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  • SPACE RADIATION  (1,972)
  • Cell & Developmental Biology
  • 1970-1974  (2,932)
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Year
  • 1
    Publication Date: 2013-08-31
    Description: Supermassive black holes which exist in the nuclei of many quasars and galaxies are examined along with the collapse which forms these holes and subsequent collisions between them which produce strong, broad-band bursts of gravitational waves. Such bursts might arrive at earth as often as 50 times per year--or as rarely as once each 300 years. The detection of such bursts with dual-frequency Doppler tracking of interplanetary spacecraft is considered.
    Keywords: SPACE RADIATION
    Type: NASA-CR-145432
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  • 2
    Publication Date: 2013-08-31
    Description: Element abundances of cosmic rays Li through Si with energy above 0.8 GeV/amu were measured on a balloon borne instrument containing a total absorption ionization spectrometer. Statistical techniques were used to analyze the five measurements of each particle to determine its charge and energy. The technique allows a determination of systematic errors to be made. Corrections for Landau fluctuations, spark chamber inefficiency, and background particles were included. Comparison with other published results is made. Differences in the shape of the spectrum determined from measurements of different workers indicate that the absolute intensity is still known to only plus or minus 15% between 2 and 10 GV/c rigidity.
    Keywords: SPACE RADIATION
    Type: X-661-74-335 , NASA-TM-X-70802
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  • 3
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    In:  CASI
    Publication Date: 2013-08-31
    Description: The theory of gamma ray production in solar flares is treated in detail. Both lines and continuum are produced. Results show that the strongest line predicted at 2.225 MeV with a width of less than 100 eV and detected at 2.24 + or - 2.02 MeV, is due to neutron capture by protons in the photosphere. Its intensity is dependent on the photospheric He-3 abundance. The neutrons are produced in nuclear reactions of flare accelerated particles which also produce positrons and prompt nuclear deexcitation lines. The strongest prompt lines are at 4.43 MeV from c-12 and at approximately 6.2 from 0-16 and N-15. The gamma ray continuum, produced by electron bremsstrahlung, allows the determination of the spectrum and number of accelerated electrons in the MeV region. From the comparison of the line and continuum intensities a proton-to-electron ratio of about 10 to 100 at the same energy for the 1972, August 4 flare. For the same flare the protons above 2.5 MeV which are responsible for the gamma ray emission produce a few percent of the heat generated by the electrons which make the hard X rays above 20 keV.
    Keywords: SPACE RADIATION
    Type: NASA-TM-X-70808 , X-660-74-368
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  • 4
    Publication Date: 2013-08-31
    Description: The characteristics of a model for analyzing the propagation of cosmic rays are discussed. The requirements for analyzing the relevant observational data on cosmic rays are defines as: (1) the chemical and isotopic composition of cosmic rays as a function of energy, (2) the flux and energy spectrum of the individual nucleonic components, (3) the flux and energy spectrum of the electronic component, (4) the cosmic ray prehistory, and (5) the degree of isotropy in their arrival directions as a function of energy. It is stated that the model which has been able to bring to pass the greatest measure of success is the galactic confinement model.
    Keywords: SPACE RADIATION
    Type: TR-75-028 , NASA-CR-141190
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  • 5
    Publication Date: 2013-08-31
    Description: This experiment was carried out during three balloon flights which provided a total exposure of 3500 + or - 60 sq m sec sterad at an average depth of 4.8 g/sq cm The detector, in which the development of cascade showers in a 33.7 rl absorber was sampled by 10 scintillation counters and 216 Geiger-Muller tubes, was calibrated at the Cornell Electron Synchrotron, the separation of cosmic electrons from the nuclear background was confirmed by extensive analysis of data from the flights, from the calibration and from ground level exposure. The spectral intensity of primary cosmic ray electrons were found in particles/sq m sec sterad GeV. Similarly, the ground level spectrum of secondary cosmic ray electrons was also found. The steepness of the spectrum of cosmic electrons relative to that of nuclei implies one of the following conclusions: either the injection spectrum of electrons is steeper than that of nuclei, or the electron spectrum has been steepened by Compton/synchrotron losses in the energy range covered by the experiment.
    Keywords: SPACE RADIATION
    Type: NASA-CR-141287 , TR-75-019
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  • 6
    Publication Date: 2013-08-31
    Description: A model is developed which incorporates to first order the direct effects of the time dependent diffusive propagation of interstellar cosmic rays in a slowly changing interplanetary medium. The model provides a physical explanation for observed rigidity-dependent phase lags in modulated spectra (cosmic ray hysteresis). The average distance to the modulating boundary during the last solar cycle is estimated.
    Keywords: SPACE RADIATION
    Type: TR-74-114 , NASA-CR-141146
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  • 7
    Publication Date: 2013-08-31
    Description: An investigation of the intensity fluctuations of 28 pulsars near 0.4 GHz indicates that scintillation spectra have a Gaussian shape, scintillation indices are near unity, and the scintillation bandwidth depends linearly on dispersion measure. Observations near 2.5 GHz suggest a strong dependence of the frequency at which scintillation indices fall below unity on dispersion measure. Multistation measurements of scintillation provide values or limits for the scale size of the scattering diffraction pattern. The dependences of scattering parameters on dispersion measure is discussed in terms of the current models. It is suggested that any line of sight through the galaxy encounters increasingly rare, increasingly large deviations of thermal electron density on the scale of 10 to the 11th power cm.
    Keywords: SPACE RADIATION
    Type: X-693-74-316 , NASA-TM-X-70789
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  • 8
    Publication Date: 2013-08-31
    Description: Direction finding measurements with plasma wave experiments onboard the Hawkeye-1 and IMP-8 satellites were used to locate the source region of auroral kilometric radiation. The radiation exhibits peak intensities between about 100 kHz and 300 kHz, and emits intense sporadic bursts lasting for between one half hour to several hours. The total power emitted in this frequency range exceeds 10 to the 9th power watts at peak intensity. The occurrence of the radiation is known to be closely associated with bright auroral arcs which occur in the local evening auroral regions.
    Keywords: SPACE RADIATION
    Type: U-OF-IOWA-74-35 , NASA-CR-140766
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  • 9
    Publication Date: 2013-08-31
    Description: Spectral observation of nine recent cosmic gamma-ray bursts are reported. The average photon number spectra of all nine events are shown to be consistent with a 150-keV exponential from 100 keV to about 400 keV, and a power law of index -2.5 from 400 keV to 1100 keV. The observations also indicate an event rate of 16 in 1972 and 1973, or 8 + or - 2 per year, higher than the 5 + or - 1 per year initially reported. This corresponds to an approximately 40-percent lower effective intensity threshold, attained by using more sensitive detectors in multiple-satellite coincidence.
    Keywords: SPACE RADIATION
    Type: X-661-74-296 , NASA-TM-X-70778
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  • 10
    Publication Date: 2013-08-31
    Description: The isotopic composition of hydrogen and helium in solar cosmic rays provides a means of studying solar flare particle acceleration mechanisms since the enhanced relative abundance of rare isotopes, such as H-2, H-3, and He-3, is due to their production by inelastic nuclear collisions in the solar atmosphere during the flare. Electron isotope spectrometer on an IMP spacecraft was used to measure this isotopic composition. The response of the dE/dx-E particle telescope is discussed, and alpha particle channeling in thin detectors is identified as an important background source affecting measurement of low values of (He-3/He-4). The flare-averaged results obtained for the period October, 1972 November, 1973 are given.
    Keywords: SPACE RADIATION
    Type: SRL-74-3 , NASA-CR-140568
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  • 11
    Publication Date: 2013-08-31
    Description: The cross section requirements are presented for studying UV and X-ray emission spectra associated with active and flare-produced plasmas in the sun's corona. The general approach to the calculation of the distorted wave approximation problem is also given.
    Keywords: SPACE RADIATION
    Type: X-602-74-260 , NASA-TM-X-70755
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  • 12
    Publication Date: 2013-08-31
    Description: A detailed study of the charge composition of heavy solar cosmic rays measured in the January 25, 1971 solar flare including differential fluxes for the even charged nuclei from carbon through argon is presented. The measurements are obtained for varying energy intervals for each nuclear species in the energy range from 10 to 35 MeV/nucleon. In addition, abundances relative to oxygen are computed for all the above nuclei in the single energy interval from 15 to 25 MeV/nucleon. This interval contains measurements for all of the species and as a result requires no spectral extrapolations. An upper limit for the abundance of calcium nuclei is also presented. These measurements, when combined with other experimental results, enable the energy dependence of abundance measurements as a function of nuclear charge to be discussed. It is seen that at energies above about 10 MeV/nucleon, the variations of abundance ratios are limited to about a factor of 3 from flare to flare, in spite of large variations in other characteristics of these solar events.
    Keywords: SPACE RADIATION
    Type: NASA-TM-X-70731 , X-662-74-231
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  • 13
    Publication Date: 2013-08-31
    Description: Electromagnetic radiation from the Crab nebula were observed, showing that the Crab is unique among strong X-ray sources in that major component in the low energy range (1 to 10 KeV) shows little or no temporal variation. Observations of the Crab above 35 MeV were made with the high energy gamma ray telescope flown on SAS-2. The detector and technique are described in detail.
    Keywords: SPACE RADIATION
    Type: X-662-74-236 , NASA-TM-X-70734
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  • 14
    Publication Date: 2013-08-31
    Description: The solar event of 28 May 1968 is reported using the Goddard Cosmic Ray Telescope on OGO-5. The flare associated with the event occurred at 12:48 on 28 May and had importance 1B. About 600 He-3 were detected in the event and the He-3/He-4 equals 1.52 plus or minus 0.1 in the energy range 4-80 MeV/necleon. This is the highest ratio reported so far for any solar event.
    Keywords: SPACE RADIATION
    Type: X-661-74-233 , NASA-TM-X-70732
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  • 15
    Publication Date: 2013-08-31
    Description: A green line intensity variation is associated with the interplanetary and photospheric magnetic sector structure. This effect depends on the solar cycle and occurs with the same amplitude in the latitude range 60 deg N - 60 deg S. Extended longitudinal coronal structures are suggested, which indicate the existence of closed magnetic field lines over the neutral line, separating adjacent regions of opposite polarities on the photospheric surface.
    Keywords: SPACE RADIATION
    Type: NASA-CR-139500 , SU-IPR-569
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  • 16
    Publication Date: 2013-08-31
    Description: Ratios of solar to trapped proton fluences were computed for circular-orbit, geocentric space missions to be flown during the active phase of the next solar cycle (1977-1983). The ratios are presented as functions of orbit altitude and inclination, mission duration, proton energy threshold, and the chance the mission planner is willing to take that the actually encountered solar proton fluence will exceed the design fluence provided by the statistical solar proton model. It is shown that the ratio is most sensitively dependent on orbit altitude and inclination, with trapped protons dominant for low inclination, low and mid altitude orbits and for high inclination, mid altitude orbits. Conversely, solar protons are dominant for high inclination, low altitude orbits, and for low and high inclination, high altitude orbits.
    Keywords: SPACE RADIATION
    Type: NASA-TM-X-70716 , X-601-74-221
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  • 17
    Publication Date: 2013-08-31
    Description: The charged particle fluxes incident on spacecrafts in very eccentric orbits were investigated in support of the International Sun-Earth Explorer (International Magnetospheric Explorer) For this purpose, two flightpaths were considered having identical inclinations but different perigee altitudes (240 and 1364 kilometers, respectively). Apogee altitude was approximately the same for both cases (about 22 earth radii). For each of the two perigee altitudes investigated, two nominal trajectories were generated, having identical orbital configurations but with their major axes rotated by 180 deg in the plane of orbit, which resulted in placing the initial apogee into into opposite hemispheres. This was done in order to determine the corresponding variation in the vehicle-encountered particle intensities. Estimates of average energetic solar proton fluxes are given for a one year mission duration at selected integranlenergies ranging from E 10 to E 100 MeV. Results are summarized and discussed.
    Keywords: SPACE RADIATION
    Type: NASA-TM-X-70696 , X-601-74-204
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  • 18
    Publication Date: 2013-08-31
    Description: A description is given of the relationship observed between enhancements in the far ultraviolet solar irradiance and the position of the solar magnetic sector boundaries. The ultraviolet observations were made with the monitor of ultraviolet solar energy (MUSE) experiments which were launched aboard Nimbus 3 in April 1969 and Nimbus 4 April 1970. A comparison between the positions of solar magnetic sector boundaries and ultraviolet enchancements of the sun seems to show, at least during the year of 1969, that the ultraviolet maxima tend to occur near the times when a solar sector boundary is near the central meridian. An estimate of the magnitude of the variable ultraviolet solar energy input into the atmosphere resulting from the rotation of active solar longitudes is that for wavelengths less that 175 nm and down to H Lyman alpha it exceeds the annual variation whereas at longer wavelengths it is less. The total observed peak to peak variation in the ultraviolet irradiance from 120 to 300 nm over a solar rotation is typically at least 230 ergs/sq cm sec.
    Keywords: SPACE RADIATION
    Type: NASA-TM-X-70674 , X-912-74-135
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  • 19
    Publication Date: 2013-08-31
    Description: A model is presented of the trapped electron environment of solar minimum conditions. Solar maximum models have been presented for the inner radiation zone (AE-5 1967), and for the outer radiation zone (AE-4 1967). The present solar minimum model consists of an inner zone model (AE-5 1975 Projected) with an epoch of 1975, and an outer zone model with an epoch of 1964. With only minor modifications this latter model is identical to the AE-4 1964 model presented previous. The model, however, has not previously been issued in computer form. AE-4 1964 is based upon satellite data, while the inner zone solar minimum model AE-5 1975 Projected consists entirely of extrapolations from AE-5 1967. While the two components of the solar minimum model have epochs 11 years part, it is assumed that any differences between the successive solar minima are smaller than the model error, and the complete model is associated with an epoch of 1975.
    Keywords: SPACE RADIATION
    Type: NSSDC-74-03 , NASA-TM-X-69909
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  • 20
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    In:  CASI
    Publication Date: 2013-08-31
    Description: The overabundance of heavy nuclei in solar cosmic rays of energy approximately 5 Mev/nucleon is explained by taking into account the pre-flare ionization states of these nuclei in the region where they are accelerated. A model is proposed which considers two-step accelerations associated with the initial development of solar flares. The first step is closely related to the triggering process of flares, while the second one starts with the development of the explosive phase. Further ionization of medium and heavy nuclei occurs through their interaction with Kev electrons accelerated by the first-step acceleration. It is suggested that the role of these electrons is important in producing fully ionized atoms in the acceleration regions.
    Keywords: SPACE RADIATION
    Type: X-693-74-142 , NASA-TM-X-70661
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  • 21
    Publication Date: 2013-08-31
    Description: Investigations of cosmic ray anisotropies and their relationship to concurrent magnetic field data are reported. These investigations range in scope from the examination of data very late in the decay phase of a solar particle event where long term (approximately 6 hour) averages are used and definite interplanetary effects sought after to an examination of the change in low energy particle anisotropy as the satellite approaches the bow shock and the magnetopause.
    Keywords: SPACE RADIATION
    Type: NASA-CR-138127
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  • 22
    Publication Date: 2013-08-31
    Description: Three suprathermal ion detectors stationed on the moon were used to detect a region of plasma flowing antisunward along the ordered field lines of the geomagnetic tail, exterior to the plasma sheet. The particle flow displays an integral flux, a bulk velocity, temperatures, and number densities uniquely different from the other particle regimes traversed by the moon. No consistent deviation in the field was found to correspond with the occurrence of the events, which have an angular distribution extending between 50 and 100 deg and a spatial distribution over a wide region in both the Y sub sm and Z sub sm directions. The duration of observable particles varies widely between tail passages, with an apparent correlation between the number of hours of observation and the Kp index averages over these times. It is proposed that these particles may have entered through the cusp region.
    Keywords: SPACE RADIATION
    Type: NASA-CR-141732
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  • 23
    Publication Date: 2017-06-24
    Description: Observations of the 0.511 MeV positron annihilation, gamma ray on the OSO-7 satellite are presented. Variables which affect the counting rate are discussed. An upper limit flux of .0076 photons/sq cm/sec is obtained for the quiet sun and a positive solar flux of .063(+ or - .0002) photons/sq cm/sec is obtained for the 3B flare of 4 August 1972. The width of this annihilation line gives an upper limit temperature for the annihilation region of approximately 6 million K. An analysis of the line width and position also shows that the contribution to the line from positronium annihilation is less than 100% at the 99% confidence level. An upper limit is also found for an isotropic cosmic flux.
    Keywords: SPACE RADIATION
    Type: NASA-CR-139585
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  • 24
    Publication Date: 2016-06-07
    Description: Data on the electron environment trapped at Jupiter, tests performed to simulate the effects of electrons on Mariner, Jupiter-Saturn 1977 sensitive parts, and test results from those simulations, are summarized.
    Keywords: SPACE RADIATION
    Type: Dynatrend, Inc. Proc. of Outer Planet Probe Technol. Workshop, Sect. 1 through 11; 15 p
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  • 25
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    In:  CASI
    Publication Date: 2017-10-02
    Description: A model is presented in which cosmic electrons are produced by pulsars, and cosmic protons and alpha particles are accelerated by shock waves in supernova envelopes. It is argued that neither mechanism by itself can produce both the observed protons and electrons at energies above a few hundred MeV. But supernova accelerated electrons could constitute the majority of cosmic electrons with energy below about 10 MeV.
    Keywords: SPACE RADIATION
    Type: NASA-CR-140171 , COO-3071-66 , UPR-0026T
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  • 26
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    In:  CASI
    Publication Date: 2016-06-07
    Description: The effects of cosmic radiation and radiation from solar flares on space probe functions are investigated. Long life batteries for probe use were also investigated.
    Keywords: SPACE RADIATION
    Type: Dynatrend, Inc. Proc. of Outer Planet Probe Technol. Workshop, Sect. 1 through 11; 20 p
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  • 27
    ISSN: 0362-2525
    Keywords: Life and Medical Sciences ; Cell & Developmental Biology
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Biology , Medicine
    Notes: The cervicothoracic muscles of nymphal and adult Euborellia annulipes (Lucas) are described, the former for the first time. In the adult, eight new muscles are identified, while the nymphs possess a further seven muscles that disappear at maturation or before. Otherwise the same muscles occur in nymphs as in adults, though some nymphal muscles are less clearly separated from one another than their adult homologs. The attachment sites of certain muscles show a number of slight differences between nymphs and adults. The work emphasizes the necessity of taking the immature musculature into account in assessing the muscular pattern represented in an insect order.
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  • 28
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    New York, NY : Wiley-Blackwell
    Journal of Morphology 144 (1974), S. 11-21 
    ISSN: 0362-2525
    Keywords: Life and Medical Sciences ; Cell & Developmental Biology
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Biology , Medicine
    Notes: The morphological features of the hemocytes of the crustacean Ligia exotica are similar to hemocytes of insects and millipedes. Jones system of hemocyte classification is extended to crustacean hemocytes. As in insects, seven classes of hemocytes, identified as prohemocytes, plasmatocytes, granular hemocytes, cystocytes, oenocytoids, spherule cells and adipohemocytes, occur. The prohemocytes can be subdivided into five categories that probably represent the precursor of major cell types. The structural and chemical features of other major cell classes are distinct and support the concept of Jones ('62) that these types might have different lineages and might not be capable of transforming into one another. Some of the prohemocytes, plasmatocytes and granular hemocytes are amoeboid. Cystocytes do not bring about any visible plasma coagulation similar to their counterpart in millipedes. Oneocytoids and adipohemocytes are rare. Plasmatocytes, cystocytes and oenocytoids occur in conglomerates, the significance of which is discussed. The cell types are compared with those of the hemocytes of other crustaceans. It is suggested that the nomenclature based on morphological characters is more suited for crustacean hemocytes than a nomenclature based on behavioural and physiological characters.
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  • 29
    ISSN: 0362-2525
    Keywords: Life and Medical Sciences ; Cell & Developmental Biology
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Biology , Medicine
    Notes: Some of the cytological characteristics of the hemocytes of the scorpion, Palamnaeus swammerdami, were studied. The morphological features of the arachnid hemocytes were observed to be similar to those of hemocytes of insects, millipedes and isopods. Jones' system of hemocyte classification was extended to the arachnid hemocytes. The six classes of hemocytes indentified in the scorpion correspond to prohemocytes, plasmatocytes, granular hemoocytes, cystocytes, spherule cells and adipohemocytes of insects. A cell type comparable to oenocytoids of insects and crustaceans is absent. The prohemocytes can be subdivided into four categories that probably represent the precursors of the major cell types. The cytological characteristics of the major cell classes and the occurrence of the miniatures of some of these major cell types support the concept of Jones (62) that these cell types might have different cell lineages and might not be capable of transforming into one another. Some of the prohemocytes, plasmatocytes and granular hemocytes were amoeboid. The nature of the granules and the vacuoles of plasmatocytes and granular hemocytes were compared with the granules and vacuoles of corresponding hemocytes of other arthropods. Cystocytes did not bring about any visible coagulation similar to their counterparts in millipedes and crustaceans. Plasmatocytes, granular hemocytes and spherule cells were observed to occur in conglomerates. The cell types noted in the present study were compared with the hemocytes of other arachnids.
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  • 30
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    New York, NY : Wiley-Blackwell
    Journal of Morphology 144 (1974), S. 71-83 
    ISSN: 0362-2525
    Keywords: Life and Medical Sciences ; Cell & Developmental Biology
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Biology , Medicine
    Notes: The biomechanical role of the mammalian clavicle and the functional significance of the aclaviculate condition were investigated. Shoulder movements in rats (Rattus norvegicus) with excised clavicles were compared to those of normal rats by biplanar plate radiography. Shoulder movements during walking of the claviculate American opossum (Didelphis marsupialis), and aclaviculate raccoons (Procyon lotor) and cats (Felis domestica) were compared by biplanar cineradiography.The mammalian clavicle, where present in its complete form, exerts both a “spoke” and a “strut” effect on shoulder movement. By maintaining a fixed distance between the acromion and manubrium, the clavicle ensures that relative movement between these structures is arcuate. Aclaviculate mammals, in contrast, have linear shoulder excursions that are nearly parallel or slightly oblique to the median plane, depending on the conformation of the thorax. Medial collapse of the shoulder in aclaviculate rats demonstrates that the clavicle is under compression, and thus acts as a strut.Reduction or loss of the clavicle, which has occurred independently in numerous mammalian phylogenies, has been regarded as an adaptation for greater shoulder movement and hence increased stride. However, on present evidence clavicular reduction in cursorial mammals appears to be more directly related to a linear excursion of the shoulder joint and a restriction of limb movements to a sagittal plane.
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  • 31
    ISSN: 0362-2525
    Keywords: Life and Medical Sciences ; Cell & Developmental Biology
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Biology , Medicine
    Notes: The tail of Teratoscincus scincus has dorsal scales that have tubercles on their dorsal and ventral surfaces. Sounds are produced when these rub past each other as the excited animal moves its tail. The relative movement of scales is intensified by caudal torsion. The frequencies of the sounds cover a range from 9 to 25 kops and thus, differ from those produced during vocalizations.
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  • 32
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    New York, NY : Wiley-Blackwell
    Journal of Morphology 144 (1974) 
    ISSN: 0362-2525
    Keywords: Life and Medical Sciences ; Cell & Developmental Biology
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Biology , Medicine
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  • 33
    ISSN: 0362-2525
    Keywords: Life and Medical Sciences ; Cell & Developmental Biology
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Biology , Medicine
    Notes: A cardiaca-allatal commissural plexus (CACP) lies between and partly overlapping the postcommissural lobes of the corpora cardiaca (CC), the nervi corpori allati I (NCA I) and the corpora allata (CA). CACP, which is often continuous posteriorly with a complicated postallatal plexus (PAP), comprises a variable number of connectives with neurosecretory processes linking the cardiaca-commissural organ or dorsal cardiac commissure (containig tritocerebral fibres) to the NCA I. the allatal commissure and the CA. Neurosecretory processes are exchanged between the two halves of the cephalic neuroendocrine complex (CNC) both intracerebrally at different locales, possibly to ensure functional synchrony of CNC components.NCA I and CACP are drawn out with their stroma to varying extents over the CA. Histophysiological evidence suggests that part of the stainable secretion stored in, and or in axonal transit through CA may be released through CA surface; NCA I, the nervi cardiostomatogastrici, CACP, perhaps also NCA II may function as neurohaemal areas. A “directed” neurosecretory pathway could be distinguished from PAP to the foregut and the fat body. The degree of spatial intimacy detected between neurosecretory and stomatogastric components of CNC suggests that the two systems may function in an integrated fashion. The recurrent-oesophageal nerve complex serves not only for a direct transport of neurosecretion, but also as one of the sites of its release.
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  • 34
  • 35
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    New York, NY : Wiley-Blackwell
    Journal of Morphology 142 (1974), S. 71-89 
    ISSN: 0362-2525
    Keywords: Life and Medical Sciences ; Cell & Developmental Biology
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Biology , Medicine
    Notes: Relationships between the cribriform plate of the ethmoid, the olfactory bulb, and olfactory acuity were explored using material from 13 of the 17 bat families.All megachiropteran cribriform plates were entirely perforated. In contrast, microchiropteran plates showed distinct perforated portions dorsally and nonperforated portions ventrally. The plates of frugivorous species had more foramina than those of insectivorous ones. Bats with mixed dietary habits were intermediate. Our data suggest that the Chilonycterinae were originally frugivorous, and have only secondarily reverted to an insectivorous diet.Trend analyses show that wherever dietary preference appears to favor a more acute sense of smell, bulb diameter tends to be larger. In general, frugivorous bats tend to have bulbs exceeding 2 mm in diameter; insectivorous bats tend to have bulb diameters of 2 mm or less. The number of foramina in the plates and total cribriform plate area tends to increase as a function of bulb area, but the plate area the foramina occupied increases as a function of bulb volume. The ratio of the size of the bulb to the size of the cerebral hemisphere does not predict olfactory acuity in bats.
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    Keywords: Life and Medical Sciences ; Cell & Developmental Biology
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    Notes: The fiber constituents and connections of the calyces  -  the input-receiving regions  -  of the corpora pedunculata (“mushroom bodies”) were studied in reduced silver preparations from the American cockroach, Periplaneta americana (L.). In the outer synaptic layer of the calyces five fiber classes were distinguished, the first three of which arise outside the mushroom body. (1) Four highly similar neurons with somata near the optic lobe branch into different parts of the ipsiateral protocerebrum, including both calyces. Their fibers are highly constant in arrangement and position and contain small nucleus-like bodies. (2) The tractus olfactorio-globularis (sensu lato) emits fiber groups which course along the calycal walls as “calycal tracts” before ultimately dissipating into the synaptic layer. Variability within these tracts is described. (3) Fibers of undertermined origin outside the mushroom body radiate from the calycal center outwards through the synaptic layer. (4) From the inner calycal layer of neurites belonging to intrinsic mushroom-body neurons, perpendicular collaterals enter the synaptic layer. (5) Intrinsic-neuron somata near the calycal rim emit fibers which course tangentially within the synaptic layer from calycal rim to center. These fibers form a special peripheral zone in the pedunculus.The predominant presumably afferent calycal fiber class is that derived from the tractus olfactorio-globularis. No evidence was found for tracts from optic lobe to calyces. On this basis, and in light of the experimental and comparative anatomical literature, it is suggested that the corpora pedunculata of P. americana and other pterygotes are fundamentally second-order antennal sensory processing centers.Conflicting observations in earlier reports are critically discussed.
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  • 37
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    Journal of Morphology 142 (1974) 
    ISSN: 0362-2525
    Keywords: Life and Medical Sciences ; Cell & Developmental Biology
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  • 38
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    Journal of Morphology 142 (1974), S. 91-107 
    ISSN: 0362-2525
    Keywords: Life and Medical Sciences ; Cell & Developmental Biology
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Biology , Medicine
    Notes: The number, location, size, shape and microstructure of the parathyroid glands of Agama agama agama, Hemidactylus brooki angulatus and Pytodactylus hasselquisti hasselquisti was investigated using approximately 250 specimens of each species from the Zaria area of Nigeria.Only parathyroid III was found. Additional patches of tissue in Hemidactylus, though possibly parathyroid IV, are considered to be derived from parathyroid III. It was found that the amount of parathyroid tissue per gram of body weight was similar in the three species used, and that females had more parathyroid tissue than males. The same situation seems possible in other species.The structure of the parathyroid glands could not be related to taxonomic grouping within the Sauria, but the general picture was found to be more similar to that of birds and mammals than to that of amphibians.
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  • 39
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    Journal of Morphology 142 (1974), S. 109-116 
    ISSN: 0362-2525
    Keywords: Life and Medical Sciences ; Cell & Developmental Biology
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Biology , Medicine
    Notes: Mast cells were demonstrated in eight species of snakes, using special fixation techniques to prevent solubilization of cytoplasmic granules. Toluidine blue O and azure A were the major stains and observations were made under light microscope including cytophotometric analysis.The mast cells of snakes were shown to be relatively small (7-11 μ in diameter) when compared to mast cells of a lizard (8-15 μ), dog and rat (9-15 μ).Among the various organs examined, mast cells were particularly numerous in the mesentery, tongue, underneath the serosa of the digestive tract and in the heart, between muscle fibers and in the epicardium.Although under the light microscope some snake mast cells seemed to be orthochromatically stained, when analysed by cytophotometry they were demonstrated to be actually metachromatic.Snake mast cells granules were demonstrated to have an amphoteric behavior, since they were stained with both basic (toluidine blue O and azure A) and acid dyes (eosin and ponceau-acid-fuchsin).
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  • 40
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    Journal of Morphology 142 (1974), S. 117-135 
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    Keywords: Life and Medical Sciences ; Cell & Developmental Biology
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Biology , Medicine
    Notes: Retinal projections were studied experimentally in the Northern water snake using modifications of the Nauta silver impregnation technique. Contralaterally, the retina projects to nucleus geniculatus lateralis pars dorsalis and pars ventralis, nucleus lentiformis mesencephali and nucleus geniculatus pretectalis. A sparse projection was also observed to nucleus ovalis. An additional afferent thalamic projection to nucleus ventrolateralis was found in two cases. The retina projects ipsilaterally to the dorsolateral portion of nucleus geniculatus lateralis pars dorsalis, and sparsely to nucleus lentiformis mesencephali and nucleus geniculatus pretectalis. Nucleus posterodorsalis receives dense bilateral retinal projections. Contralaterally, the retina also projects to the superficial layers of the tectum (layers 8-13 of Ramón) and to nucleus opticus tegmenti. Armstrong's findings that the retinal projections in Natrix are qualittatively similar to those in lizards were confirmed. However there are marked quantitative differences among the various pathways and their corresponding nuclei. These differences are particularly striking in comparing the visual projections to the dorsal thalamus, the retino-tecto-rotundal and the retino-geniculate systems. The first is reduced in volume and the second is markedly increased in volume in comparison with lizards. These data lend support to the theories of Walls that snakes evolved from fossorial lizards and of Underwood that the eyes of these lizards underwent reduction but not complete degeneration. Qualitatively the retinal projections are conservative among lizards and snakes, but a history of reduction of these pathways in ancestral snakes with a selective increase in the retino-geniculate system as a surface niche was reattained is reflected in the anatomy of this ophidian visual system.
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  • 41
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    Journal of Morphology 142 (1974), S. 137-152 
    ISSN: 0362-2525
    Keywords: Life and Medical Sciences ; Cell & Developmental Biology
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Biology , Medicine
    Notes: Fine structure of the torus semicircularis of the loach, carp, common eel and rainbow trout was studied by light and elecron microscopy. The torus semicircularis of each species is divided into four layers. The subependymal first layer comprises numerous unmyelinated fibers and their terminals which contain cored vesicles. The second and the third layers are composed of small cell bodies and their dendrites respectively. These layers develop equally in the four species and contain the usual axodendritic synapses. On the other hand, the fourth layer varies in different species. The mediumsized cells in this layer, which are inferred to be of the same origin as the small cells from their configuration and size, show differences in lamination in each species. Compared with the usual axodendritic synapse of the small cells, the medium-sized cells have quite different synaptic patterns, which include inhibitory and electrical as well as the usual excitatory chemical synapses. From these findings, the medium-sized cells are surmized to receive sound of different degrees of intensity from that received by the small cells, which may have an effect on feeding behaviors of the species. In the deepest portion of the torus semicircularis of all species, there are large multipolar cells on which numerous axon terminals synapse in much the same way as they do on the medium-sized cells. These findings suggest that the synaptic patterns in the torus semicircularis may depend not on the receptive cells in each layer but on the various characteristics of the afferent fibers.
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  • 42
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    Keywords: Life and Medical Sciences ; Cell & Developmental Biology
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    Notes: Abdominal extra-adrenal chromaffin tissue, or paraganglia, was examined at the ultrastructural level to elucidate the innervation of this adrenal medullary homologue. Paraganglia display unmyelinated nerve fibers surrounded by Schwann cell cytoplasm. These nerves are separated from the paraganglion Type I (granule-containing) cells by cytoplasmic projections of paraganglion Type II (satellite) cells. However, serial sections show that the nerves eventually make synaptic contact with the Type I cell. At the axon-chromaffin cell junction, only the outer aspect of the nerve is covered by the satellite cell. The presynaptic endings contain numerous synaptic vesicles, mitochondria and glycogen particles. The vesicles are predominantly of the clear-cored variety, but a few possess centers which are elecron opaque. The pre- and postsynaptic membranes are separated bya subsynaptic space and occasionally exhibit the membranal densities usually associated with synaptic areas. These ultrastructural studies establish definite evidence that abdominal paraganglion cells are innervated.
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  • 43
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    Journal of Morphology 142 (1974), S. 165-185 
    ISSN: 0362-2525
    Keywords: Life and Medical Sciences ; Cell & Developmental Biology
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Biology , Medicine
    Notes: The gland cells of Lyonet's gland, which is accessory to the silk gland in the silkworm larva, is characterized by the presence of complicated canaliculi bearing microvilli on their inner surface, large numbers of mitochondria and remarkably convoluted basal plasma membrane. On the other hand, the cell lacks the well-developed cytoplasmic membrane system such as rough- and smooth-surfaced endoplasmic reticula and Golgi bodies, though free ribosomes are numerous. Secretory vesicles are absent, and the canaliculi contain no dense material. From such ultrastructural observations, it was suggested that a possible role of the gland may be the exchange of the small molecules such as water and ions, rather than the hitherto supposed secretory role of a cementing sunstance of silk proteins. The lumen of the proximal part of the glandular duct contains a kind of proteinaceous substance which can be demonstrated histochemically and is regarded as similar to one of the silk proteins in the silk gland, not to the real product of the Lyonet's gland.
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  • 44
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    Journal of Morphology 142 (1974) 
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  • 45
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    Keywords: Life and Medical Sciences ; Cell & Developmental Biology
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    Notes: Specimens, representative of each of the major taxa of mosquitoes, were fixed in copula and the external genitalia examined by scanning electron microscopy. The periphery of the basin-like everted aedeagus of Aedus aegypti precisely matches that of the everted atrial membrane of the female. These structures are appressed during coitus and sealed by pressure of the paraprocts, aedeagal pouch and proctiger. When everted, the aedeagus of male Culex pipiens reveals a ridged dome that surrounds the genital opening. This dome seals itself laterally into a gutter formed by pad-like extensions of the female's genital lips and is sealed dorsally by pressure of the aedeagal apodeme. The aedeagus of another culicine species, Wyeomyia smithii, bears the gonopore at the apex of a spined tube. This tube is inserted between the female's genital lips and is sealed within the genital atrium. The aedeagus of the toxorhynchitine species Toxorhynchitis brevipalpus is immobile and is inserted deep within the genital atrium of the female where it is sealed by pressure of the atrial walls. Males of each of these mosquitoes deliver a mixture of semen and sperm to the copulatory bursa of the female. After withdrawal of the aedeagus, sperm is transferred to the spermathecae.In contrast, sperm of Anopheles quadrimaculatus are delivered directly to the spermathecal duct. The tube-like aedeagus is positioned by its leaflets during sperm transfer and is driven deep into the atrium, where a mixture of semen and sperm is ejaculated.The significance of mechanical barriers to mating between species is discussed.
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  • 46
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    Notes: The termite gut flagellates are of interest because of their unusual motile organelles, their ability to digest cellulose, and their symbiotic relationship with prokaryotes inhabiting the insect gut. This report provides a detailed ultrastructural description of Pyrsonympha from the hind-gut of Reticulitermes flavipes.The motile axostyle is composed of 2,000-4,000 microtubules connected by cross-bridges. At its anterior end, the axostyle is associated with a “primary row” of microtubules which is associated with a fibrous network. The “primary row” is embedded in a large mass of amorphous, electron-dense material occupying the furthest anterior end of the cell. The basal bodies of the eight flagella are also embedded in this presumptive microtubule-organizing center. The flagella are associated with the cell surface throughout their length. Isolation and reactivation of the axostyle has demonstrated that although ATP dependent motility is inherent in the structure of the axostyle, its proper control may be mediated by the attachment of the axostyle to structures at the anterior end of the cell.Pyrsonympha lacks morphologically distinguishable mitochondria and Golgi complexes. The cell surface is covered by unique, previously underscribed, tubular specializations. Symbiotic microorganisms are observed associated with the cell surface and within the cytoplasm.Wood particles are taken up from the gut fluid by large phagocytic vacuoles formed at the posterior end of the cell. Even during the process of breakdown, the wood is always enclosed within the membrane of the phagocytic vacuole.The Pyrsonympha from Reticulitermes flavipes are not attached to the lining of the hind-gut and do not contain an attachment organelle, unlike the Pyrsonympha from other species of Reticulitermes.
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  • 47
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  • 48
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    Journal of Morphology 143 (1974) 
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    Keywords: Life and Medical Sciences ; Cell & Developmental Biology
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  • 49
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    Journal of Morphology 143 (1974), S. 121-165 
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    Keywords: Life and Medical Sciences ; Cell & Developmental Biology
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Biology , Medicine
    Notes: The gecko ear was studied in 36 species belonging to 24 genera. This receptor has attained an advanced level of structure and performance in this group of lizards, but there are many variations among species. To a large extent these variations follow subfamily lines as represented in Kluge's system of classification.Brief consideration is given to features of the outer and middle ear, but chief concern is with inner ear structures and their relations to auditory sensitivity as represented by the cochlear potentials.The auditory papilla is segmented, with a dorsal portion whose hair cells have their ciliary tufts attached to a tectorial membrane, and a ventral portion in which these cells form tow assemblages, one with tectorial connections and the other with connections to a line of sallets.The dorsal segment varies greatly in length and in the form of ciliary orientation. In Eublepharinae and most Gekkoninae the ciliary orientation is unidirectional, and the degree of sensitivity relates to the length of this segment. In Diplodactylinae and Sphaerodactylinae the orientation is bidirectional, and this segment functionally hardly differs from the ventral segment.Auditory sensitivity as measured in terms of the cochlear potentials shows close relations with subfamily groupings, except for the Gekkoninae in which considerable diversity is found.The evidence from structural differentiation, along with that derived from the forms of the cochlear potential functions, leads to the suggestion that these ears possess a high degree of pitch discrimination and capability for the analysis of complex sounds.
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    Notes: Mature mouse and cat peripheral nerve fibers have been examined in vitro by time-lapse photography. Some Schmidt-Lanterman clefts which were open at the start closed later; other were seen to open and then to close, some of them more than once. The implications of these movements are considered, especially in regard to the question of the passage of materials from the endoneurial connective tissue spaces to the axon.Myelin movements other than those occurring at the Schmidt-Lanterman clefts consisted primarily of the development and frequent regression of indentations of the myelin sheath. A single evagination was seen to develop and then to recede. These myelin movements suggest that previously described invaginations and evaginations of the myelin sheath, including flaps of “redundant myelin”, are not static but rather that they are in a state of movement, forming and regressing at intervals.The possible functional significance of the development and regression of myelin sheath indentations in relationship to axoplasmic flow is discussed.
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  • 51
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    Notes: The authors describe the spermiogenesis of Polyxenus lagurus, a diplopod, in the male genital ducts and the transformations the spermatozoon successively undergoes in the spermatheca.The spermatozoon in the male genital ducts looks like a little barrel devoid of centriole and of any kind of rudimentary flagellum whatever. The organelles are markedly modified; cross sections present an elongated, flattened nucleus, an X-shaped body running parallel to it on the opposite side and two longitudinal mitochondrial strips interposed between them. The rest of this barrel-shaped spermatozoon is filled with peculiar Golgi formations, the spongy chambers, which open outwards through little vents.In the spermatheca the spermatozoon is quite different: it is shaped like a long ribbon. The basic structure of the spermatozoon is formed by the double folding of part of the cortical layer of the barrel-shaped spermatozoon. On the central part of this endo-skeleton are longitudinally ranged the nucleus and the acrosome flanked on both sides by a thread of mitochondria. Even in this phase the sperm has no flagellum.
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  • 52
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    Journal of Morphology 143 (1974), S. 247-257 
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    Keywords: Life and Medical Sciences ; Cell & Developmental Biology
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Biology , Medicine
    Notes: Several secretory and nonsecretory enzymes were localized histochemically in the main venom gland of 13 viperid snakes. All secretory cells show the intracellular oxidative enzymes succinate dehydrogenase and monoamine oxidase. The granular reactions obtained for both enzymes resemble mitochondria in distribution. Distinctive cells with a very high succinate dehydrogenase activity are dispersed among the secretory cells of all species except Atractaspis.Nonspecific acid phosphatase activity is found in the supranuclear region of the secretory cells in species that do not secrete this enzyme and throughout the cytoplasm in snakes that secrete the enzyme. Nonspecific alkaline phosphatase activity occurs in the secretory cells of those snakes whose venom shows this activity. Leucine amino peptidase (aryl amidase) activity is found in the venom and in the secretory cells of all the species.In Vipera palaestinae both the venom and the secretory cells of the main venom gland contain nonspecific esterase, L-amino acid oxidase and phosphodiesterase activities. The localization of phosphodiesterase and L-amino acid oxidase do not show major differences between glands at different intervals from an initial milking.Adenosine-monophosphate phosphatase activity is localized in the supranuclear region of the secretory cells in the glands of Vipera palaestinae and Aspis cerastes. Its activity is found in the venom of Aspis only.
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  • 53
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    Journal of Morphology 143 (1974), S. 259-283 
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    Keywords: Life and Medical Sciences ; Cell & Developmental Biology
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Biology , Medicine
    Notes: The male genital systems of two mysids, Archaeomysis grebnitzkii (subfamily Gastrosaccinae) and Neomysis awatschensis (subfamily Mysinae) are described. The testes of both species include a pair of central cords (spermatogonial cells), two sets of lateral sacs, and a set of dorsal-lateral spermatidic pouches in which spermiogenesis takes place. Mature sperm exit dorsally from the pouches into a common U-shaped seminal vesicle, the arms of which extend posteriorly as the right and left vasa deferentia.The emphasis of this study was on the follicle cell-spermatid relationship. Spermatids retain their own cell membranes as do the follicle cells. A bundle of sperm tails extends toward the follicle cell nucleus making several revolutions about the nucleus. Masses of rodlets occupy this tract with the spermatid tails. The tail consists of an outer cylinder with banding in a periodicity similar to collagen protein, and an inner cavity filled with a structureless, dark-staining material. Heads of the spermatozoa differ considerably between the two species. The elongate, reflexed head of Neomysis with its central filament joins the tail at an acute angle. The short cylindrical head of Archaeomysis with its anterior hood-like extension joins the tail directly. The distinctiveness of the sperm types might prove useful for taxonomic purposes. As noted by previous investigators, the number of spermatids per follicle cell shows specificity: Neomysis awatschensis has around 16 spermatids per follicle cell, Archaeomysis grebnitzkii about 100.
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  • 54
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    Journal of Morphology 143 (1974), S. 285-305 
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    Keywords: Life and Medical Sciences ; Cell & Developmental Biology
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Biology , Medicine
    Notes: The three dorsal ocelli of worker honeybees have been studied by light and electron microscopy. Each ocellus has a single flattened spheroidal lens and about 800 elongated retinular cells. Retinular cells are paired and form a two-part plate-like rhabdom between their distal processes. Each rhabdomere comprises parallel microvilli projecting laterally from the apposed retinular cells. Primary receptor cell axons synapse within the ocellus with ocellar nerve fibers of two different calibers. Each ocellus has eight thick fibers ca 10 m̈m in diameter and several thinner ones less than 3 m̈m in diameter. Fine structural evidence suggests that retinular axons end presynaptically on both types of ocellar nerve fibers. Since all retinular cells apparently synapse repeatedly with the thick fibers this involves a convergence of about 100:1. Thick fibers always terminate postsynaptically within the ocellus while thin fibers terminate presynaptically on other thin fibers, thick fibers or retinular axons. Structural evidence for synaptic polarization indicates that retinular cells and thick fibers are afferent, thin fibers efferent. Thus complex processing of the ocellar visual input can occur before the secondary neurons of the three ocelli converge to form the single short ocellar nerve which runs to the posterior forebrain.
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  • 55
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    Journal of Morphology 143 (1974), S. 307-335 
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    Keywords: Life and Medical Sciences ; Cell & Developmental Biology
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Biology , Medicine
    Notes: The functional morphology of the forelimbs of the following African Viverridae was studied, Atilax paludinosus, Bdeogale crassicauda, Civettictis civetta, Genetta genetta, G. tigrina, Helogale parvula, Herpestes ichneumon, H. sanguineus, Ichneumia albicauda, Mungos mungo, Nandinia binotata. Their locomotory behaviour has been previously studied and described and is related to morphological differences. The osteology of all the species and the myology of three species is described. The species have been assigned to primary locomotor categories on the basis of their locomotion. These are 1, climbing, arboreal walking; 2, arboreal and terrestrial walking and jumping; 3, general terrestrial walking and scrambling; and 4, trotting. In the climbing arboreal walking category the most distinctive morphological adaptations are powerful flexors and extensors as well as a flexible plantigrade manus with retractile claws. In the arboreal and terrestrial walking category the shoulder, elbow and carpal joints are flexible and the manus has retractile claws, though the flexor and extensor musculature is insufficiently developed for controlled climbing. The trotting category is characterised by a high humero-radial index and a rigid antibrachium. The foot is digitigrade with the claws short and stout. Species in the general walking and scrambling category show many differences in the morphology of their feet, even though the proximal parts of the forelimb appear similar. Due to the restricted nature of the adaptations, these species have been assigned to secondary locomotor categories. Morphological characters typical of the locomotor categories are summarized in the discussion.
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    Notes: Scanning electron microscopy revealed spores of Nosema apis and Thelohania fibrata to be egg-shaped, but only the mature spore of T. fibrata was shown to possess a horseshoe-like concavity at the posterior pole. Freezeetched preparations indicated that this concavity was due to a thin area of the spore coat. Freeze-etching studies also show spores of N. apis do possess an umbrella-shaped polaroplast, and a polar filament which is arranged in a double layer with over 30 coils. The spore of T. fibrata contains a pear-shaped arrangement of the polaroplast membrane, and a polar filament arranged in a single layer of 22 coils.
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    Journal of Morphology 143 (1974), S. 1-1 
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    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
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    Notes: The sensory innervation of the mandibular stylets of the aphid Brevicoryne brassicae (L.) has been examined by electron microscopy. Two groups of sensory neurones are present in the mandible. Each has two neurones, one with a short dendrite extending into the base of the mandible and ending in the base and another with a long microtubular process which extends 500 m̈ down to the distal tip of the mandible. The two neurones are enclosed by an ensheathing cell comparable to the trichogen cell enveloping the group of neurones innervating pegs and hairs. This ensheathing cell is supported by extensive electron-dense filaments to form a scolopale and is embedded in the mass of stylet-forming cells at the base of the mandible. The inner segments of the dendrites are anchored to the ensheathing cell by desmosome junctions. Desmosome junctions also bind the microtubular outer segments of the short and long dendrite to each other. There is no evidence of a dendritic sheath enclosing the distal portion of the short dendrite which ends while still in the extracellular space within the ensheathing cell. The microtubular process of the long dendrite extends down the lumen of the mandible enclosed by a close-fitting extracellular sheath which penetrates and is attached to the cuticular wall of the mandible tip. Distally this sheath is thickened on one side. Deflection of the mandible would therefore deform the dendritic membrane asymmetrically because the thin walls of the sheath would bend more than the thick walls. This would exert an unequal mechanical strain on the dendritic membrane which could result in depolarization in response to deflection in a particular direction. The arrangement of the dendrites and their sheaths within the mandible is such that deflection to the right would distort one dendrite in the same way as deflection to the left would distort the other.
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  • 60
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    Journal of Morphology 143 (1974), S. 365-383 
    ISSN: 0362-2525
    Keywords: Life and Medical Sciences ; Cell & Developmental Biology
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Biology , Medicine
    Notes: Ampullary receptor organs of African mormyrids consist of a cavity beneath the epidermis. The wall of the cavity contains embedded receptor cells and two types of supporting cells. A canal extends from the cavity to an opening at the surface. The lumen of the canal and the ampulla are filled with a jelly-like material and dense cylinders apparently secreted by two types of supporting cells. Flattened cells of the canal wall are joined by occluding junctions. Synapses between receptor cells and the afferent nerve fiber are characterized by a presynaptic dense body, but presynaptic vesicles were not observed. Degenerating receptor cells are occasionally seen among normal receptor cells in the base of the organ.
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  • 61
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    Journal of Morphology 143 (1974), S. 385-395 
    ISSN: 0362-2525
    Keywords: Life and Medical Sciences ; Cell & Developmental Biology
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Biology , Medicine
    Notes: This paper examines the effect of early thymectomy on the subsequent development of lymphoid tissues in the toad, Xenopus laevis. At the time of thymic removal (8 days post-fertilization) all the lymphoid organ anlagen are at a rudimentary state of differentiation and contain few, if any, small lymphocytes. Despite the absence of any thymic tissue all thymectomized animals grew normally.Thymectomized larvae developed relatively normal lymphoid organs. However, lymphoid depletion was apparent in the splenic red pulp and in the pharyngeal ventral cavity bodies. Examination of the lymphoid organs of post-metamorphic Xenopus revealed reduction in spleen size following thymectomy. Lymphoid depletion was evident in the splenic red pulp of many thymectomized toadlets and reduction in proportion of white to red pulp was also noted in a few of these animals. Absence of the thymus had no apparent effect on the histology of the other lymphoid organs examined.
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  • 62
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    Keywords: Life and Medical Sciences ; Cell & Developmental Biology
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Biology , Medicine
    Notes: Extraocular muscles from representative species of vertebrate groups ranging from amphibians to the higher mammals were examined in serial histological sections for the presence of muscle spindles. These observations and data from the literature indicate that extraocular muscles of the pig, calf, sheep and other even-toed ungulates are richly supplied with well-defined spindles having a generous complement of intrafusal fibers distinguishable as nuclear bag and chain fibers. Spindles in human eye muscles are also numerous. In macaque and chimpanzee muscles a few poorly developed spindles were present in some, but not all, muscles. No encapsulated receptors were found in 20 other mammalian and submammalian species examined in this study. When present, spindles tended to be located in the zone of small muscle fibers found along the orbital surface of the muscle. Rectus and oblique muscles in all species had such a zone, so that its existence did not determine whether spindles would occur.
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  • 63
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    Journal of Morphology 143 (1974), S. 409-433 
    ISSN: 0362-2525
    Keywords: Life and Medical Sciences ; Cell & Developmental Biology
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Biology , Medicine
    Notes: Gonadotrophic cells in the pars distalis of Anolis carolinensis often contain juxtanuclear concentrations of filaments with diameters intermediate in size (approximately 100 Å) between microtubules and microfilaments. Their size and their substructure, which gives them a tubular appearance when they are displayed in cross-section, appear to place these filaments in the “intermediate filament” category (Ishikawa et al., '68). In their juxtanuclear position in the intact animal, the intermediate filaments are collected in randomly-oriented tangles. In castrated specimens of Anolis, gonadotrophs degranulate and elongate. During this elongation, increased numbers of microtubules appear in orientation parallel to the long axis of the cell, and the 100 Å filaments reassemble in rod-like masses oriented parallel to the microtubules. This apparent distributional interaction may facilitate the elongation of the cell. Intimate physical associations between the intermediate filaments and secretory granules suggest that the filaments may act in the movement of the granules during the processes of degranulation and secretion.
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  • 64
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    Journal of Morphology 143 (1974), S. 435-443 
    ISSN: 0362-2525
    Keywords: Life and Medical Sciences ; Cell & Developmental Biology
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Biology , Medicine
    Notes: The long antennal flagellum of Neoconocephalus ensiger is covered with many sharp-tipped hairs that appear to be non-innervated; thick-walled chemoreceptors, that may also have a tactile function; thin-walled chemoreceptors of several kinds and coeloconic chemoreceptors. All of the chemoreceptors are innervated by small groups of neurons. The first flagellar subsegment is unusual in that it bears a small protuberance on its latero-ventral surface. This marks the site of the attachment, internally, of a scoloparium containing about eleven scolopales in which the dendrites of some 23 sensory neurons terminate. The most distal subsegment lacks the scoloparium reported earlier for the grasshopper. No conspicuous difference between the antennae of males and of females was found.
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  • 65
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    Journal of Morphology 143 (1974), S. 445-455 
    ISSN: 0362-2525
    Keywords: Life and Medical Sciences ; Cell & Developmental Biology
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Biology , Medicine
    Notes: The antennae of two species of thrips, Bagnalliella yuccae (Hinds) and Frankliniella tritici (Fitch), have been examined with the light and electron microscopes. The antennal flagellum of both species is provided with tactile hairs, thick-walled chemoreceptors and thin-walled chemoreceptors. In addition, B. yuccae, but not F. tritici, has a single coeloconic chemoreceptor on the dorsal surface of the pedicel. Observations were made on the fluids in the lumen of the antennae of E. yuccae in the living insect. The movement of the fluids probably has an important physiological significance.
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  • 66
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    Keywords: Life and Medical Sciences ; Cell & Developmental Biology
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Biology , Medicine
    Notes: The locomotor function of the caudal muscle cells of ascidian larvae is identical with that of lower vertebrate somatic striated (skeletal) muscle fibers, but other features, including the presence of transverse myomuscular junctions, an active Golgi apparatus, a single nucleus, and partial innervation, are characteristic of vertebrate myocardial cells.Seven stages in the development of the compound ascidian Distaplia occidentalis were selected for an ultrastructural study of caudal myogenesis. A timetable of development and differentiation was obtained from cultures of isolated embryos in vitro.The myoblasts of the neurulating embryo are yolky, undifferentiated cells. They are arranged in two bands between the epidermis and the notochord in the caudal rudiment and are actively engaged in mitosis.Myoblasts of the caudate embryo continue to divide and rearrange themselves into longitudinal rows so that each cell simultaneously adjoins the epidermis and the notochord. The formation of secretory granules by the Golgi apparatus coincides with the onset of proteid-yolk degradation and the accumulation of glycogen in the ground cytoplasm.Randomly oriented networks of thick and thin myofilaments appear in the peripheral sarcoplasm of the muscle cells of the comma embryo. Bridges interconnect the thick and thin myofilaments (actomyosin bridges) and the thick myofilaments (H-bridges), but no banding patterns are evident. The sarcoplasmic reticulum (SR), derived from evaginations of the nuclear envelope, forms intimate associations (peripheral couplings) with the sarcolemma.Precursory Z-lines are interposed between the networks of myofilaments in the vesiculate embryo, and the nascent myofibrils become predominantly oriented parallel to the long axis of the muscle cell.Muscle cells of the papillate embryo contain a single row of cortical myofibrils. Myofibrils, already spanning the length of the cell, grow only in diameter by the apposition of myofilaments. The formation of transverse myomuscular junctions begins at this stage, but the differentiating junctions are frequently oriented obliquely rather than orthogonally to the primary axes of the myofibrils.With the appearance of H-bands and M-lines, a single perforated sheet of sarcoplasmic reticulum is found centered on the Z-line and embracing the I-band. The sheet of SR establishes peripheral couplings with the sarcolemma.In the prehatching tadpole, a second collar of SR, centered on the M-line and extending laterally to the boundaries with the A-bands, is formed. A single perforated sheet surrounds the myofibril but is discontinuous at the side of the myofibril most distant from the sarcolemma. To produce the intricate architecture of the fully differentiated collar in the swimming tadpole (J. Morph., 138: 349, 1972). the free ends of the sheet must elevate from the surface of the myofibril, recurve, and extend peripherally toward the sarcolemma to establish peripheral couplings.Morphological changes in the nucleus, nucleolus, mitochondria, and Golgi bodies are described, as well as changes in the ground cytoplasmic content of yolk, glycogen, and ribosomes.The volume of the differentiating cells, calculated from the mean cellular dimensions, and analyses of cellular shape are presented, along with schematic diagrams of cells in each stage of caudal myogenesis. In an attempt to quantify the differences observed ultrastructurally, calculations of the cytoplasmic volume occupied by the mqjor classes of organelles are included.Comparison is made with published accounts on differentiating vertebrate somatic striated and cardiac muscles.
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  • 67
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    Journal of Morphology 144 (1974), S. 85-117 
    ISSN: 0362-2525
    Keywords: Life and Medical Sciences ; Cell & Developmental Biology
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Biology , Medicine
    Notes: Anolis embryos have limb buds at the time eggs are laid and require about 39 days to complete development at 28°C. Rathke's pouch is present at five days, and the subdivisions of the adenohypophysis are differentiated by ten days after oviposition. The cells of the rostral half of the pars distalis (PD) are derived from the anterior face of Rathke's pouch; cells of the caudal half from the posterior face. Lateral lobe cells differentiate on the lateral margins of the developing caudal PD, and knob-like outgrowths of this tissue attach to the walls of the diencephalon to form the pars tuberalis (PT). Subsequently, the cells of the PT lose their connection with the PD and become a pair of flattened oblong plaques. They reach maximal size in midincubation, and are gradually invaded by nervous elements and incorporated into the walls of the hypothalamus. Electron micrographs demonstrate that the embryonic PT is secretory.Ultrastructurally the pars intermedia (PI) and PD are composed of parenchymous secretory cells in a framework of stellate cells. Stellate cells surround the lumen of Rathke's pouch and are connected laterally by complex junctions that exclude the secretory cells from the luminal surface. They extend in sheet-like processes among the secretory cells to the outer margin of the gland where they form a partial sheath within the basal lamina around the secretory tissue. As development proceeds, the lumen becomes subdivided and the resulting reduced lumina are recognizable as the forerunners of the follicles of the adult adenohypophysis.The cells of the PI are differentiated into secretory or stellate cells halfway through incubation. At this time only half of the cells of the PD can be so classified. Four of the five granulated cell types described in the adult are recognizable by mid-incubation; the fifth cell type (prolactin cell) becomes distinguishable within ten days thereafter, and at hatching appears to be actively synthesizing secretory products.
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  • 68
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    Journal of Morphology 144 (1974), S. 131-141 
    ISSN: 0362-2525
    Keywords: Life and Medical Sciences ; Cell & Developmental Biology
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Biology , Medicine
    Notes: The hydranth of the gymnoblastic hydroid Syncoryne tenella is invested by a cuticle approximately 530 mμ thick which is continuous with the periderm of the hydrocaulus. The ectodermal cells of the hydranth possess regularly spaced microvilli orientated with their long axis perpendicular to the ectodermal surface. The microvilli project into the cuticle, and probably serve to anchor the cuticle to the ectoderm. In the hydrocaulus the periderm is loosely applied to the ectoderm: in this region microvilli are absent from ectodermal cells. The periderm is a layered structure composed of finely filamentous material. No structural basis is found for the previously reported differential staining of peridermal layers in the hydrocaulus.
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  • 69
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    Journal of Morphology 144 (1974), S. 167-183 
    ISSN: 0362-2525
    Keywords: Life and Medical Sciences ; Cell & Developmental Biology
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Biology , Medicine
    Notes: The nuchal organs of polychaetes from four different families (Nereidae, Nephtyidae, Phyllodocidae and Glyceridae) were examined with the light and electron microscopes. In each case, the organ consists of ciliated cells and primary sensory elements. The ciliated cells are similar to the cells of the adjacent epidermis but bear motile cilia. Primary sensory neurons are situated within the organs in Nephtyidae and Phyllodocidae, but are located within the brain in Nereidae and Glyceridae. Each sensory cell gives rise to a distal process which penetrates between the ciliated cells to form an apical sensory bulb bearing modified cilia. Apically these processes are lined with juxtamembranous plaques. The ciliated cells are innervated by efferent axons from the brain, and in Nereis the axons appear to be peptidergic. The elements comprising the nuchal organs closely resemble those of the vertebrate olfactory mucosa.
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  • 70
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    Keywords: Life and Medical Sciences ; Cell & Developmental Biology
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Biology , Medicine
    Notes: The cuticle of five species of Oligochaeta, chosen to represent differences in size and a variety of biotopes, was studied electron microscopically after fixation with the acrolein-TAPO-osmium tetroxide method. Five distinct layers in the cuticle of all studied species were found. Staining with lead and uranyl ions or with silver proteinate visualized basically the same structural components of the cuticle, but the degree of electron opacity and the distribution of the electron-opaque stain in these components differed according to the staining method used. Since the acrolein-TAPO-osmium tetroxide method visualized the cuticular zones preferentially stained by Thiéry's silver proteinate method, it was concluded that the TAPO method may be considered suitable for the visualization of polysaccharides. Staining with phosphotungstic acid provided some information on the composition of the cuticle of Oligochaeta not obtained by staining ultrathin sections with lead and uranyl ions nor with silver proteinate. The conclusion is that phosphotungstic acid binds to polysaccharides which do not contain vicglycol groups nor active sites responsible for the positive reaction with lead and uranyl salts. Structural components in the cuticle of the oligochaetes studied were characteristic for each species. The taxonomic value of such components, however, must be confirmed by examination of a larger number of species of oligochaetes.
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  • 71
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    Keywords: Life and Medical Sciences ; Cell & Developmental Biology
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Biology , Medicine
    Notes: The gross and microscopic anatomy of the venom producing parotoid glands of Bufo marinus has been studied by light and electron microscopy and reactions for the presence of glycoprotein and mucopolysaccharides, the catechollamines, 5-hydroxytryptamine or dopamine, glucose-6-phosphatase, adenosine triphosphatase and the steroid nucleus and cholesterol and its esters have been performed. The gland is composed of numerous individual lobules, each lobule surrounded by a double cell layer. The interior surface of the outer layer is thrown into small cytoplasmic projections which traverse an intercellular space and interdigitate with microvilli formed by the outer plasmalemma of the inner layer. The outer layer resembles smooth muscle-like cells, is rich in adenosine triphosphatase, contains many pinocytotic vesicles and various organelles and may function in some aspect of venom synthesis, active cellular transport and contraction in the discharge of the secretory product. The inner layer shows a positive chromaffin reaction, contains various organelles, appears devoid of a plasmalemma on its inner surface and is involved in venom formation and release via an apocrine type of secretion. The intercellular space is rich in PAS positive materials, while the secretory product, itself, demonstrates a positive chromaffin reaction. The significance of these findings is discussed.
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  • 72
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    Keywords: Life and Medical Sciences ; Cell & Developmental Biology
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    Topics: Biology , Medicine
    Notes: The synganglion of Dermacentor variabilis Say is a single nerve mass, condensed around the esophagus and within the periganglionic sinus of the ciculatory system. Protocerebral, cheliceral (including stomodeal bridge), and pedipalpal ganglia lie in the pre-esophageal portion of the nerve mass and bear optic, cheliceral, and pedipalpal nerves respectively. The unpaired stomodeal and the recurrent nerve which forms the hyper-esophageal ganglion arise from the stomodeal bridge. Paired primary and accessory nerves to the retrocerebral organ complex have mixed protocerebral-cheliceral origins. Pedal ganglia (including ventral olfactory lobes of pedal ganglia I) and composite opisthosomal ganglion lie in the post-esophageal nerve mass and bear pedal nerve trunks and two pairs of opisthosomal nerves respectively.Internally, the synganglion consists of cellular rind and fibrous core. A welldefined neurilemma with a laminar matrix covers nerve mass and peripheral nerves. The rind contains the somata of ganglionic neurons and ensheathing glial cells and is restricted to the synganglion mass. It is limited by two specialized glial layers, the external perineurium and internal subperineurium. Discrete glomerular formations are present within the protocerebrum and olfactory lobes. Olfactory glomeruli located in pedal ganglia I are associated with a pair of globuli cell groups.Possible physiological relationships between anatomical specializations of the synganglion, extraneural sinuses and circulating hemocytes are considered. The evolutionary significances of condensation in the stomatogastric neuropile regions and throughout the synganglion, together with the simplification and loss of glomerular formations, are discussed.
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  • 73
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    Keywords: Life and Medical Sciences ; Cell & Developmental Biology
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Biology , Medicine
    Notes: Regions of the crayfish kidney were examined by electron microscopy. Coelsmosac cells are loosely bound together by desmosome-like spot junctions, and connected