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  • Articles  (3,815)
  • J31
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  • 1
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    Essen: Global Labor Organization (GLO)
    Publication Date: 2020-01-11
    Description: We propose a theoretical framework to analyze the offshoring and reshoring decisions of firms in the age of automation. Our theory suggests that increasing productivity in automation leads to a relocation of previously offshored production back to the home economy but without improving low-skilled wages and without creating jobs for low-skilled workers. Since it leads also to increasing wages for high-skilled workers, automation-induced reshoring is associated with an increasing skill premium and increasing inequality. We develop a measure for reshoring activity at the macro-level and, using data from the world input output table, we provide evidence for automation-driven reshoring. On average, within manufacturing sectors, an increase by one robot per 1000 workers is associated with a 3.5% increase of reshoring activity. Using robots in countries with similar sectoral structure as an instrument, we find that an increase by one robot per 1000 workers causes a 2.5% increase of reshoring activity. We also provide the first cross-country evidence that reshoring is positively associated with wages and employment for high-skilled labor but not for low-skilled labor and that tariffs increase the degree of reshoring.
    Keywords: F13 ; F62 ; J31 ; O33 ; ddc:330 ; Automation ; Reshoring ; Employment ; Wages ; Inequality ; Tariffs
    Repository Name: EconStor: OA server of the German National Library of Economics - Leibniz Information Centre for Economics
    Language: English
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  • 2
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    Berlin: Freie Universität Berlin, Fachbereich Wirtschaftswissenschaft
    Publication Date: 2020-01-16
    Description: We decompose permanent earnings risk into contributions from hours and wage shocks. To distinguish between hours shocks, modeled as innovations to the marginal disutility of work, and labor supply reactions to wage shocks we formulate a life-cycle model of consumption and labor supply. Both permanent wage and hours shocks are important to explain earnings risk, but wage shocks have greater relevance. Progressive taxation strongly attenuates cross-sectional earnings risk, its life-cycle insurance impact is much smaller. At the mean, a positive hours shock of one standard deviation raises life-time income by 10%, while a similar wage shock raises it by 12%.
    Keywords: D31 ; J22 ; J31 ; ddc:330 ; Earnings Risk ; Wage Risk ; Labor Supply ; Progressive Taxation ; Consumption Insurance
    Repository Name: EconStor: OA server of the German National Library of Economics - Leibniz Information Centre for Economics
    Language: English
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  • 3
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    Essen: Global Labor Organization (GLO)
    Publication Date: 2020-01-15
    Description: Do firms in China share rents with their workers? We address this question by examining firm-level panel data covering virtually all manufacturing firms over the period 2000-2007, representing an average of 52 million workers per year. We find evidence of rent sharing (RS), with wage-profit elasticies of between 4% and 6%. These results are based on multiple instrumental variables, including firm-specific international trade shocks. We also present a number of complementary findings to understand better the nature of RS in the country: it involves an element of risk sharing, as wages also decrease when profits fall; RS is lower in regions with more latent competition from rural workers; higher minimum wages tend to reduce RS; and, while employer labour market power reduces wages, it increases RS. Overall, despite its importance, RS in China is smaller and more symmetric than in developed economies, which re ects the weaker bargaining power of its workers and the different nature of its labour market institutions.
    Keywords: J31 ; J41 ; J50 ; ddc:330 ; Wages ; Bargaining ; Monopsony
    Repository Name: EconStor: OA server of the German National Library of Economics - Leibniz Information Centre for Economics
    Language: English
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  • 4
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    Berlin: Deutsches Institut für Wirtschaftsforschung (DIW)
    Publication Date: 2020-02-08
    Description: Paid parental leave schemes have been shown to increase women's employment rates but decrease their wages in case of extended leave durations. In view of these potential trade-offs, many countries are discussing the optimal design of parental leave policies. We analyze the impact of a major parental leave reform on mothers' long-term earnings. The 2007 German parental leave reform replaced a means-tested benefit with a more generous earnings-related benefit that is granted for a shorter period of time. Additionally, a "daddy quota" of two months was introduced. To identify the causal effect of this policy on long-run earnings of mothers, we use a difference-in-difference approach that compares labor market outcomes of mothers who gave birth just before and right after the reform and nets out seasonal effects by including the year before. Using administrative social security data, we confirm previous findings and show that the average duration of employment interruptions increased for high-income mothers. Nevertheless, we find a positive long-run effect on earnings for mothers in this group. This effect cannot be explained by changes in working hours, observed characteristics, changes in employer stability or fertility patterns. Descriptive evidence suggests that the stronger involvement of fathers, incentivized by the "daddy months", could have facilitated mothers' re-entry into the labor market and thereby increased earnings. For mothers with low prior-to-birth earnings, however, we do not find any beneficial labor market effects of this parental leave reform.
    Keywords: H31 ; J13 ; J22 ; J24 ; J31 ; ddc:330 ; parental leave ; wages ; labor supply
    Repository Name: EconStor: OA server of the German National Library of Economics - Leibniz Information Centre for Economics
    Language: English
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  • 5
    Publication Date: 2020-02-18
    Description: To the best of our knowledge, this study is the first study for Germany to assess the long-term impacts of studying without graduating on three labour market outcomes (working hours, wages, and occupational prestige), and on overall life satisfaction, on the basis of a sample of employed individuals from the Socio-Economic Panel (SOEP) who possess a university entrance qualification. The impact is analyzed relative to individuals who have never been enrolled in university study (baseline group) and to individuals that have attained a university degree. The impacts are assessed by means of a double machine learning procedure that accounts for selection into the three educational paths and generates the counterfactual outcomes for the different paths. The findings indicate an average impact of studying without graduating of plus 5 percentage points on occupational prestige, and minus 2.8 percentage points on life satisfaction relative to the baseline group. The estimates for wages and working hours are not significant. The effects of graduating on all outcomes is positive and substantial relative to studying without graduating or not studying at all.
    Keywords: I21 ; I28 ; J31 ; ddc:330 ; Arbeitsmarkt ; Humankapitalforschung ; Studienerfolg ; Studium ohne Abschluss
    Repository Name: EconStor: OA server of the German National Library of Economics - Leibniz Information Centre for Economics
    Language: English
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  • 6
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    Nürnberg: Friedrich-Alexander-Universität Erlangen-Nürnberg, Lehrstuhl für Arbeitsmarkt- und Regionalpolitik
    Publication Date: 2020-02-18
    Description: This paper analyses gender differences in pay at the mean as well as along the wage distribution. Using data from the German Socio-Economic Panel, we estimate the adjusted gender pay gap applying a machine learning method (post-double-LASSO procedure). Comparing results from this method to conventional models in the literature, we find that the size of the adjusted pay gap differs substantially depending on the approach used. The main reason is that the machine learning approach selects numerous interactions and second-order polynomials as well as different sets of covariates at various points of the wage distribution. This insight suggests that more exible specifications are needed to estimate gender differences in pay more appropriately. We further show that estimates of all models are robust to remaining selection on unobservables.
    Description: Dieser Beitrag untersucht die geschlechtsspezifische Lohnlücke am Mittelwert und entlang der Lohnverteilung. Für unsere Analyse nutzen wir Daten des Sozio-ökonomischen Panels. Wir schätzen die bereinigte Lohnlücke zwischen Männern undFrauen unter Verwendung einer Methode des Maschinellem Lernens (post-double-LASSO Ansatz). Die mit dieser Methode geschätzten bereinigten Lohnlücken unterscheiden sich substantiell von den Ergebnissen konventioneller Ansätze. Hauptgrund für diese Unterschiede ist, dass der Ansatz des Maschinellen Lernens eine Vielzahl von Interaktionen und Polynomen zweiter Ordnung sowie unterschiedliche Kontrollvariablen entlang der Lohnverteilung wählt. Dieses Ergebnis deutet daraufhin, dass flexiblere Modelspezifikationen benötigt werden, um die Geschlechterlohnlücke adäquat zu schätzen. Wir zeigen auch, dass die Schätzergebnisse robust gegenüber Selektion aufgrund unbeobachtbarer Merkmale sind.
    Keywords: J7 ; J16 ; J31 ; ddc:330 ; Gender pay gap ; Machine Learning ; Selection on unobservables
    Repository Name: EconStor: OA server of the German National Library of Economics - Leibniz Information Centre for Economics
    Language: English
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  • 7
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    Münster: Westfälische Wilhelms-Universität Münster, Institut für Organisationsökonomik
    Publication Date: 2020-02-27
    Description: Es gibt große Unterschiede in der Bezahlung von professionellen Fußballerinnen und Fußballern. Während die Sportmedien regelmäßig über hohe Einnahmen männlicher Fußballer berichten, wird die Vergütung von Fußballerinnen nur selten öffentlich thematisiert. Nur wenige professionelle Fußballerinnen selbst auf dem höchsten Niveau können von der Vergütung für ihre sportliche Leistung leben und viele sind auf Nebeneinkünfte und Sponsoren angewiesen. Den Verdienstunterschieden stehen jedoch auch große Leistungsunterschiede zwischen den Geschlechtern sowohl in körperlicher Hinsicht als auch in Turnieren gegenüber. In den USA wird "equal play, equal pay" gefordert für die sportlich und finanziell erfolgreichere weibliche Nationalmannschaft, die trotzdem deutlich weniger verdient als das Herrenteam. Diskriminierung nach dem Geschlecht lässt sich jedoch keineswegs in allen Ländern feststellen, wenn man die Leistung berücksichtigt.
    Description: There are large differences in the remuneration of female and male professional football players. While the sports media regularly report high earnings for male football players, the remuneration of female football players is quite seldom an issue. Only a few female professional football players even at the highest rank can live from the remuneration for their athletic performance and many depend on additional income and sponsors. However, there are also large performance differences between the sexes in physical terms and in tournaments. In the USA "equal play, equal pay" is claimed for the sportily and financially more successful female national team that nevertheless earns significantly less than the men's team. Yet gender discrimination cannot be determined in all countries if the performance is taken into account.
    Keywords: D63 ; J16 ; J24 ; J31 ; J71 ; L83 ; M52 ; Z22 ; ddc:650 ; Leistungsentgelt ; Geschlechterunterschiede ; Geschlechterdiskriminierung ; Profisport ; Fußball
    Repository Name: EconStor: OA server of the German National Library of Economics - Leibniz Information Centre for Economics
    Language: German
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  • 8
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    Berlin: Deutsches Institut für Wirtschaftsforschung (DIW)
    Publication Date: 2020-02-27
    Description: We decompose permanent earnings risk into contributions from hours and wage shocks. To distinguish between hours shocks, modeled as innovations to the marginal disutility of work, and labor supply reactions to wage shocks we formulate a life-cycle model of consumption and labor supply. Both permanent wage and hours shocks are important to explain earnings risk, but wage shocks have greater relevance. Progressive taxation strongly attenuates cross-sectional earnings risk, its life-cycle insurance impact is much smaller. At the mean, a positive hours shock of one standard deviation raises life-time income by 10%, while a similar wage shock raises it by 12%.
    Keywords: D31 ; J22 ; J31 ; ddc:330 ; Earnings Risk ; Wage Risk ; Labor Supply ; Progressive Taxation ; Consumption Insurance
    Repository Name: EconStor: OA server of the German National Library of Economics - Leibniz Information Centre for Economics
    Language: English
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  • 9
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    Berlin: Deutsches Institut für Wirtschaftsforschung (DIW)
    Publication Date: 2020-02-27
    Description: Using quantile regression methods, this paper analyses the gender wage gap across the wage distribution and over time (1990-2014), while controlling for changing sample selection into full-time employment. Our findings show that the selection-corrected gender wage gap is much larger than the one observed in the data, which is mainly due to large positive selection of women into full-time employment. However, we show that selection-corrected wages of male and female workers at the lower half of the distribution have moderately converged over time. The reason for this development have been changes in the composition of the male full-time employment force over time, which in spite of the rather constant male full-time employment rate, have given place to a small but rising selection bias in male observed wages. In the upper half of the wage distribution, however, neither the observed nor the selection-corrected gender wage gap has narrowed over time.
    Keywords: J31 ; J21 ; ddc:330 ; gender wage gap ; quantile regression ; selection into employment
    Repository Name: EconStor: OA server of the German National Library of Economics - Leibniz Information Centre for Economics
    Language: English
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  • 10
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    Erlangen: Friedrich-Alexander-Universität Erlangen-Nürnberg, Institute for Economics
    Publication Date: 2020-03-11
    Description: We use an extensive, matched employer-employee dataset to analyze the employersize wage relation and its contribution to wage inequality in Germany. Applying models with additive fixed effects for workers and establishments, we document that the large firm wage premium, which has risen over 25 years, has only recently started to decrease. Our estimates show that the recent decline is due to a decrease in the variation of establishment-specific wage premiums both across establishment size groups and within. This decline together with decreasing worker segregation at small firms account for an overall reversal in the trend of increasing wage dispersion.
    Keywords: J00 ; J21 ; J31 ; J40 ; ddc:330 ; firm size ; wage inequality ; wage premiums ; fixed-effect wage models ; firm andworker heterogeneity
    Repository Name: EconStor: OA server of the German National Library of Economics - Leibniz Information Centre for Economics
    Language: English
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  • 11
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    Erlangen: Friedrich-Alexander-Universität Erlangen-Nürnberg, Institute for Economics
    Publication Date: 2020-03-11
    Description: Using representative linked employer-employee data for Germany, this paper analyzes short- and long-run differences in labor market performance of workers joining start-ups instead of incumbent firms. Applying entropy balancing and following individuals over ten years, we find huge and long-lasting drawbacks from entering a start-up in terms of wages, yearly income, and (un)employment. These disadvantages hold for all groups of workers and types of start-ups analyzed. Although our analysis of different subsequent career paths highlights important heterogeneities, it does not reveal any strategy through which workers joining start-ups can catch up with the income of similar workers entering incumbent firms.
    Keywords: J31 ; J63 ; L26 ; M51 ; ddc:330 ; startups ; young firms ; wages ; linked employer-employee data
    Repository Name: EconStor: OA server of the German National Library of Economics - Leibniz Information Centre for Economics
    Language: English
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  • 12
    Publication Date: 2020-03-17
    Description: As China's firms upgrade their position in the quality ladder, vocational education may become more important. In this paper, we study returns to secondary vocational education in China paying attention to individual heterogeneity. We use instrumental variables based on geographical and longitudinal changes in enrolment to address the selection between the two types of education. We find that vocational education provides a wage premium vis-à-vis academic education of over 30% but which applies only for individuals at the middle of the conditional wage distribution.
    Keywords: I26 ; I25 ; J24 ; J31 ; C36 ; ddc:330 ; Human capital ; vocational education ; quantile treatment effects
    Repository Name: EconStor: OA server of the German National Library of Economics - Leibniz Information Centre for Economics
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  • 13
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    Munich: Center for Economic Studies and Ifo Institute (CESifo)
    Publication Date: 2020-03-25
    Description: The social and the private returns to education differ when education can increase productivity, and also be used to signal productivity. We show how instrumental variables can be used to separately identify and estimate the social and private returns to education within the employer learning framework of Farber and Gibbons [1996] and Altonji and Pierret [2001]. What an instrumental variable identifies depends crucially on whether the instrument is hidden from, or observed by, the employers. If the instrument is hidden then it identifies the private returns to education, but if the instrument is observed by employers then it identifies the social returns to education. Interestingly, however, among experienced workers the instrument identifies the social returns to education, regardless of whether or not it is hidden. We operationalize this approach using local variation in compulsory schooling laws across multiple cohorts in Norway. Our preferred estimates indicate that the social return to an additional year of education is 5%, and the private internal rate of return, aggregating the returns over the life-cycle, is 7.2%. Thus, 70% of the private returns to education can be attributed to education raising productivity and 30% to education signaling workers' ability.
    Keywords: J24 ; J31 ; D83 ; ddc:330 ; signaling ; human capital ; employer learning ; instruments
    Repository Name: EconStor: OA server of the German National Library of Economics - Leibniz Information Centre for Economics
    Language: English
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  • 14
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    Bonn: Institute of Labor Economics (IZA)
    Publication Date: 2020-03-25
    Description: Paid parental leave schemes have been shown to increase women's employment rates but decrease their wages in case of extended leave durations. In view of these potential trade-offs, many countries are discussing the optimal design of parental leave policies. We analyze the impact of a major parental leave reform on mothers' long-term earnings. The 2007 German parental leave reform replaced a means-tested benefit with a more generous earnings-related benefit that is granted for a shorter period of time. Additionally, a "daddy quota" of two months was introduced. To identify the causal effect of this policy on long-run earnings of mothers, we use a difference-in-difference approach that compares labor market outcomes of mothers who gave birth just before and right after the reform and nets out seasonal effects by including the year before. Using administrative social security data, we confirm previous findings and show that the average duration of employment interruptions increased for high-income mothers. Nevertheless, we find a positive long-run effect on earnings for mothers in this group. This effect cannot be explained by changes in working hours, observed characteristics, changes in employer stability or fertility patterns. Descriptive evidence suggests that the stronger involvement of fathers, incentivized by the "daddy months", could have facilitated mothers' re-entry into the labor market and thereby increased earnings. For mothers with low prior-to-birth earnings, however, we do not find any beneficial labor market effects of this parental leave reform.
    Keywords: H31 ; J13 ; J22 ; J24 ; J31 ; ddc:330 ; parental leave ; wages ; labor supply
    Repository Name: EconStor: OA server of the German National Library of Economics - Leibniz Information Centre for Economics
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  • 15
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    Bonn: Institute of Labor Economics (IZA)
    Publication Date: 2020-03-25
    Description: This paper examines how employee earnings at small firms respond to a cash flow shock in the form of a government R&D grant. We use ranking data on applicant firms, which we link to IRS W2 earnings and other U.S. Census Bureau datasets. In a regression discontinuity design, we find that the grant increases average earnings with a rent-sharing elasticity of 0.07 (0.21) at the employee (firm) level. The beneficiaries are incumbent employees who were present at the firm before the award. Among incumbent employees, the effect increases with worker tenure. The grant also leads to higher employment and revenue, but productivity growth cannot fully explain the immediate effect on earnings. Instead, the data and a grantee survey are consistent with a backloaded wage contract channel, in which employees of financially constrained firms initially accept relatively low wages and are paid more when cash is available.
    Keywords: G32 ; G35 ; J31 ; J41 ; ddc:330 ; earnings inequality ; rent sharing ; R&D grants ; regression discontinuity design
    Repository Name: EconStor: OA server of the German National Library of Economics - Leibniz Information Centre for Economics
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  • 16
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    Bonn: Institute of Labor Economics (IZA)
    Publication Date: 2020-03-25
    Description: The types of workers recruited into teaching and their allocation across classrooms can greatly influence a country's stock of human capital. This paper considers how markets and non-market institutions determine the quantity, wages, skills, and spatial distribution of teachers in developing countries. Schools are a major source of employment in developing countries, particularly for women and professionals. Teacher compensation is also a large share of public budgets. Teacher labor markets in developing countries are likely to grow further as teacher quality becomes a greater focus of education policy, including under the United Nations Sustainable Development Goals. Theoretical approaches to teacher labor markets have emphasized the role of non-market institutions, such as government and unions, and other frictions in teacher employment and wages. The evidence supports the existence and importance of such frictions in how teacher labor markets function. In many countries, large gaps in pay and quality exist between teachers and other professionals; teachers in public and private schools; teachers on permanent and temporary contracts; and teachers in urban and rural areas. Teacher supply increases with wages, though teacher quality does not necessarily increase. However, most evidence comes from studies of short-term effects among existing teachers. Evidence on effects in the long-term, on the supply of new teachers, or on changes in non-pecuniary compensation is scarcer.
    Keywords: J44 ; J45 ; J31 ; J21 ; J23 ; I28 ; ddc:330 ; teacher labor markets ; developing countries ; public sector labor markets ; education ; public service delivery
    Repository Name: EconStor: OA server of the German National Library of Economics - Leibniz Information Centre for Economics
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  • 17
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    Bonn: Institute of Labor Economics (IZA)
    Publication Date: 2020-03-25
    Description: The social and the private returns to education differ when education can increase productivity, and also be used to signal productivity. We show how instrumental variables can be used to separately identify and estimate the social and private returns to education within the employer learning framework of Farber and Gibbons [1996] and Altonji and Pierret [2001]. What an instrumental variable identifies depends crucially on whether the instrument is hidden from, or observed by, the employers. If the instrument is hidden then it identifies the private returns to education, but if the instrument is observed by employers then it identifies the social returns to education. Interestingly, however, among experienced workers the instrument identifies the social returns to education, regardless of whether or not it is hidden. We operationalize this approach using local variation in compulsory schooling laws across multiple cohorts in Norway. Our preferred estimates indicate that the social return to an additional year of education is 5%, and the private internal rate of return, aggregating the returns over the life-cycle, is 7.2%. Thus, 70% of the private returns to education can be attributed to education raising productivity and 30% to education signaling workers' ability.
    Keywords: J24 ; J31 ; D83 ; ddc:330 ; signaling ; human capital ; employer learning ; instruments
    Repository Name: EconStor: OA server of the German National Library of Economics - Leibniz Information Centre for Economics
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  • 18
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    Bonn: Institute of Labor Economics (IZA)
    Publication Date: 2020-03-25
    Description: I study the long-term effects of landing a first job at a large firm versus a small one using Spanish social security data. Size could be a relevant employer attribute for inexperienced workers since large firms are associated with greater training, higher wages, and enhanced productivity. The key empirical challenge is selection into first jobs – for instance, more able people may land jobs at large firms. I address this challenge developing an instrumental-variables approach that, while keeping business-cycle conditions fixed, leverages variation in the composition of labor demand that labor-market entrants face. I find that initially matching with a larger firm substantially improves long-term outcomes such as lifetime income, and that these benefits persist through subsequent jobs. Additional results point to mechanisms related to search frictions and better skill-development at large firms. Together, these findings shed light on how heterogeneous firms persistently impact young workers' trajectories.
    Keywords: E24 ; J23 ; J24 ; J31 ; J62 ; ddc:330 ; first job ; employer size ; firm heterogeneity ; young workers ; lifetime income ; on-the-job skills
    Repository Name: EconStor: OA server of the German National Library of Economics - Leibniz Information Centre for Economics
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  • 19
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    Munich: Center for Economic Studies and Ifo Institute (CESifo)
    Publication Date: 2020-03-25
    Description: Empirical findings suggest a positive correlation between inequality and social immobility, a phenomenon coined the Gatsby curve. However, complete explanations of the phenomenon have not yet been proposed. This paper answers two questions: What are Gatsby curves? When do they exist? We build a theoretical environment in which parental investment and education improve the economic prospects of children. Gatsbian economies and Gatsby curves are formally defined, and we characterize the conditions under which they will arise. We show that an economy may go from being Gatsbian to non-Gatsbian. Finally, we show that the better network of relations of those with high-paying jobs may also generate a Gatsbian economy.
    Keywords: D31 ; H52 ; J31 ; J62 ; ddc:330 ; intergenerational mobility ; income inequality ; education
    Repository Name: EconStor: OA server of the German National Library of Economics - Leibniz Information Centre for Economics
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  • 20
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    Munich: Center for Economic Studies and Ifo Institute (CESifo)
    Publication Date: 2020-03-25
    Description: Labor market opportunities and wages may be unfair for various reasons, and how workers respond to different types of unfairness can have major economic consequences. Using an online labor platform, where workers engage in an individual task for a piece-rate wage, we investigate the causal effect of neutral and gender-discriminatory unfair chances on labor supply. We randomize workers into treatments where we control relative pay and chances to receive a low or a high wage. Chances can be fair, unfair based on an unspecified source, or unfair based on gender discrimination. Unequal pay reduces labor supply of low-wage workers, irrespective of whether the low wage is the result of fair or unfair chances. Importantly, the source of unfair chances matters. When a low wage is the result of gender-discriminatory chances, workers matched with a high-wage worker substantially reduce their labor supply compared to the case of equal low wages (-22%). This decrease is twice as large as those induced by low wages due to fair chances or unfair chances coming from an unspecified source. In addition, exploratory analysis suggests that in response to unequal pay, low-wage male workers reduce labor supply irrespective of the source of inequality, whereas low-wage female workers reduce labor supply only if unequal pay is due to gender-discriminatory chances. Our results concerning gender discrimination indicate a new reason for the lower labor supply of women, which is a prominent explanation for the gender gap in earnings.
    Keywords: D90 ; E24 ; J22 ; J31 ; J71 ; M50 ; ddc:330 ; labor supply ; wage inequality ; procedural fairness ; gender discrimination
    Repository Name: EconStor: OA server of the German National Library of Economics - Leibniz Information Centre for Economics
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  • 21
    Publication Date: 2020-03-25
    Description: Estimating economic earnings mobility is imperative for understanding the degree to which low pay employment is a temporary or long-term position. The current literature estimates transition probabilities between low and higher pay. This study extends the focus to identify the underlying pecuniary wage change via construction of an intermediate pay zone marginally above low pay. Utilising monthly administrative data we find that individuals with a strong attachment to the low pay sector have a very low probability of shifting into higher pay. Further, these individuals also have a substantially greater risk of experiencing a low pay-no pay cycle relative to those who are intermediate or higher paid. Notably, this finding is only uncovered using within year variation in wages to reveal intensity of labour market attachment.
    Keywords: J62 ; J31 ; C33 ; C55 ; ddc:330 ; low pay dynamics ; transition probability ; state dependence ; dynamic models ; administrative data
    Repository Name: EconStor: OA server of the German National Library of Economics - Leibniz Information Centre for Economics
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  • 22
    Publication Date: 2020-03-25
    Description: Labor market opportunities and wages may be unfair for various reasons, and how workers respond to different types of unfairness can have major economic consequences. Using an online labor platform, where workers engage in an individual task for a piece-rate wage, we investigate the causal effect of neutral and gender-discriminatory unfair chances on labor supply. We randomize workers into treatments where we control relative pay and chances to receive a low or a high wage. Chances can be fair, unfair based on an unspecified source, or unfair based on gender discrimination. Unequal pay reduces labor supply of low-wage workers, irrespective of whether the low wage is the result of fair or unfair chances. Importantly, the source of unfair chances matters. When a low wage is the result of gender-discriminatory chances, workers matched with a high-wage worker substantially reduce their labor supply compared to the case of equal low wages (–22%). This decrease is twice as large as those induced by low wages due to fair chances or unfair chances coming from an unspecified source. In addition, exploratory analysis suggests that in response to unequal pay, low-wage male workers reduce labor supply irrespective of the source of inequality, whereas low-wage female workers reduce labor supply only if unequal pay is due to gender-discriminatory chances. Our results concerning gender discrimination indicate a new reason for the lower labor supply of women, which is a prominent explanation for the gender gap in earnings.
    Keywords: D90 ; E24 ; J22 ; J31 ; J71 ; M5 ; ddc:330 ; labor supply ; wage inequality ; procedural fairness ; gender discrimination
    Repository Name: EconStor: OA server of the German National Library of Economics - Leibniz Information Centre for Economics
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  • 23
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    Bonn: Institute of Labor Economics (IZA)
    Publication Date: 2020-03-25
    Description: Using population-wide Swedish register data on cognitive abilities and productive personality traits, we show that employment growth has been monotonically skill-biased in terms of these general-purpose intellectual skills, despite a simultaneous (polarizing) decline in middle-wage jobs. Employees in declining mid-wage occupations have comparably little of these general intellectual skills. Conversely, growing low-wage occupations are more (intellectually) skill-intensive than other low-wage jobs. Employment has primarily increased in occupations where workers are endowed with verbal and technical abilities, and social maturity. Existing occupational projections imply that the relationship between employment growth and skills in the projected future will resemble the past.
    Keywords: J21 ; J31 ; ddc:330 ; skills ; polarization ; future of work
    Repository Name: EconStor: OA server of the German National Library of Economics - Leibniz Information Centre for Economics
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  • 24
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    Bonn: Institute of Labor Economics (IZA)
    Publication Date: 2020-03-25
    Description: We use a unique question from the Irish Labour Force Survey that captures the reasons for workers being paid below the minimum wage. Compared to existing work, this allows us to more precisely identify sub-minimum wage workers. We find that 5.6 percent of minimum wage workers are paid below the minimum wage for reasons other than those permitted under legislation. This is considerably lower than estimates reported in the existing literature.
    Keywords: J22 ; J23 ; J31 ; J32 ; ddc:330 ; non-compliance ; minimum wage
    Repository Name: EconStor: OA server of the German National Library of Economics - Leibniz Information Centre for Economics
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  • 25
    Publication Date: 2020-03-25
    Description: We use distributional regression analysis to study the impact of a six percent increase in the Irish minimum wage on the distribution of hourly wages and household income. Wage inequality, measured by the ratio of wages in the 90th and 10th percentiles and the 75th and 25th percentiles, decreased by approximately eight percent and four percent respectively. For young workers, aged under 25, the effects were far greater, with a 24 percent reduction in the ratio of wages in the 90th and 10th percentiles. The results point towards wage spillover effects up to the 30th percentile of the wage distribution. We show that minimum wage workers are spread throughout the household income distribution and are often located in high-income households. Therefore, while we observe strong effects on the wage distribution, the impact of a minimum wage increase on the household income distribution is quite limited.
    Keywords: J31 ; J38 ; K31 ; ddc:330 ; minimum wage ; inequality ; wage spillovers ; distributional regression
    Repository Name: EconStor: OA server of the German National Library of Economics - Leibniz Information Centre for Economics
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  • 26
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    Tübingen: University of Tübingen, Faculty of Economics and Social Sciences
    Publication Date: 2020-03-26
    Description: Executives are often paid for short-term changes in shareholder wealth, but rational shareholders want executives to maximize long-term shareholder wealth. Incentives for short-term and long-term oriented behavior may depend on an executive's level of pay in the distribution, holding other factors constant. This paper tests for distributional heterogeneity of short-term and long-term incentives in a 12 year cross-country panel of executives. I use the band-pass filter to separate short-term and long-term shareholder wealth changes (Christiano and Fitzgerald, 2003), and estimate of the shareholder wealth-pay relation using method of moments-quantile regression, developed by Machado and Santos Silva (2019), which accounts for time-constant unobserved heterogeneity of executive-firm pairs across the distribution. When using yearly total compensation to measure pay, executives in the upper tail of the conditional compensation distribution have longer-term oriented incentives. In contrast, when accumulated executive wealth is used to measure pay, executives in the upper tail of the wealth distribution have shorter-term oriented incentives. Since executive wealth encompasses changes to executive utility after pay is granted through accumulated equity-linked pay, it is the preferred measure for evaluating equity-linked pay. Results thus suggest that equity-linked pay should have a longer vesting period for executives in the upper tail than in the lower tail. I find evidence that executives in the upper-tail are evaluated relatively to the industry's short-run and long-run performance.
    Keywords: J31 ; M12 ; M52 ; ddc:330 ; Executive Compensation ; Method of Moments-Quantile Regression ; Short-Term Performance ; Long-Term Performance ; Distribution ; Benchmarking
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  • 27
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    Nürnberg: Friedrich-Alexander-Universität Erlangen-Nürnberg, Lehrstuhl für Arbeitsmarkt- und Regionalpolitik
    Publication Date: 2020-03-27
    Description: Using representative linked employer-employee data for Germany, this paper analyzes short- and long-run differences in labor market performance of workers joining start-ups instead of incumbent firms. Applying entropy balancing and following individuals over ten years, we find huge and long-lasting drawbacks from entering a start-up in terms of wages, yearly income, and (un)employment. These disadvantages hold for all groups of workers and types of start-ups analyzed. Although our analysis of different subsequent career paths highlights important heterogeneities, it does not reveal any strategy through which workers joining start-ups can catch up with the income of similar workers entering incumbent firms.
    Description: Mit verbundenen Arbeitgeber-Arbeitnehmer-Daten für Deutschland analysiert diese Studie kurz- und langfristige Unterschiede im Arbeitsmarkterfolg von Arbeitnehmern, die in neu gegründete statt bestehende Betriebe eintreten. Wir verwenden Entropy Balancing und folgen den Individuen in der Beobachtungs- und Kontrollgruppe über zehn Jahre. Dabei finden wir große und langanhaltende Nachteile eines Eintritts in Gründungen bezüglich Lohn, Jahresarbeitseinkommen, Beschäftigung und Arbeitslosigkeit. Diese Nachteile treffen auf alle betrachteten Arbeitnehmergruppen und Gründungstypen zu. Obwohl wir bei Betrachtung unterschiedlicher Karrierepfade einige wichtige Heterogenitäten identifizieren, zeigt sich keine Strategie, durch die in Gründungen eingetretene Arbeitnehmer zum Einkommen ähnlicher Arbeitnehmer aufschließen können, die in bestehende Unternehmen eintraten.
    Keywords: J31 ; J63 ; L26 ; M51 ; ddc:330 ; startups ; young firms ; wages ; linked employer-employee data
    Repository Name: EconStor: OA server of the German National Library of Economics - Leibniz Information Centre for Economics
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  • 28
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    Frankfurt a. M.: Leibniz Institute for Financial Research SAFE
    Publication Date: 2020-04-03
    Description: We extend the canonical income process with persistent and transitory risk to shock distributions with left-skewness and excess kurtosis, to which we refer as higherorder risk. We estimate our extended income process by GMM for household data from the United States. We find countercyclical variance and procyclical skewness of persistent shocks. All shock distributions are highly leptokurtic. The existing tax and transfer system reduces dispersion and left-skewness of shocks. We then show that in a standard incomplete-markets life-cycle model, first, higher-order risk has sizable welfare implications, which depend crucially on risk attitudes of households; second, higher-order risk matters quantitatively for the welfare costs of cyclical idiosyncratic risk; third, higher-order risk has non-trivial implications for the degree of self-insurance against both transitory and persistent shocks.
    Keywords: D31 ; E24 ; E32 ; H31 ; J31 ; ddc:330 ; Labor Income Risk ; Business Cycle ; GMM Estimation ; Skewness,Persistent and Transitory Income Shocks ; Risk Attitudes ; Life-Cycle Model
    Repository Name: EconStor: OA server of the German National Library of Economics - Leibniz Information Centre for Economics
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  • 29
    Publication Date: 2020-04-02
    Description: This paper evaluates the short-run impact of the introduction of a statutory minimum wage in Germany on the hourly wages and monthly earnings of workers targeted by the reform. We first provide detailed descriptive evidence of changes to the wage structure in particular at the bottom of the distribution and distinguish between trends for regularly employed and marginally employed workers. In the causal analysis, we then employ a differential trend adjusted difference-in-differences (DTADD) strategy to identify the extent to which these changes in wages and earnings can be attributed to the minimum wage introduction. We find that the minimum wage introduction can account for hourly wage growth in the order of roughly 6.5 % or €0.45/hour and an increase in monthly earnings of 6.6 % or €53/month. Despite finding wage growth at the bottom of the distribution, the paper documents widespread non-compliance with the mandated wage floor of €8.50/hour.
    Keywords: J31 ; J38 ; J22 ; ddc:330 ; Minimum wage ; Wage and earnings structure ; Inequality
    Repository Name: EconStor: OA server of the German National Library of Economics - Leibniz Information Centre for Economics
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  • 30
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    Stuttgart: Universität Hohenheim, Fakultät Wirtschafts- und Sozialwissenschaften
    Publication Date: 2019-07-04
    Description: Social stratification is determined not only by income, education, race, and gender, but also by an individual's job characteristics and their position in the industrial structure. Utilizing a dataset of 76.6 million Brazilian workers and methods from network science, we map the Brazilian Industry- Occupation Space (BIOS). The BIOS measures the extent to which 600 occupations co-appear in 585 industries, resulting in a complex network that shows how industrial-occupational communities provide important information on the network segmentation of society. Gender, race, education, and income are concentrated unevenly across the core-periphery structure of the BIOS. Moreover, we identify 28 industrial occupational communities from the BIOS network structure and report their contribution to total income inequality in Brazil. Finally, we quantify the relative poverty within these communities. In sum, the BIOS reveals how the coupling of industries and occupations contributes to mapping social stratification.
    Keywords: J31 ; L0 ; Z13 ; ddc:330 ; labor markets ; social structure ; stratification ; economic sociology ; wages ; inequality
    Repository Name: EconStor: OA server of the German National Library of Economics - Leibniz Information Centre for Economics
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  • 31
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    Essen: Global Labor Organization (GLO)
    Publication Date: 2019-07-04
    Description: This study examines the gender wage gap in the US using two separate cross-sections from the Current Population Survey (CPS). The extensive literature on this subject includes papers which use wage decompositions to divide gender wag gaps into “explained” and “unexplained” components. Problems with this approach include the heterogeneity of the sample data. In order to address the difficulties of comparing like with like this study uses a number of different matching techniques to obtain estimates of the gap. By controlling for a wide range of other influences, in effect, we estimate the direct effect of simply being female on wages. However, to form a complete picture, one should consider that gender wages are affected by a number of other factors such as parenthood, gender segregation, part-time working and unionization. This means that it is not just the core “like for like” comparison between male and female wages that matters but also how gender wage differences interact with other relevant risk factors which are more common for women. That these interactions exist has already been discussed in the literature but evidence that precisely or systematically estimates such effects remains scarce. The most innovative contribution of this study is to do that. Our findings imply that the idea of a single uniform gender pay gap is perhaps less useful than an understanding of how gender wages are shaped by multiple different forces.
    Keywords: C31 ; J16 ; J31 ; K38 ; ddc:330 ; gender pay ; Current Population Survey ; part-time working ; gender segregation ; unionization ; sample selection bias ; matching ; IPWRA ; USA
    Repository Name: EconStor: OA server of the German National Library of Economics - Leibniz Information Centre for Economics
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  • 32
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    Bonn: Institute of Labor Economics (IZA)
    Publication Date: 2019-03-02
    Description: Deregulation and managerial compensation are two important topics on the political and academic agenda. The former has been a significant policy recommendation in light of the negative effects associated with overly restrictive regulation on markets and the economy. The latter relates to the sharp increase in top executives’ pay and the nature of the link between pay and performance. To the extent that product-market competition can affect the incentive schemes offered by firms to their executives, the analysis of the effects of competition on the structure of compensation can be informative for policy purposes.
    Keywords: J31 ; J33 ; M52 ; ddc:330 ; barriers to entry ; entry costs ; competition ; executive compensation ; performance-related pay
    Repository Name: EconStor: OA server of the German National Library of Economics - Leibniz Information Centre for Economics
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  • 33
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    Bonn: Institute of Labor Economics (IZA)
    Publication Date: 2019-03-01
    Description: We use quasi-random variation in graduation years during the onset of a very deep national recession to study the relationship between early labor market conditions and young females' family formation outcomes. A policy-pilot affecting the length of upper-secondary vocational tracks allows us to compare females who graduated into the onset of the Swedish financial crisis of the 1990s to those graduating during the final phase of the preceding economic boom while netting out the main effect of the policy. We find pronounced, but short-lived, negative labor market effects from early exposure to the recession for low-grade students in particular. In contrast, we document very long-lasting effects on family formation outcomes, again concentrated among low-grade students. Young women who graduated into the recession because of the policy-pilot formed their first stable partnerships earlier and had their first children earlier. Their partners had lower grades, which we show to be a strong predictor of divorce, and worse labor market performance. Divorces were more prevalent and the ensuing increase in single motherhood was long-lasting. These negative effects on marital stability generated persistent increases in the use of welfare benefits despite the short-lived impact on labor market outcomes. The results suggest that young women respond to early labor market prospects by changing the quality threshold for entering into family formation, a process which affects the frequency of welfare-dependent single mothers during more than a decade thereafter.
    Keywords: E32 ; I26 ; J12 ; J13 ; J22 ; J31 ; ddc:330 ; cost of recessions ; female labor supply ; family formation
    Repository Name: EconStor: OA server of the German National Library of Economics - Leibniz Information Centre for Economics
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  • 34
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    Bonn: Institute of Labor Economics (IZA)
    Publication Date: 2019-03-02
    Description: Measures of individual happiness, or well-being, can guide labor market policies. Individual unemployment, as well as the rate of unemployment in society, have a negative effect on happiness. In contrast, employment protection and un-employment benefits or a basic income can contribute to happiness—though when such policies prolong unintended unemployment, the net effect on national happiness is negative. Active labor market policies that create more job opportunities increase happiness, which in turn increases productivity. Measures of individual happiness should therefore guide labor market policy more explicitly, also with substantial robotization in production.
    Keywords: D31 ; J21 ; J28 ; J31 ; J64 ; J83 ; Z18 ; ddc:330 ; happiness ; well-being ; employment protection ; wage-income distribution ; robotization
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  • 35
    Publication Date: 2019-03-20
    Description: In dieser Studie werden auf der Basis einer Weiterentwicklung des ZEW Mikrosimulationsmodells des Abgaben- Steuer- und Transfersystems fiskalische und individuelle Nettoerträge und Renditen von Bildungsinvestitionen für junge Erwachsene bezogen auf das Jahr 2016 untersucht und mit früheren Schätzungen bezogen auf das Jahr 2012 verglichen. Nach den Ergebnissen liegt die fiskalische Bildungsrendite pro Auszubildenden bei einer Ausbildungsdauer von vier Jahren und über das Erwerbsleben hinweg bei 20,6%, im Vergleich zu einer Person ohne Berufsausbildung. Im Falle von Personen mit einem Schul- und Hochschulabschluss, erworben im Alter zwischen 17 und 25 Jahren und betrachtet bis zum Alter von 66 Jahren, beträgt die fiskalische Rendite 10,2%, ebenfalls im Vergleich zu einer Person ohne Berufsausbildung. Während die individuellen Bildungsrenditen aus dem Bruttoeinkommen im Mittel bei über 10% liegen, schrumpfen sie nach Abzug von Steuern und Sozialabgaben sowie aufgrund des Transferentzugs auf etwa 6%. Dies verdeutlicht empirisch das Ausmaß signifikanter Interdependenzen zwischen Bildungs-, Steuer- und Sozialpolitik. Im Vergleich zu 2012 sind die fiskalischen Renditen für die Ausbildung etwas gestiegen und für die Kombination Schule/Studium etwas gefallen.
    Keywords: I21 ; I28 ; J31 ; ddc:330 ; Bildungsinvestitionen ; Bildungsrenditen ; Steuer- und Transsystem
    Repository Name: EconStor: OA server of the German National Library of Economics - Leibniz Information Centre for Economics
    Language: German
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  • 36
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    Berlin: Deutsches Institut für Wirtschaftsforschung (DIW)
    Publication Date: 2019-03-20
    Description: Women-friendly policies may have perverse effects on the wages of employed women and mothers in particular. Yet few have addressed the causal impact of such policies and the mechanisms they might trigger at the individual level to produce such wage responses. We assess if and how two decades of reforms of parental leave schemes in Germany have shaped changes in the motherhood wage penalty over time. We compare two sweeps of reforms inspired by opposite principles, one allowing for longer periods out of paid work, the other prompting quicker re-entry in the labour market. We deploy panel data (SOEP 1985-2014) and a within-person difference-in-differences design. Motherhood wage penalties were found to be harsher than previously assessed in the 1990s. As parental leave reform triggered longer time spent on leave coupled with better tenure accumulation, wage losses for mothers remained stable in this first period. Conversely, we can no longer detect motherhood wage penalties for women affected by the later reform. Shorter career breaks and increased work hours may have benefited new mothers in the late 2000s, leading to a substantial improvement in their wage prospects.
    Keywords: D13 ; J13 ; J16 ; J31 ; ddc:330 ; parental leave ; motherhood wage penalty ; difference-in-difference ; gender inequality
    Repository Name: EconStor: OA server of the German National Library of Economics - Leibniz Information Centre for Economics
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  • 37
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    Berlin: Deutsches Institut für Wirtschaftsforschung (DIW)
    Publication Date: 2019-03-20
    Description: Based on the German Socio-Economic Panel, the influence of the body mass index on health, earnings and satisfaction is analysed by gender. Basic results are: health worsens, income declines and satisfaction is poorer with higher body mass index. If control variables are added, estimates are split by gender and different effects of over- and underweight people are determined, the health estimates show nonlinear effects but the direction of action is unchanged. Effects on earnings differ. Underweight women earn more and overweight less than others. For normal-weight men the income is on average higher than for over- and underweight men. This is also confirmed for self-employed persons. The pattern for employees is equal to the total sample. No effects on life satisfaction can be found except for underweight men. They reveal less satisfaction. Only in the public sector the sign of the coefficient changes. The results for eastern Germany are different with respect to satisfaction. Overweight women are less satisfied than others while this is not confirmed for underweight men from eastern Germany. When interdependencies are taken into account and matching procedures are applied, the outcome matches to that of independent and unmatched estimates. However, no clear-cut disadvantage in income of underweight men can be found. Stable coefficients result for the health estimates while satisfaction results fluctuate. Underweight women and especially underweight men tend to less happiness. For overweight men the influence is ambiguous but more speaks in favour of a less level of satisfaction. Overweight women seem to be happier.
    Keywords: I15 ; I31 ; J16 ; J31 ; ddc:330 ; over- and underweight ; health ; income ; satisfaction ; gender ; self-confidence ; wage earners vs. self-employed ; private vs. public sector ; eastern vs. western Germany ; interdependencies ; matching
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  • 38
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    Berlin: Deutsches Institut für Wirtschaftsforschung (DIW)
    Publication Date: 2019-03-20
    Description: Part-time work has vastly expanded in most OECD labor markets during the last decades. At the same time, full- and part-time wages have grown increasingly apart, leading to a substantial raw part-time wage penalty. Using quantile regression methods, this paper analyses the female part-time wage gap across the wage distribution and over time (1990-2009), while controlling for sample selection into full- and part-time employment. The estimated part-time gap is much lower than the raw gap. Nonetheless, a persistent part-time penalty is found for the lowest wage quartile. The wide divide between the observed and estimated part-time gap is due to strong positive selection into full-time work, which increases over time. On the contrary, sample selection into part-time employment goes from being positive at the beginning of the 1990s to disappearing by the end of the 2000s, even turning negative at the lower end of the distribution. An exploration of potential mechanisms reveals a large prevalence of job mismatch at the lower end of the part-time wage distribution as well as rising differences in the distribution of job tasks between full- and part-time employment.
    Keywords: J31 ; J21 ; ddc:330 ; part-time employment ; female wages ; selection into employment ; quantile regression
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  • 39
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    Bonn: Institute of Labor Economics (IZA)
    Publication Date: 2019-03-02
    Description: The escalation in chief executive officer (CEO) pay over recent decades, both in absolute terms and in relation to the earnings of production workers, has generated considerable attention. The pay of top executives has grown noticeably in relation to overall firm profitability. The pay gap between CEOs in the US and those in other developed countries narrowed substantially during the 2000s, making top executive pay an international concern. Researchers have taken positions on both sides of the debate over whether the level of CEO pay is economically justified or is the result of managerial power.
    Keywords: J31 ; M52 ; ddc:330 ; top executive pay ; CEO compensation
    Repository Name: EconStor: OA server of the German National Library of Economics - Leibniz Information Centre for Economics
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  • 40
    Publication Date: 2019-03-21
    Description: Der Gender Pay Gap beträgt in Deutschland 21 Prozent und ist in Teilen darauf zurückzuführen, dass Männer und Frauen in unterschiedlichen Berufen arbeiten. Allerdings sind auch innerhalb der Berufe beachtliche Verdienstunterschiede zwischen Männern und Frauen zu beobachten, deren Höhe sich aber zwischen den Berufen stark unterscheidet. Der Gender Pay Gap ist in den Berufen besonders stark ausgeprägt, in denen der Stundenlohn überproportional mit den Arbeitsstunden ansteigt. Außerdem weisen Berufe mit einem großen Anteil an Führungspositionen einen höheren Gender Pay Gap auf. Berufe, die größtenteils in öffentlichen Unternehmen ausgeführt werden, haben tendenziell kleinere Verdienstlücken. Veränderungen in der Arbeitsorganisation, die flexiblere Arbeitszeiten und Top-Sharing, also dem Aufteilen einer Führungsposition auf zwei Teilzeitstellen, ermöglichen, könnten dazu beitragen, dass der Gender Pay Gap sinkt. Zudem könnten Tarifverträge, wie sie im meist bei öffentlichen Arbeitgebern gelten, zu einer Reduzierung des Gender Pay Gaps führen.
    Keywords: J16 ; J31 ; J33 ; J22 ; J24 ; ddc:330 ; Gender Pay Gap ; wage distribution ; Part Time Gap ; occupations
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    Language: German
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  • 41
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    Essen: RWI - Leibniz-Institut für Wirtschaftsforschung
    Publication Date: 2019-04-06
    Description: With increasing educational attainment in Germany, the issue of inefficient human capital allocation gains importance. Especially overeducation seems to be a problem, since more and more highly educated individuals are required to take jobs that do not match their educational level, settling for lower wages than their peers. This raises the question, how these individuals perform in these jobs and whether they have an advantage compared to their adequately educated colleagues performing the same job. The career mobility model suggests that this is indeed the case, with overeducated workers being more prone to take up on-the-job training, to climb up the career ladder, or to eventually leave to professions more suitable to their educational level. Our empirical analysis, using the German SOEP, confirms this theory for Germany. We find that overeducated workers have a significantly higher probability to take up on-the-job training than adequately educated workers and, at least in certain jobs, have a higher probability to move to jobs that better match their educational level. Furthermore, we find that overeducated workers experience higher wage growth than their colleagues in all job types.
    Description: Mit steigendem Bildungsgrad gewinnt das Problem der ineffizienten Humankapitalallokation in Deutschland immer mehr an Bedeutung. Besonders Überqualifikation scheint ein Problem zu sein, da immer mehr hoch qualifizierte Personen Jobs annehmen, die nicht ihrem Bildungsniveau entsprechen und sich mit geringeren Löhnen zufriedengeben als adäquat qualifizierte Arbeitnehmer. Dies wirft die Frage auf, wie diese Personen in ihren Berufen abschneiden und ob sie einen Vorteil gegenüber ihren adäquat qualifizierten Kollegen in der gleichen Tätigkeit haben. Nach dem "Career Mobility Model" ist dies in der Tat der Fall, da überqualifizierte Arbeitskräfte mit höherer Wahrscheinlichkeit an innerbetrieblichen Weiterbildungsmaßnahmen teilnehmen, beruflich aufsteigen, oder in einen an ihre entsprechende Qualifikation angepassten Beruf übergehen. Unsere empirische Analyse unter Verwendung des SOEP kann diese Theorie für Deutschland bestätigen. Wir stellen fest, dass überqualifizierte Arbeitskräfte eine deutlich höhere Wahrscheinlichkeit aufweisen an betrieblichen Weiterbildungsmaßnahmen teilzunehmen. Außerdem zeigt sich zumindest in bestimmten Berufen, dass Überqualifikation im Vergleich zu adäquater Qualifikation mit einer erhöhten beruflichen Aufwärtsmobilität einhergeht. Darüber hinaus stellen wir fest, dass überqualifizierte Arbeitnehmer in allen Beschäftigungsarten einen höheren Lohnzuwachs als ihre Arbeitskollegen aufweisen.
    Keywords: I26 ; J24 ; J31 ; ddc:330 ; education ; educational mismatch ; wages ; job mobility ; training
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  • 42
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    Hannover: Leibniz Universität Hannover, Wirtschaftswissenschaftliche Fakultät
    Publication Date: 2019-10-18
    Description: This study provides new evidence on the levels of economic integration experienced by foreigners and naturalised immigrants relative to native Germans from 1994 to 2015. We decompose the wage gap using the method for unconditional quantile regression models by employing a regression of the (recentered) influence function (RIF) of the gross hourly wage on a rich set of explanatory variables. This approach enables us to estimate contributions made across the whole wage distribution. To allow for a detailed characterization of labour market conditions, we consider a comprehensive set of socio-economic and labour-related aspects capturing influences of, e.g., human capital quality, cultural background, and the personalities of immigrants. The decomposition results clearly indicate a significant growing gap with higher wages for both foreigners (13.6 to 17.6 percent) and naturalised immigrants (10.0 to 16.4 percent). The findings further display a low explanation for the wage gap in low wage deciles that is even more pronounced within immigrant subgroups. Cultural and economic distances each have a significant influence on wages. A different appreciation of foreign educational qualifications, however, widens the wage gap substantially by 4.5 ppts on average. Moreover, we observe an indication of deterioration of immigrants' human capital endowments over time relative to those of native Germans.
    Keywords: J61 ; J31 ; J15 ; ddc:330 ; Immigration ; wage gap ; unconditional quantile regression ; Germany
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    Bonn: Institute of Labor Economics (IZA)
    Publication Date: 2019-11-21
    Description: Die Arbeitswelt wandelt sich hin zu komplexeren und interaktiveren Tätigkeiten. Dabei wächst die Bedeutung von Wissen und intrinsischer Motivation, während die Messbarkeit von Leistungen anhand einfacher Zielindikatoren zurückgeht und individuelle leistungsorientierte Vergütungsbestandteile Fehlanreize setzen können, wie neuere Erkenntnisse aus der Verhaltensökonomie belegen. Deshalb müssen Vergütungsmodelle den Anforderungen der modernen Arbeitswelt gerecht werden und entsprechend verändert werden. Für die Zukunft bieten sich vor allem drei Bausteine bei der variablen Vergütung an: erstens eine Vergütung, die am Firmen- oder Teamerfolg ansetzt anstatt individuellen Erfolg zu prämieren; zweitens Entlohnungs- und Arbeitsgestaltungsmodelle nach dem Cafeteria-Prinzip mit individuellen Wahlmöglichkeiten; und drittens können Kapitalbeteiligungen neben dem verteilungspolitischen Aspekt die Motivation steigern, ohne viel Detailsteuerung zu benötigen.
    Keywords: J31 ; J33 ; J54 ; ddc:330 ; Vergütung ; Leistungsanreize ; variable Entgeltbestandteile ; Kapitalbeteiligung ; Zukunft der Arbeit
    Repository Name: EconStor: OA server of the German National Library of Economics - Leibniz Information Centre for Economics
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  • 44
    Publication Date: 2019-11-21
    Description: Der vorliegende Beitrag analysiert die bisherigen Erfahrungen mit dem im Sommer 2017 in Deutschland in Kraft getretenen Entgelttransparenzgesetz. Dass dieses ohne spürbare Effekte verpufft, liegt nur vordergründig an seiner zu geringen Reichweite und fehlenden Verbindlichkeit. Tatsächlich ist die Entgeltlücke nur in geringem Umfang auf Diskriminierung zurückzuführen, weshalb politische Maßnahmen für mehr Lohngleichheit, die sich auf das Lohnniveau selbst konzentrieren, nur wenig Einfluss auf die geschlechterspezifische Entgeltlücke haben. Statt der Symptome sollten die ökonomischen Ursachen bekämpft werden. Effektive Maßnahmen gleichen die Lebensarbeitszeit von Frauen und Männern an.
    Keywords: J16 ; J31 ; J71 ; J78 ; ddc:330 ; Gender Pay Gap ; Ungleichheit ; Diskriminierung
    Repository Name: EconStor: OA server of the German National Library of Economics - Leibniz Information Centre for Economics
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    Munich: Center for Economic Studies and Ifo Institute (CESifo)
    Publication Date: 2019-12-04
    Description: We present an equilibrium model with inter-linked frictional labour and marriage markets. Women’s flow value of being single is treated as given, and it captures returns from employment. Single unemployed men conduct a so-called constrained sequential job search, and can choose to improve their labour market returns as well as their marriage prospects by under-taking a costly ex-ante investment in schooling. We establish the existence of market equilibria where a fraction of men get educated, and show that this fraction decreases if women’s labour market returns increase. We also examine the robustness of such equilibria.
    Keywords: D83 ; I26 ; J12 ; J16 ; J31 ; ddc:330 ; frictional markets ; constrained search ; male returns to education
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  • 46
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    Bonn: Institute of Labor Economics (IZA)
    Publication Date: 2019-12-04
    Description: During the last few decades, aggregate wage growth has been very unevenly distributed across space in Germany. While wages in Southern German local labor markets rose by up to 28 log points, they increased only modestly or even declined in the north. Similar results apply to employment changes. Overall, this has led to a strong positive correlation between local wage and employment growth. What is driving these differential trends across space? This paper examines to what extent regions with growing employment are increasingly paying workers higher wage premia or, in contrast, to what extent the quality of workers in growing regions has risen. To decouple the demand for skill and supply of skill from each other, I estimate how regional wage premia have changed over time using administrative panel data that allow me to hold constant changes in unobserved worker quality. I find that wage premia in regions with expanding employment did not rise more than in regions with declining employment. Instead, the quality of workers in growing regions went up. I investigate the importance of various possible observables for this relationship including local amenity differences, changes in occupation and industry structure as well as variation in education rates. Last, I explore the impact of changing wage premia and changing worker quality on the recent rise in the density wage premium.
    Keywords: R11 ; R12 ; J21 ; J24 ; J31 ; ddc:330 ; location choice ; density premium ; Roy model
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  • 47
    Publication Date: 2019-12-05
    Description: Employee representatives in firms are a potentially key but not yet studied source of the impact of unions and works councils. Their actions can shape multiple drivers of firm performance, including collective bargaining, strikes, and training. This paper examines the impact of union rep mandates by exploiting legal membership thresholds present in many countries. In the case of Portugal, which we examine here, while firms employing up to 49 union members are required to have one union rep, this increases to two (three) union reps for firms with 50 to 99 (100-199) union members. Drawing on matched employer- employee data on the unionised sector and regression discontinuity methods, we find that a one percentage point increase in the legal union rep/members ratio leads to an increase in firm performance of at least 7%. This result generally holds across multiple dimensions of firm performance and appears to be driven by increased training. However, we find no effects of union reps on firm-level wages, given the predominance of sectoral collective bargaining.
    Keywords: J51 ; J31 ; L25 ; ddc:330 ; Firm Performance ; Union Delegates ; Collective Bargaining
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  • 48
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    München: ifo Institut – Leibniz-Institut für Wirtschaftsforschung an der Universität München
    Publication Date: 2019-06-26
    Description: This doctoral thesis analyses the impact of education and other determinants on labour market outcomes using microeconometric methods. Chapter 1 serves as an introduction. Chapter 2 uses a randomised field experiment among German human resource managers to evaluate which skill signals such as cognitive skills, social skills and maturity are valued by employers when considering the CVs of applicants who enter the labour market. Results indicate that signals in all three studied domains - cognitive skills, social skills, and maturity - affect the probability of being invited for a job interview. GPAs and social skills prove relevant for both genders and both groups of labour-market entrants. The relevance of other signals differs in terms of credibility, relevance, and expectedness by gender and education level. Females are particularly rewarded for IT and language skills and males for maturity. Chapter 3 analyses the impact of beliefs about refugees' education levels on natives' general attitudes towards refugees. In a survey experiment among 5000 university students, we shift respondents' beliefs by providing randomized differing information about education level of refugees. Results show that shifting beliefs towards better education of refugees increases the concerns about labour-market competition of high-skilled natives but does not affect general attitudes. This is because economic aspects are rather unimportant for forming opinions about refugees, as opposed to humanitarian aspects.Chapter 4 analyses the effect of a labour market deregulation on the demand and supply side of the labour market. The deregulation was an amendment to the Trade and Crafts code of Germany regarding the requirement to become self-employed craftsmen. Using individual social security data and micro census data, the project sheds light on the impact of the reform. Results show that while the reform drastically increased the number of businesses in deregulated craft occupations, the effect on earnings and employment for incumbent workers was slightly negative. The reform also failed to increase overall employment in the crafts sector and had no effect on self-employed craftsmen.Chapter 5 analyses the impact of regional structural change caused by exposure to import competition from China and Eastern Europe on vocational occupation choices of adolescents. Manufacturing jobs are skill-specific, while service jobs are more general, meaning they teach transferable skills that can be applied to new jobs or technologies. The analysis shows that despite decreasing employment in manufacturing in their region, adolescents choose more skill-specific occupations in manufacturing. This has negative consequences for their later labour market outcomes.
    Description: Diese Dissertation untersucht mittels mikroökonometrischer Methoden den Einfluss von Bildung und anderen Determinanten auf den Arbeitsmarkterfolg von Individuen. Kapitel 1 dient als Einleitung. In Kapitel 2 wird der Einfluss von Fähigkeitssignalen wie kognitiven und sozialen Fähigkeiten, auf die Einstellungswahrscheinlichkeit bei Bewerbern auf dem Arbeitsmarkt untersucht. Es handelt sich um ein randomisiertes Feld- bzw. Befragungsexperiment unter einer repräsentativen Stichprobe an Personalleitern in Deutschland. Die Ergebnisse zeigen, dass sich Fähigkeitssignale in allen drei untersuchten Kategorien – kognitive und soziale Fähigkeiten sowie Reife – positiv auf die Wahrscheinlichkeit auswirken, zu einem Bewerbungsgespräch eingeladen zu werden. Abschlussnoten und soziale Fähigkeiten erweisen sich für männliche und weibliche Bewerber sowie für Lehrstellenbewerber und Hochschulabsolventen gleichermaßen als relevant. Die Bedeutung anderer Signale unterscheidet sich je nach Geschlecht und Bildungsstand in Bezug auf Glaubwürdigkeit, Relevanz und Erwartung. So spielen IT- und Sprachkenntnisse insbesondere bei weiblichen Bewerbern eine große Rolle, während bei männlichen Bewerbern Reifesignale besonders wichtig sind. In Kapitel 3 geht es um den Einfluss des Bildungsgrades von Flüchtlingen auf die Einstellung von Einheimischen gegenüber Flüchtlingen. In einem Befragungsexperiment mit 5000 Studenten in Deutschland, wird durch zufällige Zuteilung von Informationen über das Bildungsniveau von Flüchtlingen, die Wahrnehmung der Teilnehmer hierzu experimentell verändert. Die Ergebnisse zeigen, dass ein höheres wahrgenommenes Bildungsniveau von Flüchtlingen, Sorgen der Teilnehmer um Wettbewerb auf dem Arbeitsmarkt erhöht, jedoch nicht allgemeine Einstellungen beeinflusst. Dies lässt sich dadurch erklären, dass wirtschaftliche Aspekte den Teilnehmern für ihre Meinungsbildung zu Flüchtlingen relativ unwichtig sind, dafür aber humanitäre Aspekte besonders wichtig. In Kapitel 4 wird der Einfluss einer Arbeitsmarktderegulierung auf die Angebots- sowie Nachfrageseite des Arbeitsmarktes untersucht. Gegenstand der Untersuchung ist die Handwerksnovelle von 2004 und der damit einhergegangene Wegfall des Meisterbriefes als notwendige Qualifikation für die Selbstständigkeit in etwa der Hälfte aller Handwerksberufe. Anhand individualer Sozialversicherungsdaten und Mikrozensusdaten werden die Auswirkungen der Reform für beleuchtet. Ergebnisse zeigen, dass die Reform Firm Gründungen erhöht hat aber einen leicht negativen Einfluss auf die Löhne und Beschäftigung von Angestellten hatte, die bereits vor der Reform im jeweiligen Handwerk gearbeitet haben. Auch hat die Reform insgesamt nicht zur Erhöhung der Beschäftigung im Handwerk beigetragen und hatte keinen statistisch signifikanten Einfluss auf die Selbständigen Handwerker. Kapitel 5 schließlich untersucht den Einfluss von regionalem strukturellen Wandel, der durch Importe aus China und Osteuropa verursacht wird, auf die Wahl der Ausbildungsberufe von Jugendlichen. Fertigungsberufe vermitteln eher spezielle Fähigkeiten, während Dienstleistungsberufe eher allgemeine Fähigkeiten vermitteln, die sich in anderen Bereichen anwenden lassen und somit vor Arbeitslosigkeit schützen. Die Ergebnisse zeigen, dass Jugendliche, die in Regionen mit erhöhtem Importdruck aufwachsen, trotzdem eher Ausbildungen in Fertigungsberufen wählen, anstelle von Dienstleistungsberufen. Dies hat negative Auswirkungen auf den späteren Arbeitsmarkterfolg der Jugendlichen.
    Keywords: I20 ; I26 ; J15 ; J24 ; J31 ; J44 ; O33 ; ddc:330 ; Education ; Labour Market Outcomes ; Human Capital ; Cognitive Skills ; Refugees ; Education Level ; Labour Market Deregulation ; Reform Evaluation ; Survey Experiment ; Social Security Data ; Occupation Choice ; Vocational Occupation ; Trade Shocks
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    Mannheim: ZEW - Leibniz-Zentrum für Europäische Wirtschaftsforschung
    Publication Date: 2019-06-29
    Description: Computing power continues to grow at an enormous rate. Simultaneously, more and better data is increasingly available and Machine Learning methods have seen significant breakthroughs in the recent past. All this pushes further the boundary of what machines can do. Nowadays increasingly complex tasks are automatable at a precision which seemed infeasible only few years ago. The examples range from voice and image recognition, playing Go, to self-driving vehicles. Machines are able to perform more and more manual and also cognitive tasks that previously only humans could do. As a result of these developments, some argue that large shares of jobs are "at risk of automation", spurring public fears of massive job-losses and technological unemployment. This chapter discusses how new digital technologies might affect the labor market in the near future. First, the chapter discusses estimates of automation potentials, showing that many estimates are severely upward biased because they ignore that workers in seemingly automatable occupations already take over hard-to-automate tasks. Secondly, it highlights that these numbers only refer to what theoretically could be automated and that this must not be equated with job-losses or employment effects - a mistake that is done often in the public debate. Thirdly, the chapter develops scenarios on how digitalization is likely to affect the German labor market in the next five years and derives implications for policy makers on how to shape the future of work. Germany is an interesting case to study, as it is a developed country at the technological frontier. In particular, the main challenge will not be the number, but the structure of jobs and the corresponding need for supply side adjustments to meet the shift in demand both within and between occupations and sectors.
    Keywords: J23 ; J31 ; O33 ; ddc:330 ; Automation ; Digitalization ; Unemployment ; Inequality
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  • 50
    Publication Date: 2019-07-16
    Description: In many European countries, there is a substantial gender pension gap. Yet, these gaps vary strongly across countries. This cross-national study examines to what extent institutional and labor market-specific factors correlate with gender pension gaps. The findings show that the gender pension gap tends to be larger in countries with larger gender-specific differences in the employment or part-time employment rate. On the contrary, the study does not find a clear statistical relationship between pension gaps and the characteristics of pension systems that were examined. The findings emphasize that gender inequalities in the labor market and in pension income are related across countries. In order to reduce pension gaps, policy makers should strengthen women's working lives by creating better conditions for the reconciliation of work and family. Moreover, they should provide more tax- and family policy-related incentives for a more equal division and acknowledgment of gainful employment and care work in the household context.
    Keywords: H55 ; J14 ; J16 ; J22 ; J31 ; J32 ; ddc:330 ; Gender Pension Gap ; Europe ; pension system ; labor market inequality ; gender inequality ; SHARE
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    Publication Date: 2019-07-13
    Description: By merging administrative data on public finances of all municipalities in Germany with individual data from the German Socio-Economic Panel, we explore whether local public expenditures on sports facilities influences individual labor market outcomes. Our identification strategy follows a selection-on-observables approach and exploits the panel structure of the data covering 12 years between 2001 and 2012. The results of our matching estimations suggest that both women and men living in municipalities with high expenditure levels benefit, exhibiting approximately 7 percent of additional household net income on average. However, this income effect is fully captured by earning gains for men rather than women living in the household. Additional analysis suggests, that these gender differences, which can also be observed in terms of working time, hourly wage and employment status, appear plausible since women in the age cohort under consideration are less likely than men to engage in sports in general and in any of the publicly funded sports facilities in particular. Moreover, improved well-being and health are possible mechanisms that determine how the positive labor market effects for men may unfold.
    Keywords: Z20 ; H72 ; H75 ; J31 ; ddc:330 ; labor market effects ; public expenditures ; sports ; health ; well-being
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    Berlin: Deutsches Institut für Wirtschaftsforschung (DIW)
    Publication Date: 2019-07-16
    Description: In vielen europäischen Ländern lässt sich eine erhebliche geschlechtsspezifische Rentenlücke verzeichnen. Die Gender Pension Gaps variieren jedoch stark zwischen den Ländern. Diese länderübergreifende Studie analysiert, welche institutionellen und arbeitsmarktspezifischen Faktoren in einem Zusammenhang mit den Gender Pension Gaps stehen. Die Ergebnisse zeigen, dass die Gender Pension Gaps tendenziell in denjenigen Ländern größer sind, die einen größeren geschlechtsspezifischen Unterschied in der Erwerbstätigenquote oder in der Teilzeitquote aufweisen. Dagegen lässt sich kein eindeutiger statistischer Zusammenhang mit den untersuchten Merkmalen der Rentensysteme in Europa identifizieren. Die Ergebnisse unterstreichen damit, dass die Geschlechterungleichheiten am Arbeitsmarkt und im Renteneinkommen zusammenhängen. Um die Rentenlücken zu reduzieren, sollten daher die Erwerbsbiografien von Frauen gestärkt werden, indem die Politik bessere Voraussetzungen für die Vereinbarkeit von Familie und Beruf schafft. Zudem sollte sie steuerlich und familienpolitisch genug Anreize setzen, damit die Erwerbs- und Sorgearbeit im Haushaltskontext gleichmäßiger aufgeteilt und honoriert wird.
    Keywords: H55 ; J14 ; J16 ; J22 ; J31 ; J32 ; ddc:330 ; Gender Pension Gap ; Europe ; pension system ; labor market inequality ; gender inequality ; SHARE
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    Berlin: Arbeitskreis Quantitative Steuerlehre (arqus)
    Publication Date: 2019-07-16
    Description: Services are often provided by groups. The question of remuneration arises both at the group level and for each individual group member. We examine the question of how relative pay should be designed within the group if all group members are to regard the payment scheme as fair. We use a three-step laboratory experiment to compare which fairness norms are chosen by high-performing and low-performing group members. It turns out that both types of group members prefer the performance pay principle. Support for equal pay is negligible. However, the low performers use their bargaining power to improve their position, but without deviating from the performance principle substantially. A random influence on the performance of the players does not change the results.
    Keywords: C91 ; C92 ; D31 ; D90 ; J31 ; M52 ; ddc:330 ; performance principle ; fairness norms ; relative remuneration
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    Erlangen: Friedrich-Alexander-Universität Erlangen-Nürnberg, Institute for Economics
    Publication Date: 2019-07-17
    Description: Using administrative employer-employee data from Germany, we investigate the relationship between wages and past and present labor market conditions. Furthermore, we revisit recent findings of greater wage cyclicality of new hires. Overall, we find strong evidence for history dependent wages, manifested in both hiring and retention premiums - which is consistent with a variety of contract models. Taking into account composition effects as well as cyclical variation in unobserved match quality, we find that wages of new hires from unemployment are no more cyclical, but those of job changers are more cyclical than those of existing workers. We argue that much of the excess wage cyclicality of new hires discussed by the literature can be explained by cyclical job ladder movements in match quality of new hires from employment. In a novel empirical approach, where we further take into account occupational selection, we show that if job ladder movements accompany a simultaneous change of employers and occupations, the resulting wages are particularly cyclical sensitive.
    Keywords: E24 ; E32 ; J31 ; J41 ; ddc:330 ; Business Cycle ; Wage ; Wage Rigidity ; Implicit Contracts ; Match Quality
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  • 55
    Publication Date: 2019-07-23
    Description: Effects of different reformatory policies have always been a pulsating concern for the researchers and policy makers. Considering this concern, this paper attempts to check various effects of reformatory policies such as labor market reform, tariff cut, change in subsidy, bureaucratic reform in a typical small open economy comprising of both formal and informal sectors. It has been found that the implications of labor market reform and tariff liberalization for factor prices and wage disparity are distinctly opposite. However, skilled labor of the economy benefits from both labor market reform and export subsidy. Next we extend the basic model to bring in related corruption in the informal sector for its illegal nature. This calls for the existence of a sector which helps hassle free informal production. There we find that unskilled workers lose owing to both bureaucratic reform and labor market reform. Nevertheless, though traditionally labor market reform is supposed to harm workers, wage disparity gets ameliorated whereas tariff reform leads to worsening of it.
    Keywords: F1 ; J31 ; D5 ; F11 ; F68 ; D73 ; ddc:330 ; International Trade ; Wages ; General Equilibrium ; Economic Policy ; Informal Sector ; Extortion
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  • 56
    Publication Date: 2019-03-27
    Description: Recent studies have proposed causal machine learning (CML) methods to estimate conditional average treatment effects (CATEs). In this study, I investigate whether CML methods add value compared to conventional CATE estimators by re-evaluating Connecticut's Jobs First welfare experiment. This experiment entails a mix of positive and negative work incentives. Previous studies show that it is hard to tackle the effect heterogeneity of Jobs First by means of CATEs. I report evidence that CML methods can provide support for the theoretical labor supply predictions. Furthermore, I document reasons why some conventional CATE estimators fail and discuss the limitations of CML methods.
    Keywords: H75 ; I38 ; J22 ; J31 ; C21 ; ddc:330 ; Labor supply, individualized treatment effects, conditional average treatment effects, random forest
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