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  • Other Sources  (220)
  • Articles (OceanRep)  (220)
  • Springer Nature  (199)
  • ASLO (Association for the Sciences of Limnology and Oceanography)
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  • Other Sources  (220)
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  • Articles (OceanRep)  (220)
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  • 1
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    Springer Nature
    In:  In: Physical Geology of Shallow Magmatic Systems. , ed. by Breitkreuz, C. and Rocchi, S. Advances in Volcanology . Springer Nature, Cham, Switzerland, pp. 119-130.
    Publication Date: 2019-01-14
    Description: Subvolcanic systems are characterized by complex combinations of intrusive units (dykes, sills, saucer-shaped sills, cone sheets, etc.) for which genetic relationships are unclear. This chapter explains how whole-rock geochemistry may be used to resolve the genetic relationships of such subvolcanic (and volcanic) systems. We start with a short introduction of the geochemical fingerprinting method with particular emphasis on the statistical refinement method called Forward Stepwise-Discriminant Function Analysis (FS-DFA). Combined with field mapping and structural analysis, geochemical fingerprinting based on major and trace elements and isotope ratios, is a very powerful tool to distinguish between igneous units (lavas, sills, dykes) with subtle (or not so subtle) geochemical differences. Different geochemical fingerprinting or signatures indicate derivation from distinct magma batches. The results from FS-DFA analyses may be used to reveal genetic relationships between geological units, or lack of such, which again may be used to throw light on subvolcanic plumbing systems, the feeding system in sill-dyke complexes, as well as other problems. The method is illustrated by studies of the Golden Valley Sill Complex in the Karoo Basin (South Africa).
    Type: Book chapter , NonPeerReviewed
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  • 2
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    Springer Nature
    In:  Nature Ecology & Evolution, 1 (11). pp. 1600-1601.
    Publication Date: 2018-01-05
    Description: Comb jellies are remarkably different from other animals. Phylogenetic analyses of broadly sampled ctenophore transcriptome data provide additional evidence that they are the sister group to all other animals and reveal details of their evolutionary relationships to each other.
    Type: Article , PeerReviewed
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  • 3
    Publication Date: 2019-01-02
    Description: A paradigm shift is underway in wastewater treatment as the industry heads toward ~3% of global electricity consumption and contributes ~1.6% of greenhouse gas emissions. Although incremental improvements to energy efficiency and renewable energy recovery are underway, studies considering wastewater for carbon capture and utilization are few. This Review summarizes alternative wastewater treatment pathways capable of simultaneous CO2 capture and utilization, and demonstrates the environmental and economic benefits of microbial electrochemical and phototrophic processes. Preliminary estimates demonstrate that re-envisioning wastewater treatment may entirely offset the industry’s greenhouse gas footprint and make it a globally significant contributor of negative carbon emissions.
    Type: Article , PeerReviewed
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  • 4
    Publication Date: 2019-08-06
    Description: The in situ effects of ocean acidification on zooplankton communities remain largely unexplored. Using natural volcanic CO2 seep sites around tropical coral communities, we show a threefold reduction in the biomass of demersal zooplankton in high-CO2 sites compared with sites with ambient CO2. Differences were consistent across two reefs and three expeditions. Abundances were reduced in most taxonomic groups. There were no regime shifts in zooplankton community composition and no differences in fatty acid composition between CO2 levels, suggesting that ocean acidification affects the food quantity but not the quality for nocturnal plankton feeders. Emergence trap data show that the observed reduction in demersal plankton may be partly attributable to altered habitat. Ocean acidification changes coral community composition from branching to massive bouldering coral species, and our data suggest that bouldering corals represent inferior daytime shelter for demersal zooplankton. Since zooplankton represent a major source of nutrients for corals, fish and other planktivores, this ecological feedback may represent an additional mechanism of how coral reefs will be affected by ocean acidification.
    Type: Article , PeerReviewed
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  • 5
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    MAIK Nauka/Interperiodica | Springer Nature
    In:  Izvestiya, Atmospheric and Oceanic Physics, 52 (3). pp. 225-233.
    Publication Date: 2019-08-08
    Description: There were several anomalously cold winter weather regimes in Russia in the early 21st century. These regimes were usually associated with a blocking anticyclone south of the Barents Sea. Numerical simulations with an atmospheric general circulation model (AGCM) using prescribed sea-ice concentration (SIC) data for different periods during the last 50 years showed that a rapid sea-ice area decline in the Barents Sea in the last decade could bring about the formation of such a blocking anticyclone and cooling over northern Eurasia. The SIC reduction in the former period, from the second half of the 1960s to the first half of the 1990s, results in a weaker response of opposite sign. This suggests a nonlinear atmospheric circulation response to the SIC reduction in the Barents Sea, which has been previously found in the idealized AGCM simulations. An impact of the Barents Sea SIC reduction on the North Atlantic Oscillation (NAO), in particular, on the formation of the anomalously low NAO index, is found. The results indicate an important role that the Barents Sea, a region with the largest variability of the ocean–atmosphere heat exchange in the Arctic in wintertime, plays in generating anomalous weather regimes in Russia.
    Type: Article , PeerReviewed
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  • 6
    Publication Date: 2019-09-23
    Description: Restructure data-gathering and evaluation networks to address climate change, energy, food, health and water provision, say Yonglong Lu and colleagues.
    Type: Article , PeerReviewed
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  • 7
    Publication Date: 2019-09-23
    Description: Oceanic dissolved organic carbon (DOC) is an important carbon pool, similar in magnitude to atmospheric CO2, but the fate of its oldest forms is not well understood. Hot hydrothermal circulation may facilitate the degradation of otherwise un-reactive dissolved organic matter, playing an important role in the long-term global carbon cycle. The oldest, most recalcitrant forms of DOC, which make up most of oceanic DOC, can be recovered by solid-phase extraction. Here we present measurements of solid-phase extractable DOC from samples collected between 2009 and 2013 at seven vent sites in the Atlantic, Pacific and Southern oceans, along with magnesium concentrations, a conservative tracer of water circulation through hydrothermal systems. We find that magnesium and solid-phase extractable DOC concentrations are correlated, suggesting that solid-phase extractable DOC is almost entirely lost from solution through mineralization or deposition during circulation through hydrothermal vents with fluid temperatures of 212-401°C. In laboratory experiments, where we heated samples to 380°C for four days, we found a similar removal efficiency. We conclude that thermal degradation alone can account for the loss of solid-phase extractable DOC in natural hydrothermal systems, and that its maximum lifetime is constrained by the timescale of hydrothermal cycling, at about 40 million years
    Type: Article , PeerReviewed
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  • 8
    Publication Date: 2019-09-23
    Description: Increasing atmospheric CO2 concentrations are causing ocean acidification (OA), altering carbonate chemistry with consequences for marine organisms. Here we show that OA increases by 46–212% the production of phenolic compounds in phytoplankton grown under the elevated CO2 concentrations projected for the end of this century, compared with the ambient CO2 level. At the same time, mitochondrial respiration rate is enhanced under elevated CO2 concentrations by 130–160% in a single species or mixed phytoplankton assemblage. When fed with phytoplankton cells grown under OA, zooplankton assemblages have significantly higher phenolic compound content, by about 28–48%. The functional consequences of the increased accumulation of toxic phenolic compounds in primary and secondary producers have the potential to have profound consequences for marine ecosystem and seafood quality, with the possibility that fishery industries could be influenced as a result of progressive ocean changes
    Type: Article , PeerReviewed
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  • 9
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    Springer Nature
    In:  Nature, 534 (7607). pp. 320-322.
    Publication Date: 2019-09-23
    Type: Article , PeerReviewed
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  • 10
    Publication Date: 2019-09-23
    Description: The Greenland ice sheet has experienced increasing mass loss since the 1990s1, 2. The enhanced freshwater flux due to both surface melt and outlet glacier discharge is assuming an increasingly important role in the changing freshwater budget of the subarctic Atlantic3. The sustained and increasing freshwater fluxes from Greenland to the surface ocean could lead to a suppression of deep winter convection in the Labrador Sea, with potential ramifications for the strength of the Atlantic meridional overturning circulation4, 5, 6. Here we assess the impact of the increases in the freshwater fluxes, reconstructed with full spatial resolution3, using a global ocean circulation model with a grid spacing fine enough to capture the small-scale, eddying transport processes in the subpolar North Atlantic. Our simulations suggest that the invasion of meltwater from the West Greenland shelf has initiated a gradual freshening trend at the surface of the Labrador Sea. Although the freshening is still smaller than the variability associated with the episodic ‘great salinity anomalies’, the accumulation of meltwater may become large enough to progressively dampen the deep winter convection in the coming years. We conclude that the freshwater anomaly has not yet had a significant impact on the Atlantic meridional overturning circulation.
    Type: Article , PeerReviewed
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