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  • 1
    ISSN: 0947-6539
    Keywords: catenanes ; polycatenanes ; polyrotaxanes ; rotaxanes ; self-assembly ; Chemistry ; General Chemistry
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology
    Notes: The self-assembly of three bis[2]catenanes and a bis[2]rotaxane, by two complementary strategies, is reported. A synthetic route to derivatives of bis-para-phenylene[34]crown-10 (BPP34C10) and 1,5-naphtho-para-phenylene[36]-crown-10 (1/5NPP36C10) containing a fused five-membered ring with a secondary amine function is described. These intermediate N-allylimido macrocyclic polyethers undergo template-directed reactions with 1,1′-[1,4-phenylenebis-(methylene)]bis-4,4′-bipyridinium bis-(hexafluorophosphate) and 1,4-bis(bromo-methyl)benzene to produce [2]catenanes containing an N-allyl functionality. The N-allylimido macrocyclic polyethers have also been reduced and deprotected to afford macrocycles possessing a free NH group, which are then linked through a 4,4′-biphenyldicarbonyl spacer to produce bis(crown ether)s, in which each crown ether moiety has two recognition sites. These ditopic BPP34C10 and 1/5NPP36C10 derivatives are capable of sustaining self-assembly reactions at both recognition sites to yield bis[2]catenanes. The self-assembly of a complementary bis[2]catenane, in which two tetracationic cyclophanes are linked together with a flexible hexyl chain, has also been achieved by treating 1,1′-[1,4-phenylenebis(methylene)]bis-4,4′-bipyridinium bis-(hexafluorophosphate) with a compound containing two linked 1,4-bis(bromomethyl)benzene units in the presence of BPP34C10. Replacing BPP34C10 with a dumbbell-shaped compound containing a linear polyether unit intercepted by a naphthalene residue and terminated by two bulky adamantoyl groups has led to the self-assembly of a bis[2]rotaxane. The X-ray crystal structures of one of the catenanes and its associated crown ether component are reported, together with solution state dynamic 1H NMR spectroscopic studies, showing that there is substantial degree of order characterizing the molecular structure of the catenanes.
    Additional Material: 10 Ill.
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  • 2
    ISSN: 0947-6539
    Keywords: lactam ; macrocycles ; rotaxanes ; self-assembly ; template syntheses ; Chemistry ; General Chemistry
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology
    Notes: Two new rotaxane types, the [2]rotaxanes 12a,b and the [3]rotaxane 13, have been synthesised by treating the “axle” 7 with the stopper component 9 in the presence of the “wheel” 8. A nonionic template intermediate of type 10 is proposed. The [3]rotaxane 13 was only obtained when the chain of the “axle” had a certain length: with n = 1 only [2]rotaxane 12 a was isolated, whereas with n = 2 the [3]rotaxane 13 was formed besides the [2]rotaxane 12 b. This suggests that more extended rotaxanes and polyrotaxanes can be synthesised by the template strategy.
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  • 3
    ISSN: 0947-6539
    Keywords: alkylthiols ; gold ; nanoparticles ; phase transitions ; self-assembly ; Chemistry ; General Chemistry
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology
    Notes: Self-assembled monolayers (SAMs) of n-alkanethiolates on gold, silver, and copper have been intensively studied both as model organic surfaces and as modulators of metal surface properties. Sensitivity restrictions imposed by monolayer coverage and the low surface area of planar metal substrates, however, limit the characterization of these films in molecular terms to surface enhancement techniques. As a result, key aspects such as film dynamics and alkyl chain ordering remain ill-defined. The characterization of the thermal behaviour of SAMs is important not only for the design of stable, well-ordered organic superlattices, but also for the fundamental understanding of the factors that drive molecular interactions in two dimensions. Phase properties in SAMs have been addressed here through the synthesis of gold nanoparticles of 20-30 Å in diameter and fully covered with alkylthiol chains. These thiolmodified gold nanoparticles with large surface areas have enabled the monolayer film structure to be uniquely characterized by transmission FT-IR spectroscopy, NMR spectroscopy, and differential scanning calorimetry. Our studies reveal that for long-chain thiols (≥ C16), the alkyl chains exist predominantly in an extended, all-trans ordered conformation at 25°C. Furthermore, calorimetry, variable temperature transmission FT-IR spectroscopy, and solid-state 13C NMR studies have established that a cooperative chain melting process occurs in these alkylated metal colloids. How this arises is not immediately evident, given the relation between the extended chain conformation and the geometry of the spherical nanoparticles. Transmission electron microscopy (TEM) reveals that adjacent gold particles are separated by approximately one chain length; this suggests that chain ordering arises from an interdigitation of chains on neighboring particles. The thermotropic behavior is sensitive to the alkyl chain length and chain packing density. The alkylated nanoparticles can thus serve as a highly dispersed analogue to the much-studied planar SAMs.
    Additional Material: 7 Ill.
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  • 4
    ISSN: 0947-6539
    Keywords: bridging ligands ; chelate ligands ; copper complexes ; self-assembly ; structure elucidation ; Chemistry ; General Chemistry
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology
    Notes: The “self-assembly” reaction between bischelating 2,2′-bipyrimidine, metallic copper, Cu2+, and two equivalents of bidentate Ph2P(CH2)nPPh2 produces crystallographically characterized dinuclear complexes with a [Cu1(μ-bpym)-Cu1]2+ core and chelating (n = 5; type I) or bridging diphosphine ligands (n = 6, 8; type II). Structures II may be designated as “inverse cryptate” arrangements. The structural data of the solids and the spectroscopic results for the dissolved species indicate a strained configuration in the case of complex [(μ-bpym)Cu2{μ-Ph2P-(CH2)n]2+ (6) with n = 6. Once the polymethylene chain length is reduced one notch further to n = 5 (5), the diphosphines can no longer bridge but help to form eight-membered chelate rings (structure I). In this complex there is a distortion towards a trigonal-pyramidal coordination geometry at the copper(I) centers, which is supported by the formation of an “organic sandwich” arrangement between the central bpym acceptor and two phosphino phenyl rings.
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  • 5
    ISSN: 0947-6539
    Keywords: catenanes ; macrocycles ; rotaxanes ; self-assembly ; tetrathiafulvalenes ; Chemistry ; General Chemistry
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology
    Notes: A general stepwise approach is described for the preparation of tetrathiafulvalene (TTF)-based linear and monoand dimacrocyclic compounds incorporating one or two 1,4-dioxyphenylene, 9,10-dioxyanthrylene, or 1,5- or 2,6-dioxynaphthylene units from readily available starting materials. By utilizing the π-π stacking interactions of the TTF unit with the dipyridinium dication of 1,1′-[1,4-phenylenebis (methylene)] bis-4,4′-bipyridinium bis(hexafluorophosphate), a rotaxane and two [2]catenanes were synthesized starting from the linear and monomacrocyclic compounds, respectively. From the dioxyphenylene-based dimacrocycle, three [3]pseudocatenanes (trans, cis, and a mixture of cis/trans isomers) were obtained with the trans compound as the major product. From the dioxyanthrylene dimacrocycle, only the trans-[3]pseudocatenane was obtained. Catenane products were formed quantitatively from the 1,5-dioxynaphthylene dimacrocycle in a template-directed reaction, affording a trans-[3]pseudo-catenane together with a [4]pseudocatenane (mixture of cis/trans isomers). From the 2,6-dioxynaphthylene dimacrocycle, a cis-[3]pseudocatenane was obtained as the major product and a trans-[3]pseudocatenane as the minor one. For the [3]pseudocatenanes (i.e., both the cis and trans catenanes), in which the TTF units were clamped by the tetracationic macrocycle, isomerizations were completely prevented even in the presence of trifluoroacetic acid. All new rotaxanes and catenanes were characterized by electrospray mass spectrometry, and the cis- and trans- [3]pseudocatenanes were additionally investigated by 1H NMR spectroscopy. The electrochemical and spectral properties of the rotaxane and the catenanes are reported. Catenane formation increases the redox potentials of the TTF unit. The results demonstrate the versatility of TTF as a building block in the construction of supramolecular structures.
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  • 6
    ISSN: 0947-6539
    Keywords: crown ethers ; dialkylammonium salts ; hydrogen bonding ; molecular recognition ; pseudorotaxanes ; self-assembly ; Chemistry ; General Chemistry
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology
    Notes: A very simple self-assembling system, which produces inclusion complexes with pseudorotaxane geometries, is described. The self-assembly of eight pseudorotaxanes with a range of stoichiometries-1:1, 1:2, 2:1, and 2:2 (host:guest)-has been achieved. These pseudorotaxanes self-assemble from readily available components-well-known crown ethers, such as dibenzo[24]crown-8 and bis-p-phenylene[34]crown-10, and secondary dialkylammonium hexafluorophosphate salts, such as (PhCH2)2NH+2PF-6 and (nBu)2NH+2PF-6-and have been characterized not only in the solid state, but also in solution and in the “gas phase”. The pseudorotaxanes are stabilized largely by hydrogen-bonding interactions and, in some instances, by aryl-aryl interactions.
    Additional Material: 40 Ill.
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  • 7
    ISSN: 0947-6539
    Keywords: ionophores ; impedance spectroscopy ; membrane models ; monolayers ; self-assembly ; Chemistry ; General Chemistry
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology
    Notes: Novel ion-binding monolayers on gold surfaces are presented where the molecular design is based upon the natural ion binder ferrichrome. The new ion binders possess hydroxamate coordinating groups arranged in C2 symmetry (bishydroxamate binder, BHB) or C3 symmetry (trishydroxamate binder, THB), and a separate dialkyl sulfide moiety, which serves as an anchor to the gold substrate. The separation between the ion-binding cavity and the attachment site to the gold allows each parameter to be controlled separately, namely, cavity size, its symmetry and external envelope, as well as the functional group used for immobilization. The monolayers were characterized with respect to ellipsometric thickness, wettability (advancing and receding contact angles (CAs) for water), and surface coverage; the latter is determined by metal underpotential deposition (UPD). It is shown that the introduction of hydrophobic side chains (i-butyl) improves the CAs, thickness, and surface coverage of the monolayers. A detailed analysis of the alternating-current (AC) impedance spectra is presented for THB monolayers on gold electrodes, where the impedance data are fitted to an equivalent circuit model. It is shown that the AC response in a wide frequency range can be used to probe ion binding and release in monolayer systems on electrodes.
    Additional Material: 7 Ill.
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  • 8
    ISSN: 0947-6539
    Keywords: molecular devices ; nanostructures ; rotaxanes ; self-assembly ; translational isomerism ; Chemistry ; General Chemistry
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology
    Notes: A number of nanometer-scale molecular assemblies, based on rotaxane-type structures, have been synthesized by means of a template-directed strategy from simple building blocks that, on account of the molecular recognition arising from the noncovalent interactions between them, are able to self-assemble into potential molecular abacuses. In all the cases investigated, the π-electron-deficient tetracationic cyclophane cyclobis(paraquat-p-phenylene) is constrained mechanically around a dumbbell-shaped component consisting of a linear polyether chain intercepted by at least two, if not three, π-electron-rich units and terminated at each end by blocking groups or stoppers. The development of an approach toward constructing these molecular abacuses, in which the tetracationic cyclophane is able to shuttle back and forth with respect to the dumbbell-shaped component, begins with the self-assembly of a [2]rotaxane consisting of two hydroquinone rings symmetrically positioned within a polyether chain terminated by triisopropylsilyl ether blocking groups. In this first so-called molecular shuttle, the tetracationic cyclophane oscillates in a degenerate fashion between the two π-electron-rich hydroquinone rings. Replacement of one of the hydroquinone rings - or the insertion of another π-electron-rich ring system between the two hydroquinine rings - introduces the possibility of translational isomerism, a phenomenon that arises because of the different relative positions and populations of the tetracationic cyclophane with respect to the π-donor sites on the dumbbell-shaped component. In two subsequent [2]rotaxanes, one of the hydroquinone rings in the dumbbell-shaped component is replaced, first by a p-xylyl and then by an indole unit. Finally, a tetrathiafulvalene (TTF) unit is positioned between two hydroquinone rings in the dumbbell-shaped component. Spectroscopic and electrochemical investigations carried out on these first-generation molecular shuttles show that they could be developed as molecular switches.
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  • 9
    ISSN: 0947-6539
    Keywords: gels ; electron microscopy ; scanning tunneling microscopy ; self-assembly ; ureas ; Chemistry ; General Chemistry
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology
    Notes: New low molecular weight gelators based on the structure R—NHCONH—X—NHCONH—R have been synthesized and tested for their ability to cause gelation of organic solvents. Compounds 2 (R = n-dodecyl, X = -(CH2)9-), 3 (R = n-dodecyl, X = -(CH2)12-), 4 (R = n-dodecyl, X = 4, 4′-biphenyl), and 5 (R = benzyl, X = -(CH2)9-) form thermoreversible gels with a wide range of organic solvents, at concentrations well below 10 mgmL-1. Depending on the nature of the R and X groups, the solvents that undergo gelation include hexadecane, p-xylene, 1-octanol, n-butyl actetate, cyclohexanone, and tetralin. The gels are stable up to temperatures well above 100°C, but are easily disrupted by mechanical agitation. Light microscopic investigations revealed that compounds 2-5 spontaneously aggregate to form thin flat fibers, which can be several hundreds of micrometers long and only 2-10 μm wide. Depending on the solvent, multiple twists in the fibers are observed. In the gels, these fibers form an extended three-dimensional network, which is stabilized by multiple mechanical contacts between the fibers. Electron microscopy and X-ray powder diffraction revealed that the fibers consist of stacks of sheets. The thickness of the sheets is 3.65 and 3.85 nm for 2 and 3, respectively. Scanning tunneling microscopic investigations of 2 absorbed on graphite showed that 2 forms long ribbons with a width of 5.0 nm. In the ribbons the molecules have a parallel arrangement, with the long molecular axis perpendicular to the long ribbon axis. The two urea groups within a given molecule are each part of mutually parallel extended chains of hydrogen bonds. Based on these observations a model is proposed for the arrangement of the molecules in the fibers. In this model the bisurea molecules aggregate through hydrogen-bond formation into long ribbons, which assemble into sheets. In these sheets the ribbons are tilted. Finally, the sheets stack to form long thin fibers. This model is supported by molecular dynamics simulations.
    Additional Material: 4 Ill.
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  • 10
    ISSN: 0947-6539
    Keywords: complexes with nitrogen ligands ; ruthenium complexes ; self-assembly ; supramolecular chemistry ; Chemistry ; General Chemistry
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology
    Notes: A series of mono- and dimetallic complexes of rack type containing a dinucleating bis-tridentate ligand and RuII-2,2′:6′,2′-terpyridyl (tpy) sites were synthesised and characterised. The 1H NMR spectra of the dimetallic complexes were correlated to structural features, and the crystal structures of the dimetallic complexes were determined. They provide information about the way in which the central substitutent affects the overall shape of the racks and the relative disposition of the metal centres, measured by the pinching angle of the bis-tridentate ligand and the convergence angle of the ancillary tpy units. The latter demonstrates that a CH3 group yields the least bent complex and indicates how parallel the tpy units are. The dimetallic racks exhibit metal-metal interactions mediated by the bis-tridentate ligands as indicated by electrochemical and spectroscopic methods. The bridging-ligand π* orbital and the dπ metal orbital are stabilised by complexation of a second metal. The results obtained provide guidelines for the design of extended racks bearing several metal centres in a linear arrangement, which also represent potential components of molecular electronic devices.
    Additional Material: 14 Ill.
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