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  • 1
    ISSN: 1573-2959
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Energy, Environment Protection, Nuclear Power Engineering
    Notes: Abstract Sensitive analytical methods indicate the presence of hundreds of chemical contaminants in our environment. However, concentration of these pollutants is usually at the low parts per million or parts per billion level. At such low levels, toxicants induce long-term (chronic) rather than short-term (acute) toxicities. Experiments are designed to evaluate chronic toxicity using early bioindicators. Recently, fish have been used as experimental animals because some species show early (weeks as opposed to years in other research animals), sensitive responses. Thus, medaka (Oryzias latipes), following exposure to diethylnitrosamine (DEN), exhibited liver tumors in several weeks; more interestingly its DNA was modified (to a ‘DNA-adduct’) after only 24–48 hours exposure. Such adducts show promise as early bioindicators because they are formed within hours of exposure. The formation of DNA-adducts were monitored in medaka and rainbow trout (Salmo gairdneri) exposed to DEN by aqueous or intra-peritoneal routes. Using HPLC-Fluorimetry, O 6-ethylguanine (O 6-EtGua) was detected and monitored in acid thermal hydrolysates of DNA isolates. (Detection limit for O 6-EtGua was as low as 3 ng, 1.7×10-11 moles). Fourier transform cyclotron resonance mass spectrometry with IR laser desorption/ionization was used advantageously to establish the structure of nucleotides, bases and nucleosides directly, without further cumbersome derivatizations. Other aspects of DNA-adducts are discussed.
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  • 2
    ISSN: 1573-2959
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Energy, Environment Protection, Nuclear Power Engineering
    Notes: Abstract In a case study involving preliminary investigations for the feasibility of a beach resort complex in the west coast of Sarawak, Malaysia, since the acceptable quality of recreational water quality had not been specified, existing international standards and practices were reviewed to arrive at acceptable microbiological and physicochemical parametric levels. Water samples were collected on a weekly basis in the proposed beach complex at Tanjong Batu Coastal Reserve and also along the nearby Sungei Batang Kemena and its estuary. It was ascertained that the swimming water quality was acceptable in terms of faecal Coliforms, temperature, pH and dissolved oxygen. However E. Coli counts did indicate a potential risk of 1.68% for gastrointestinal illness and the ubiquitous presence of faecal Streptococci pointed to recent pollution of human or animal origin. Besides, grease and oil contents exceeded the WHO Guideline values. It was hence recommended that an appropriate sanitation or pollution survey should be carried out in the adjacent coastal catchment area and the beach. Also routine water sampling should be undertaken. Such action will help to pinpoint sources of pollution and lead to antipollution measures, thus helping to upgrade swimming water quality and establish swimming water quality standards.
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  • 3
    ISSN: 1573-2959
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Energy, Environment Protection, Nuclear Power Engineering
    Notes: Abstract Georgetown of Penang, an old city, is noted for its narrow streets. The existing traffic dispersal system is utterly inadequate to cope with the ever increasing number of cars and motorcycles on the road. The principal objective of this study is to build prediction models of CO to be employed as one of the planning tools in the future design of Penang urban traffic dispersal system. This study involves the monitoring of kerbside CO levels at selected sites and the fitting of hourly-averaged CO data to linear regression models incorporating the residual effect of CO emission due to traffic in the earlier periods and also different categories of vehicles. The best overall regression model appears to be the one based upon the total traffic count of motorcycles. This can be accounted for by the fact that the traffic counts of motorcycles and cars are highly correlated in most cases and that the emissions of CO from motorcycles are more readily detected as they travel closer to the kerb. The inclusion of residual CO in the models significantly improves the correlation coefficient from about 0.4 to about 0.7.
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  • 4
    ISSN: 1573-2959
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Energy, Environment Protection, Nuclear Power Engineering
    Notes: Abstract Protection from the hazards from radioactivity is of prime importance in the management of uranium mine and mill wastes. Such wastes also contain non-radiological contaminants (heavy metals, acids and neutralising agents) which give rise to potential long-term health and environmental hazards and short-term hazards to the aquatic ecosystem, e.g. as a result of release of waste water. This study seeks to identify non-radiological contaminants (elements) transferred to waste water at the Ranger uranium mine/mill complex at Jabiru, which are likely to hazardous to the aquatic environment. The two principal sources of contaminants are: (i) ore and waste rock mobilised from mining; and (ii) process reagents used in the milling and mineral extraction process. These substances may or may not already be present in the natural environment but may lead to deleterious effects on the aquatic environment if increased above threshold levels. Rhenium, derived from the ore body, was found to be significantly enriched in waste water from Ranger, indicating its suitability as an indicator element for water originating from the mining and milling process, but only uranium, likewise derived from the ore, and magnesium, manganese and sulfur (as sulfate) from the milling process were found to be significant environmental contaminants.
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  • 5
    ISSN: 1573-2959
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Energy, Environment Protection, Nuclear Power Engineering
    Notes: Abstract This study was conducted to evaluate the usefulness of various biological parameters for monitoring of workers exposed to methyl ethyl ketone (MEK). Fifty male workers from a large magnetic videotape factory participated in this study. Personal air samples were collected using 3M organic vapor monitors and analysed for MEK by gas chromatography with flame ionisation detector (FID). 10 mL of urine; blood (1 mL) and exhaled air were also collected at the end of an 8-hour workshift. The headspace GC method was applied for measurement of urinary and blood MEK. MEK in expired air was analysed directly by using a GC/FID. The correlation coefficients (r) between environmental MEK and all other biological parameters measured show significant positive relationships. The r for environmental MEK and urine MEK was 0.84; for blood 0.73 and for breath 0.64. The correlation coefficients between blood and urine was 0.72; blood and breath was 0.88 and urine and breath 0.60. These findings suggest that measurements of unmetabolised MEK in blood, exhaled air and urine can be used for biological monitoring of MEK exposure. Nevertheless, laboratory methodological assessment is in favour of measuring urinary MEK as it is non-invasive and does not have to be analysed immediately after collection.
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  • 6
    ISSN: 1573-2959
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Energy, Environment Protection, Nuclear Power Engineering
    Notes: Abstract Residual chlorofluorocarbons (CFCs) and water-extractive residues in expanded polystyrene ware were determined because of the threat to environmental and public health arising from the ozone depleting potential of CFCs and the leaching of toxic monomers and oligomers into food and drink. Chlorofluorocarbon in expanded polystyrene ware was analysed using headspace gas chromatography in the flame ionization mode, and confirmed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. The amount of extractive residue leached from this type of polymeric material was determined using an aqueous medium simulating categories of food and beverages. A wide range of concentrations of CFC-12 (dichlorodifluorocarbon) was detected in the styrofoam ware. It fluctuated between a low of 32 ppm and a high of 35471 ppm in two different samples of styrofoam plates. Similarly, the highest and lowest levels of extractive residue detected in two different styrofoam plates were 54 ppm and 0.5 ppm respectively. CFC-22 or HCFC (chlorodifluorocarbon) was absent from these expanded polystyrene ware. The continued use of chlorofluorocarbons as a blowing agent will further exert a deleterious effect on the stratospheric ozone layer. Though the level of water extractive residue from these expanded polystyrene ware was relatively safe, public health could be further safe-guarded through improvmeents in raw material selection and mode of production.
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  • 7
    ISSN: 1573-2959
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Energy, Environment Protection, Nuclear Power Engineering
    Notes: Abstract Phenolic chemicals with their very low taste and odour thresholds, high persistence and toxicity, are of growing concern as water pollutants. The compounds are known to exist in raw water as well as in treated water. The level of phenolic priority pollutants in water within the catchment area of the Linggi River Treatment Plant in Negeri Sembilan, Malaysia, which includes the Linggi river basin, was monitored. The 4-aminoantipyrin colourimetric method was used to determine total phenols whereas capillary column gas chromatography was used to determine the individual compounds. The results show that at most sampling stations, particularly those within the Seremban municipality, the level of phenols was found to exceed the recommended Malaysian standard of 2.0 μg/L-1 for raw water. This is seen as the direct impact of industrial and urbanization of the area and clearly indicates the unhealthy state of the Linggi river. The results also indicate the need to improve the water quality if the river is going to be used as a source of raw water.
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  • 8
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    Springer
    Environmental monitoring and assessment 19 (1991), S. 449-456 
    ISSN: 1573-2959
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Energy, Environment Protection, Nuclear Power Engineering
    Notes: Abstract A field monitoring network was set up within the Stamford canal watershed in 1989 to study both the quantitative and qualitative aspects of storm runoff from this urbanised catchment. The data acquisition equipment comprised a continuous recording rain gauge, a water level recorder and an automatic water sampler capable of sampling storm runoff at preset intervals during rainfall events. Water samples were collected after each storm and laboratory tests were carried out on the physical and chemical properties of the storm water. Preliminary findings on the temporal variations of stormwater quality during single storms and the effects of antecedent dry weather period on the quality are presented. The average ranges of some of the significant quality parameters found in the storm runoff were also established. The quality of storm runoff from the catchment under study was found to be of an acceptable level and could potentially be developed as a water catchment area.
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  • 9
    ISSN: 1573-2959
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Energy, Environment Protection, Nuclear Power Engineering
    Notes: Abstract A long-term study of the effect of artificial aeration (destratification) of a water storage dam upon the speciation of iron and manganese in the dam waters has been undertaken. Separation of dam samples into soluble and insoluble forms by selective membrane filtration was undertaken before using the techniques of EPR spectroscopy, ion chromatography and gel filtration to assess the speciation of soluble species, and selective extraction and surface analysis (ESCA, SIMS and SEM) techniques to determine the speciation of particulate iron and manganese species. The percentages of soluble iron and manganese before (1983–85) and after (1986–88) artificial aeration are compared for the periods Jan–Dec, Jan–Mar, and Jun–Aug at three depths 6 m, 15 m and 0.5 m above the dam base, to assess the importance of seasonal changes in the various depths of the dam. Although aeration had an initial marked reduction in levels of soluble iron and manganese at all depths of the dam, the concentrations of these mtals showed a steady increase over succeeding years. Analysis of the figures over summer and winter periods shows that the reduction of soluble iron was maintained in summer, but not during winter. Upon aeration, the initial reduction of soluble manganese concentration was maintained in succeeding years in the epilimnic regions of the dam, but not in the hypolimnion. Statistical analysis of data has been undertaken to correlate the changes in relationship between the various forms of iron and manganese with the advent of aeration.
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  • 10
    ISSN: 1573-2959
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Energy, Environment Protection, Nuclear Power Engineering
    Notes: Abstract The concentrations and the distribution of organic matter in SLB (e.g. the outer part of Thale Sap Songkhla area) were examined during the period of September 1988 to September 1989. Organic matter in water samples were analyzed by gravimetry. Total organic matter and dissolved organic matter concentrations ranged from 74 to 7908 mg/L and from 23 to 7813 mg/L, respectively. Except for a set of observations which showed low concentrations during the flood season in November 1988, organic matter was regularly distributed throughout SLB. Domestic effluent and aquaculture are hypothesized as major sources of organic matter contamination. The levels of organic matter concentrations in SLB are significantly higher than would be expected for an area considered to be uncontaminated. The data also indicated a linear relationship between concentrations of suspended organic matter and suspended solids. This may be due to the organic matter associated with suspended solids.
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