: C61 ; H44 ; L51 ; ddc:330 ; nuclear decommissioning ; nuclear dismantling ; financial liability ; nuclear logistics ; stochastic modeling ; regulation
    Repository Name: EconStor: OA server of the German National Library of Economics - Leibniz Information Centre for Economics
    Language: English
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  • 56
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    PANGAEA
    In:  Alfred Wegener Institute, Helmholtz Centre for Polar and Marine Research, Bremerhaven
    Publication Date: 2019-01-31
    Type: Dataset
    Format: text/tab-separated-values, 57 data points
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  • 57
    Publication Date: 2019-01-26
    Description: Die professionalisierte, kontinuierliche Vermietung von Wohnraum über Homesharing-Plattformen wie Airbnb kann dem Markt Wohnraum entziehen und lokal existierende Wohnraum-knappheit verschärfen. Regelungen zur Steuerung der Vermietungstätigkeit wie Zweckentfremdungsverbote sollen dem entgegenwirken. In Nordrhein-Westfalen lässt sich jedoch kein empirischer Beleg für umfangreichen Wohnraumentzug durch Airbnb feststellen.
    Description: A professional, continuous short-term letting of accommodation via home sharing platforms like Airbnb can lead to a reduction of housing space and therefore intensify housing shortages. Regulation like the ban of an exclusive use of apartments or houses for short-term accommodation (so-called ban on misuse or Zweckentfremdungsverbot) are supposed to prevent or to mitigate such developments. In the German federal state of North Rhine-Westphalia however, no empirical evidence for such reductions of housing space due to home sharing via Airbnb can be found.
    Keywords: D52 ; L14 ; L51 ; L86 ; ddc:330
    Repository Name: EconStor: OA server of the German National Library of Economics - Leibniz Information Centre for Economics
    Language: German
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  • 58
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    Kiel: Kiel Institute for the World Economy (IfW)
    Publication Date: 2019-01-26
    Description: Despite the headway the world has experienced over the last couple of years in terms of a substantial increase in digital access, there are still significant challenges to overcome in ensuring women are included in the transformation to a digital society, which in turn will enhance productivity and social development. Efforts to increase internet adoption access through broadband plans and legislative reforms have yielded improvements in use and adoption. However, there is still a stark and pervasive gender inequality in terms of access, ownership of digital devices, digital fluency as well as the capacity to make meaningful use of the access to technology. Even though affordability is a key source of exclusion, there are also significant socio-cultural norms that restrict access for women. This paper brings forward the argument that access alone is not enough, women need agency and capacity to leverage access. The authors thus highlight the need to make an assessment of the global gender gap and develop meaningful indicators that contribute to the design and implementation of effective policies that drive adoption. We need effective promotion of women's digital adoption not only from the government but also from the private sector and civil society in order to lead the digital adoption of best practices for women around the world.
    Keywords: J16 ; J24 ; O30 ; ddc:330 ; digital gender gap ; digital inclusion ; digital skills
    Repository Name: EconStor: OA server of the German National Library of Economics - Leibniz Information Centre for Economics
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  • 59
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    Köln: Institut der deutschen Wirtschaft (IW)
    Publication Date: 2019-01-26
    Description: The introduction of a Common Consolidated Corporate Tax Base (CCCTB) in the European Union (EU) would substantially change the rules of the game in international taxation. According to the proposal by the European Commission (EC), the profits of a Multinational Enterprise (MNE) would no longer be assessed by using the arm's length principles and (hypothetical) market prices, but split based on a formulary apportionment. This implies that an allocation key consisting of sales volume, number of employees and capital invested would be applied to distribute the taxable profits of an MNE. From an economic perspective, the principle of taxing profits at source would be thereby abolished. However, due to the current difficulty for taxpayers and tax authorities to agree on adequate transfer prices, a radical change as proposed by the EC might be reasonable. Hence, the EC proposal for the CCCTB is a promising goal as it could lower the red tape burden for MNE as well as tax authorities. Furthermore, the adjustment of the debt bias and the encouragement of R&D as additional items of the EC proposal could stimulate economic growth. A main obstacle for the implementation of a CCCTB would be the expected shifts in tax revenue which make a political agreement at the EU level very difficult. The application of a CCCTB would substantially redistribute corporate profits among the EU member states as a simulation by the German Economic Institute (IW) shows. Especially, Ireland, Luxembourg and Malta would receive significantly less tax revenue since sales volume, number of employees and capital invested are relatively small in these countries. France and Italy, in contrast, would be on the winning side. Germany would also benefit even though to a rather low degree. A main reason for this result is that the strongly exporting German corporations today pay a large proportion of their corporate taxes in Germany. With the application of the CCCTB, parts of the taxable profits would be allocated to foreign countries. From a systematic point of view, the CCCTB is only convincing if there is a global commitment. A simulation of the tax revenue effects for the G20 countries when applying a CCCTB shows that the shift would also be drastic. The EU member states - even the big ones - would have to accept lower taxable corporate profits. Instead, the United States could increase the corporate tax base mainly because of the high consumption level. China and India would benefit due to the large number of employees. Thus, whether a country ranks among the winners or losers in terms of tax revenue depends foremost on the peer group.
    Keywords: H25 ; H26 ; ddc:330
    Repository Name: EconStor: OA server of the German National Library of Economics - Leibniz Information Centre for Economics
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    Publication Date: 2019-01-26
    Description: European integration is increasingly contested in public. What are the policy consequences of this EU politicization? This article argues that politicization challenges the hitherto often technocratic mode of policy preparation in the European Commission. Increased public attention and contestation render the diffuse public a more relevant stakeholder for Europe’s central agenda-setter because future competence transfers to Brussels are more likely to be scrutinized in the public realm. This incentivizes Commission actors to generate widely dispersed regulatory benefits through its policy initiatives, particularly where an initiative covers publicly salient issues. Applying this expectation to 17 European consumer policy initiatives suggests that the Commission orients its policy proposals towards wide-spread consumer interest during periods of high EU politicization and issue salience. However, the mechanism is constrained by internal turf conflicts and anticipated Council preferences. These findings highlight that politicization entails both chances and risks for further, policy-driven integration in Europe.
    Keywords: ddc:330 ; consumer policy ; European Commission ; European integration ; politicization ; responsiveness ; salience
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    Kiel: Kiel Institute for the World Economy (IfW)
    Publication Date: 2019-01-26
    Description: A correlation curve is introduced as a tool to study the degree of intergenerational income mobility, i.e. how income status is related between parents and adult child. The method overcomes the shortcomings of the elasticity of children's income with respect to parents' income (i.e. its sensitiveness to different dispersion among the generations) and the correlation coefficient (i.e. its inability to capture nonlinearities). The method is particularly suitable for comparative studies and in this study labour earnings are compared to disposable income. The correlation between the parental income and the child's adult disposable income becomes stronger for higher percentiles in the income distribution of the parents. Above the median the correlation is found to be stronger than for labour earnings. Interestingly, the elasticity is higher for labour earnings for most part of the distribution and complementing the elasticity with correlation curves provides a much more complete picture of the intergenerational income mobility.
    Keywords: C14 ; D63 ; J62 ; ddc:330 ; intergenerational mobility ; nonlinear ; nonparametric ; correlation curve
    Repository Name: EconStor: OA server of the German National Library of Economics - Leibniz Information Centre for Economics
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    Durham, NC: Duke University, Center for the History of Political Economy (CHOPE)
    Publication Date: 2019-01-26
    Description: Commerce changes the production of wealth in a society as well as its ethics. What is appropriate in a non-commercial society is not necessarily appropriate in a commercial one. Adam Smith criticizes Stoic self-command in commercial societies, rather than embracing it, as is often suggested. He argues that Stoicism, with its promotion of indifference to passions, is an ethic appropriate for savages. Savages live in hard conditions where expressing emotions is detrimental and reprehensible. In contrast, the ease of life brought about by commerce fosters the appropriate expressions and sharing of emotions. Imposing Stoicism on a commercial society is therefore imposing an ethic for savages onto a refined society - something to abhor. Smith's rejection of Stoicism in commercial societies can thus be seen as a defense of commerce.
    Keywords: B12 ; B15 ; D91 ; F69 ; O1 ; Z1 ; ddc:330 ; Adam Smith ; Stoicism ; Commerce ; Commercial Societies ; Savages ; Expression of Emotions ; Insensitivity
    Repository Name: EconStor: OA server of the German National Library of Economics - Leibniz Information Centre for Economics
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  • 63
    Publication Date: 2019-01-26
    Description: The relationship between many G20 governments and organized civil society has become more complex, laden with tensions, and such that both have to find more optimal modes of engagement. In some instances, state-civil society relations have worsened, leading some experts and activists to speak of a 'shrinking space' for civil society. How wide-spread is this phenomenon? Are these more isolated occurrences or indeed part of a more general development? How can countries achieve and maintain an enabling environment for civil society? The authors suggest that much of the current impasse results foremost from outdated and increasingly ill-suited regulatory frameworks that fail to accommodate a much more diverse and expanded set of civil society organizations (CSO). In response, they propose a differentiated model for a regulatory framework based on functional roles. Based on quantitative profiling and expert surveys, moreover, the paper also derives initial recommendations on how governments and civil society could find ways to relate to each other in both national and multilateral contexts.
    Keywords: F5 ; L31 ; H7 ; K33 ; ddc:330 ; civil society ; NGOs ; closing civic space ; nonprofit regulation ; G20
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  • 64
    Publication Date: 2019-01-26
    Description: This study examines how a government’s majority status affects coalition governance and performance. Two steps are investigated: the inclusion of government parties’ electoral pledges into the coalition agreement, and the ability to translate pledges into legislative outputs. The main results of a comparative analysis of 183 pledges of a minority (without a formal support partner) and majority coalition in the German State North Rhine-Westphalia indicate that government parties with minority status include fewer pledges in the coalition agreement. But this does not mean that they also perform badly at pledge fulfilment. In fact, they show an equivalent performance in fulfilling election pledges, at least partially, when compared to majority government parties. However, there is tentative evidence that the prime minister’s party shows a lower quality of pledge fulfilment, as measured by a higher share of partially enacted pledges.
    Keywords: ddc:330
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    Kiel: Kiel Institute for the World Economy (IfW)
    Publication Date: 2019-01-26
    Description: The authors examine the impacts of quality of institutions, border and transport efficiency, physical and communication infrastructure on overall and intra-Africa trade covering 44 African countries and their 173 trade partners for the periods 2000-2014. Aggregate indicators are derived for the quality of economic institutions, border and transport efficiency, physical and communication infrastructure using principal component analysis. The findings disclose that intra-Africa and overall Africa's trade robustly determined by the quality of institutions, border and transport efficiency, physical and communication infrastructure. The estimates also indicate that the marginal effect of the quality of institutions, physical and communication infrastructure on trade flow appears to be increasing in GDP per capita. In contrast, the marginal effect of border and transport efficiency on trade decreases in GDP per capita. The authors compute simulation of improving each indicator to the best performer in the sample. Their findings are robust to estimation method conducted to account for potential endogeneity.
    Keywords: F1 ; F14 ; ddc:330 ; trade flow ; transport and border efficiency ; quality of institutions ; physical and communication infrastructure ; gravity model ; African countries
    Repository Name: EconStor: OA server of the German National Library of Economics - Leibniz Information Centre for Economics
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    Mannheim: ZEW - Leibniz-Zentrum für Europäische Wirtschaftsforschung
    Publication Date: 2019-01-26
    Description: Das MIP-Erhebungsdesign sieht vor, abwechselnd Kurz- und Langerhebungen durchzuführen. Die Erhebung des Jahres 2018 war eine Kurzerhebung. Das bedeutet unter anderem, dass sich das Fragenspektrum vorrangig auf Fragen zu den Kernindikatoren des Innovationsverhaltens beschränkt. Die Haupterhebungsergebnisse zu diesen Kernindikatoren sind in einem Indikatorenbericht (vgl. Rammer et al., 2019) sowie in 47 Branchenberichten1 veröffentlicht. Zusätzlich zu den Fragen zu Kernindikatoren des Innovationsverhaltens wurden in die Erhebung 2018 auch zwei Schwerpunktfragen aufgenommen: - Eine Schwerpunktfrage widmete sich der Zusammenarbeit mit der Wissenschaft. Gefragt wurde, ob Unternehmen mit Wissenschaftseinrichtungen (Hochschulen, Forschungseinrichtungen) im Zeitraum 2015-2017 zusammengearbeitet haben. Für den aus Sicht des Unternehmens wichtigsten Kooperationspartner auf Wissenschaftsseite wurde die Form der Zusammenarbeit und deren Effektivität für den Zugang zum Knowhow der Wissenschaftseinrichtung sowie die Nutzung von Förderung für diese Zusammenarbeit erhoben. - Eine zweite Schwerpunktfrage betraf das Thema Fachkräftebedarf. Erhoben wurde, wie viele offene Stellen Unternehmen im Jahr 2017 hatten, welchen Qualifikationsniveau diese offenen Stellen vorausgesetzt haben, und wie viele dieser Stellen wie geplant, nur verspätet oder nicht mit dem gewünschten Personal oder gar nicht besetzt werden konnten. Außerdem wurde erfasst, wie viele Auszubildende im Unternehmen im Jahr 2017 beschäftigt waren. Der vorliegende Bericht fasst zentrale deskriptive Ergebnisse zu diesen Schwerpunktfragen zusammen. Die vollständigen Ergebnisse differenziert nach Branchen und Größenklassen sind in Tabellenform online verfügbar. Außerdem werden methodische Aspekte der Befragung (Grundgesamtheit, Stichprobe, Datenaufbereitungs- und Hochrechnungsverfahren) dargestellt.
    Keywords: ddc:330
    Repository Name: EconStor: OA server of the German National Library of Economics - Leibniz Information Centre for Economics
    Language: German
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    Oldenburg: University of Oldenburg, Department of Economics
    Publication Date: 2019-01-26
    Description: Environmental externalities call for the use of environmental taxes to get prices right and thereby reduce environmental pressures. To date, however, the Spanish government makes only limited use of environmental taxes. One major reason for the policy reluctance are concerns on the regressive impacts of environmental taxes. We argue that policy can hedge against these concerns by means of revenue recycling. More specifically, we assess the impacts of a green tax reform where additional revenues are redistributed lump-sum to Spanish households on an equal-per-capita basis. Based on quantitative evidence from coupled microsimulation and computable equilibrium analyses we find that such a green tax reform leads to a substantial reduction in harmful emissions while having a progressive impact.
    Keywords: H23 ; Q4 ; Q53 ; Q54 ; ddc:330 ; environmental tax reform ; household incidence ; computable general equilibrium ; microsimulation
    Repository Name: EconStor: OA server of the German National Library of Economics - Leibniz Information Centre for Economics
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    Berlin: Freie Universität Berlin, Fachbereich Wirtschaftswissenschaft
    Publication Date: 2019-01-26
    Description: Evidence suggests that people evaluate outcomes relative to expectations. I analyze this expectation-based loss aversion (Köszegi and Rabin (2006, 2009)) in the context of dynamic and static auctions, where the reference point is given by the (endogenous) equilibrium outcome. If agents update their reference point during the auction, the arrival of information crucially affects equilibrium behavior. Consequently, I show that - even with independent private values - the Vickrey auction yields strictly higher revenue than the English auction, violating the well known revenue equivalence. Thus, dynamic loss aversion offers a novel explanation for empirically observed differences between these auction formats.
    Keywords: D03 ; D44 ; ddc:330 ; Vickrey auction ; English auction ; expectation-based loss aversion ; revenue equivalence ; dynamic loss aversion ; personal equilibrium
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    Karlsruhe: Karlsruher Institut für Technologie (KIT)
    Publication Date: 2019-01-26
    Keywords: ddc:330
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    Köln: Institut der deutschen Wirtschaft (IW)
    Publication Date: 2019-01-26
    Description: Pessimism determines the experts' predictions for the first and second quarter of 2019 which can be inferred from the downward revisions of the experts' forecasts. Although the experts still expect the yield curve to become steeper, they expect long-term interest rates to increase less compared to the last survey. The lower interest rate forecasts are consistent with the experts' lower inflation and growth expectations. The experts expect 1.7 percent inflation in the Eurozone and a growth rate of real gross domestic product of 1.6 percent for 2019, which indicates a slowdown of economic growth and a failure of the European Central Bank (ECB) in meeting its inflation target. Given that, the experts expect the long-term interest rate to be 0.51 percent at the end of the first quarter of 2019, which is 0.24 percentage points lower than their prediction in the last survey. For the short rate the experts expect no change, since they expect the ECB's main refinancing rate to stay at 0.0 percent in the first half of 2019. But the experts expect the yield of US Treasury bonds to increase from 2.86 percent to 3.31 percent by the end of the first half of 2019 and thereby a growing interest rate differential between the US and Europe. Given the less accommodative monetary policy by the ECB in 2019 the experts forecast of a mild appreciation of the Euro from 1.138 US-Dollar to 1.143 US-Dollar in the first quarter and to 1.162 US-Dollar in the second quarter of 2019. Although the experts revised their stock market forecasts downwards, they expect the DAX and the Stoxx index to recover in the first half of 2019. On average, the experts predict the Stoxx index to increase from 2.807 points at the end of the fourth quarter of 2018 to 2.951 points at the end of the first quarter of 2019 and to 3.072 points at the end of the second quarter of 2019. This would correspond to increases of 5.1 percent and 9.4 percent since December 2018. Moreover, the experts expect the DAX to increase from 10.788 to 11.396 in the first quarter of 2019 and to 11.919 in the second quarter of 2019, which corresponds to increases by 5.6 and 10.5 percent since end of December 2018. Interesting is that the experts expect the Stoxx and the DAX to grow faster than the S&P 500, which we surveyed for the first time. For the S&P 500 the experts only expect increases by 0.7 and 5.3 percent. In the long-term ranking, which covers the last 16 quarters, National-Bank could defend rank one, while Commerzbank and Nord/LB could defend rank two and rank three.
    Keywords: G12 ; G17 ; ddc:330
    Repository Name: EconStor: OA server of the German National Library of Economics - Leibniz Information Centre for Economics
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    Karlsruhe: Karlsruher Institut für Technologie (KIT)
    Publication Date: 2019-01-26
    Description: We consider the problem of testing for an omitted multiplicative long-term component in GARCH-type models. Under the alternative there is a two-component model with a short-term GARCH component that fluctuates around a smoothly time-varying long-term component which is driven by the dynamics of an explanatory variable. We suggest a Lagrange Multiplier statistic for testing the null hypothesis that the variable has no explanatory power. We derive the asymptotic theory for our test statistic and investigate its finite sample properties by Monte-Carlo simulation. Our test also covers the mixed-frequency case in which the returns are observed at a higher frequency than the explanatory variable. The usefulness of our procedure is illustrated by empirical applications to S&P 500 return data.
    Keywords: C53 ; C58 ; E32 ; G12 ; ddc:330 ; GARCH-MIDAS ; LM test ; Long-Term Volatility ; Mixed-Frequency Data ; Volatility Component Models
    Repository Name: EconStor: OA server of the German National Library of Economics - Leibniz Information Centre for Economics
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    Karlsruhe: Karlsruher Institut für Technologie (KIT)
    Publication Date: 2019-01-26
    Description: We provide a shrinkage type methodology which allows for simultaneous model selection and estimation of vector error correction models (VECM) when the dimension is large and can increase with sample size. Model determination is treated as a joint selection problem of cointegrating rank and autoregressive lags under respective practically valid sparsity assumptions. We show consistency of the selection mechanism by the resulting Lasso-VECM estimator under very general assumptions on dimension, rank and error terms. Moreover, with computational complexity of a linear programming problem only, the procedure remains computationally tractable in high dimensions. We demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed approach by a simulation study and an empirical application to recent CDS data after the financial crisis.
    Keywords: C32 ; C52 ; ddc:330 ; High-dimensional time series ; VECM ; Cointegration rank and lag selection ; Lasso ; Credit Default Swap
    Repository Name: EconStor: OA server of the German National Library of Economics - Leibniz Information Centre for Economics
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    Karlsruhe: Karlsruher Institut für Technologie (KIT)
    Publication Date: 2019-01-26
    Description: We introduce a method for measuring default risk connectedness of euro zone sovereign states using credit default swap (CDS) and bond data. The connectedness measure is based on an out-of-sample variance decomposition of model forecast errors. Due to its predictive nature, it can respond more quickly to crisis occurrences than common in-sample techniques. We determine sovereign default risk connectedness with both CDS and bond data for a more comprehensive picture of the system. We find evidence that several observable factors drive the difference of CDS and bonds, but both data sources still contain specific information for connectedness spill-overs. Generally, we can identify countries that impose risk on the system and the respective spill-over channels. In our empirical analysis we cover the years 2009-2014, such that recovery paths of countries exiting EU and IMF financial assistance schemes and responses to the ECB's unconventional policy measures can be analyzed.
    Keywords: C58 ; G01 ; G15 ; C32 ; ddc:330 ; Variance decomposition ; Sovereign risk ; Connectedness ; Credit default swaps ; Bonds ; Eurozone crisis