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  • Organic Chemistry  (68,963)
  • Life and Medical Sciences  (30,791)
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  • 1
    ISSN: 0886-1544
    Keywords: chromosome movement ; meiosis ; spermatocytes ; prophase ; nuclear envelope ; aster ; Life and Medical Sciences ; Cell & Developmental Biology
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Biology , Medicine
    Notes: Association of bivalent chromosomes with the astral centers and nuclear envelope was analyzed in crane-fly spermatocytes during the final hours of diakinesis. In contrast to other systems in which movement of chromosomes during diakinesis correlates with the clustering of bivalents near the astral centers, such clustering is not prevalent in crane-fly spermatocytes. Polarization indices of bivalents calculated 5 to 10 minutes before the end of diakinesis provided evidence for polarization of only a fraction of all bivalents. Similar results were obtained in a large number of fixed cells in which asters and chromosomes were preferentially stained. Ultrastructural analysis of cells in late diakinesis revealed significant contact between bivalents and the nuclear envelope in all 46 cells that were analyzed. The extent of contact in some cells was greater than in others. Sites of contact included the telomeric ends of bivalents, and in some cases the distribution of contact sites suggested the possible involvement of centromeres in chromosome-nuclear envelope association. The results are consistent with the hypothesis that a dynamic interaction between chromosomes and nuclear envelope may exist during late prophase, when the movement of chromosomes is known to occur.
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  • 2
    ISSN: 0886-1544
    Keywords: taxol ; microtubules ; intermediate filaments ; fibroblasts ; epithelial cells ; Life and Medical Sciences ; Cell & Developmental Biology
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Biology , Medicine
    Notes: Taxol promotes microtubule (MT) assembly in vitro and induces the reorganization of the cytoskeleton into unusual MT arrays in cultured cells. The possibility that taxol also has an indirect effect on intermediate filaments (IF) was investigated. In baby hamster kidney (BHK-21) and human skin (ENSON) fibroblasts treated with 1-10 μM taxol for 1-24 h, the drug induces changes which are similar to those produced by colchicine. These include a loss of major cellular extensions, a redistribution of organelles to a perinuclear location, and an inhibition of locomotion. Saltatory particle movements are not inhibited, however. Ruffling and filopod formation continue, indicating that cells are viable up to 24 h.Polarized light microscopy of living fibroblasts treated with taxol reveals the presence of perinuclear birefringent material which has been examined by immunofluorescence. In control cells, IF and MT radiate from a juxtanuclear region and extend to the cell periphery. In taxol-treated cells, MT and IF are excluded from cell margins, forming large central bundles.In the epithelial cell lines PtK2 and PAM, the keratin system of IF does not become redistributed; in PtK2, however, a second fibroblastlike system of IF does become redistributed to a perinuclear position during taxol treatment.Ultrastructural analyses show that taxol-treated fibroblasts contain parallel arrays of cross-bridged MT-IF as well as bundles of MT exclusive of IF. Epithelial cells contain a predominance of IF-free MT bundles which are organized into hexagonally packed arrays. In these bundles MT frequently exhibit hooks or other incomplete MT profiles and are linked by filamentous material.
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  • 3
    ISSN: 0886-1544
    Keywords: contact inhibition ; contact guidance ; growth cones ; cell-cell interactions ; neuronal contact behavior ; Life and Medical Sciences ; Cell & Developmental Biology
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Biology , Medicine
    Notes: The outcome of contact interactions involving neurons and nonneurons varies depending on the cell types involved. When neuronal growth cones from either ciliary (motor) or dorsal root (sensory) ganglia directly contact the lamellipodium of an embryonic heart fibroblast, both neurite elongation and fibroblast locomotion are inhibited. This occurs in spite of the fact that cell-surface activity in both cells continues unabated. Such contact inhibition is not observed when homologous ganglionic nonneurons are involved in the interaction. In fact, these cells become intimately associated with growth cones and/or neuritic shafts as a result of the contact. The detailed nature of the respose to contact exhibited by nerves and nonnerves varies not only with cell type but also with the portion of the cell involved in the contact. Growth cone filopodia tend to actively palpate the fibroblast surface, whereas spread regions, termed “veils,” form areas of apposition with fibroblast lamellipodia. This latter situation resembles the “typical” contact inhibition of locomotion that occurs following embryonic heart fibroblast-fibroblast interactions. Growth cones also frequently exhibit contact guidance when interacting with nonruffling lateral surfaces of heart fibroblasts.
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  • 4
    ISSN: 0886-1544
    Keywords: Caenorhabditis elegans spermatozoa ; cell motility ; electron microscopy ; cell-substrate contact ; 2-nm filaments ; Life and Medical Sciences ; Cell & Developmental Biology
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Biology , Medicine
    Notes: The locomotion of C. elegans spermatozoa resembles, in many respects, the crawling movements of other eukaryotic cells. However, these sperm contain surprising little actin, which plays no apparent role in this cell's motility. Electron microscopy has revealed that crawling spermatozoa retain a strict morphological polarity so that the organelle-filled cell body is separated from the pseudopod by an array of cytoplasmic laminar membranes. When sperm crawl only the pseudopod contacts the substrate; the cell body is either pulled behind or carried on top of the rear portion of the pseudopod. Fingerlike projections which extend forward from the leading edge of the pseudopod initiate contact with the substrate. The underside of the pseudopod exhibits areas of close (40 nm separation) membrane-substrate association with intervening areas of wide (up to 300 nm) membrane-substrate gaps. The pseudopod cytoplasm contains 2-nm filaments but no filamentous actin has been observed. These 2-nm filaments were detected in thin sections of crawling cells and in negative-stained remnants of spermatozoa disrupted by either hypotonic buffer on Triton X-100. The filaments are found both free in the cytoplasm and closely associated with the cytoplasmic face of the plasma membrane and are usually oriented along the long axis of the cell. Neither the identity nor the function of these filaments has been established although their location and orientation suggest that they may be involved in generating propulsion.
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  • 5
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    New York, NY : Wiley-Blackwell
    Cell Motility and the Cytoskeleton 3 (1983), S. 363-366 
    ISSN: 0886-1544
    Keywords: erythrocyte ; membranes ; spectrin ; Life and Medical Sciences ; Cell & Developmental Biology
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Biology , Medicine
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  • 6
    ISSN: 0886-1544
    Keywords: focal contacts ; microfilaments ; microinjection ; Life and Medical Sciences ; Cell & Developmental Biology
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Biology , Medicine
    Notes: The role of structural elements in the organization and maintenance of focal contacts was studied by microinjecting into tissue culture cells specific probes which interfere with filamentous actin or with vinculin: actin interaction. Injection of actin capping proteins from Physarum and brain resulted in breakdown of microfilament bundles starting at their distal ends and in loss of focal contacts. This process was fully reversible. Injection of a high affinity antibody against chicken gizzard vinculin led to partial breakdown of microfilament bundles concomitant with disruption of focal contacts with vinculin remaining at the plasma membrane. This process was irreversible.
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  • 7
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    New York, NY : Wiley-Blackwell
    Cell Motility and the Cytoskeleton 3 (1983), S. 383-390 
    ISSN: 0886-1544
    Keywords: F-actin aggregates ; actin-membrane interactions ; transformed/normal cell coculture ; F-actin/tropomyosin interaction ; temperature-sensitive viral mutant ; Life and Medical Sciences ; Cell & Developmental Biology
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Biology , Medicine
    Notes: Observations on the role of transformation-specific F-aggregates [Carley et al, 1981] in altering morphology, adhesion and intercellular interaction in transformed cells are reported here. The appearance and disappearance of membrane- and substrate-associated F-actin aggregates (MAG and SAG, respectively) are followed in a cell line temperature-sensitive for transformation. Since MAG structures also appear near the membrane in suspension cultures of transformed cells and in transformed cells in coculture with untransformed cells, they appear to function at cell-cell contacts. Unlike microfilament bundles in untransformed cells, MAG and SAG do not contain the F-actin regulatory protein tropomyosin. The lack of tropomyosin in these structures near the membrane is reminiscent of areas of an exceptionally active actin cytoskeleton usually associated with motile processes of the normal cell membrane. Such areas of membrane-cytoskeletal interaction may be involved in the aberrant cell-cell communication as well as the aggressive behavior often seen in transformed cells.
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  • 8
    ISSN: 0886-1544
    Keywords: microfilament-membrane attachments ; cell-cell contacts ; fascia adherens ; immunofluorescence microscopy ; Life and Medical Sciences ; Cell & Developmental Biology
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Biology , Medicine
    Notes: On the premise that the fascia adherens of cardiac muscle cell intercalated disk membranes is a structure that is closely homologous to the focal adhesions formed by fibroblasts, a fascia adherens preparation was isolated from chicken cardiac muscle, and was analyzed for its protein composition. A prominent 200-kilodalton (kd) protein was purified from the fascia preparation and shown to be antigenically unrelated to several previously characterized cytoskeletal proteins, including cardiac myosin and vinculin. With monospecific antibodies to the 200-kd protein, an identical or closely similar intracellular protein was shown to be associated with the focal adhesion plaques of fibroblasts.
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  • 9
    ISSN: 0886-1544
    Keywords: platelet ; platelet adhesion ; cytoskeleton ; high voltage electron microscopy ; Life and Medical Sciences ; Cell & Developmental Biology
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Biology , Medicine
    Notes: Adhesion of platelets in vitro resulted in rapid polymerization of the amorphous cytoplasmic ground substance into an organized cytoskeletal superstructure. This cytoskeleton, characterized through the use of whole-mount and stereo (3-D), high-voltage microscopy in conjunction with morphometrics and cytochemistry, comprised four major size classes of filaments organized in distinctive zones. The central matrix, or granulomere, at the center of the cell mass, was an ill-defined meshwork of 80-100-Å filaments which enshrouded granules, dense bodies, and elements of the dense tubular system as identified through peroxidase cytochemistry. Demarcasting this central matrix was a trabecular zone containing 30-50, 80-100, and 150-170 Å filaments in an open and rigid-appearing lattice. Circumscribing the trabecular zone and extending to the margins of the hyalomere was the third region, the peripheral web, in which 70-Å filaments were arranged in a tight honeycomb lattice. This organizational pattern was retained in cytoskeletons prepared by Triton x-100 extraction of the adherent cells, and was observed in basally located cells of aggregates which formed subsequent to adhesion. Our observations are consistent with biochemical studies of cytoskeletons prepared from suspended platelets and suggest a contractile protein composition for the superstructure during adhesion.
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  • 10
    ISSN: 0886-1544
    Keywords: brain spectrin ; actin ; immunofluorescence ; peptide mapping ; protein phosphorylation ; syndeins ; Life and Medical Sciences ; Cell & Developmental Biology
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Biology , Medicine
    Notes: Membrane-associated mouse brain spectrin is a 972,000 Mr, 10.5S, (αβ)2 tetramer containing two ∼ 240,000 Mr subunits and two ∼ 235,000 Mr subunits. Two-dimensional [125I]tryptic peptide mapping indicates that these subunits share only limited and equivalent overlap with the α- and β-subunits of red blood cell (RBC) spectrin. Both the 220,000 Mr β-subunit of RBC spectrin and the 235,000 Mr β-subunit of brain spectrin are phosphorylated in the intact mouse. In vitro analysis suggests that both are phosphorylated by a cAMP-independent protein kinase. Antibodies against pure native mouse red blood cell spectrin cross-react with brain spectrin, and antibodies against pure brain spectrin cross-react with both the α-and β-subunits of mouse RBC spectrin. Both antibodies have been utilized to localize brain spectrin within distinct cellular entities of the mouse cerebellum. Granule cell neurons of the internal granule layer and Purkinje cell neurons demonstrated intense fluorscence of the cortical cytoplasm immediately adjacent to the plasma membrane and unstained nuclei, when either RBC or brain spectrin antibodies were utilized for staining. The molecular layer of the cerebellum stained only lightly, and oligodendrocytes and astrocytes appeared to have little fluorescence. Therefore, while brain is a tissue rich in nonerythroid spectrin, the concentration of these immunoreactive analogues is quite variable within distinct cellular entities of the cerebellum.
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  • 11
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    New York, NY : Wiley-Blackwell
    Cell Motility and the Cytoskeleton 3 (1983), S. 657-669 
    ISSN: 0886-1544
    Keywords: Hela spectrin ; membrane ; cytoskeleton ; filamin ; actin ; Life and Medical Sciences ; Cell & Developmental Biology
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Biology , Medicine
    Notes: From 30-40 g of Hela-S3 cells grown in suspension, 0.25-0.50 mg of spectrin has been purified by conventional biochemical procedures starting from a low ionic strength extraction at alkaline pH of crude Hela membranes. Hela spectrin consists in its native form of a tetramer α2β2 of two high molecular weight polypeptides (240,000 and 230,000 daltons). Three different populations of Hela membranes depleted of both spectrin and actin have been prepared on discontinuous sucrose gradients. Surprisingly, spectrin will reassociate with only the heavier membrane fraction. This reassociation is specific for Hela spectrin, since three other purified Hela proteins as well as human erythrocyte spectrin do not reassociate under the same conditions. This binding is not due to the presence of traces of actin still present in the membrane fraction since two Hela actin-binding proteins (filamin I and II) do not show any significant binding to this fraction. The nature of the membrane-binding site for Hela spectrin is discussed.
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  • 12
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    New York, NY : Wiley-Blackwell
    ISSN: 0886-1544
    Keywords: Life and Medical Sciences ; Cell & Developmental Biology
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Biology , Medicine
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  • 13
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    New York, NY : Wiley-Blackwell
    ISSN: 0886-1544
    Keywords: motility ; power output ; muscle ; flagella ; cytokinetic furrow ; mitotic spindle ; Life and Medical Sciences ; Cell & Developmental Biology
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Biology , Medicine
    Notes: Cellular motile systems as diverse as muscle and the mitotic spindle have been compared by their specific power output: the maximum power they develop per unit of engine volume. Striated muscles and flagella have high specific output; their performance is comparable to that of typical automobile engines. The cytokinetic furrow and the mitotic spindle have very much lower specific power output. The furrow's output is 7,000 times lower than muscle and the spindle's is 300,000 times lower. Different macromolecules have been used to generate power in systems with similar output (muscles and flagella) and, conversely, the same macromolecular motor has been used in systems with very different output (muscles and cytokinetic furrows). The common feature amid this diversity is adaptation to a particular biological role, which specific power output reflects very well. High values are found where a powerful, compact engine should be advantageous, while low values are found where precision, not power, matters most.
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  • 14
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    New York, NY : Wiley-Blackwell
    Cell Motility and the Cytoskeleton 4 (1984), S. 41-55 
    ISSN: 0886-1544
    Keywords: Leptodiscinae ; Dinoflagellates ; contractility ; non-actin filaments ; Life and Medical Sciences ; Cell & Developmental Biology
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Biology , Medicine
    Notes: The Leptodiscinae, a group of marine Dinoflagellates, are good material for the study of contraction though they cannot be collected in abundance. Their cell bodies are flattened anteroposteriorly (Leptodiscus, Leptophyllus, and Leptospathium) and are able to contract suddenly when the surrounding water is disturbed.Electron microscopical observations have shown that the structures responsible for the contraction consist of a layer of parallel filaments located beneath the cell membrane of some specialized parts of the body. These filaments seem to be nonactin (NAF) because of their diameter (2.5-3 nm) and because they are not decorated by heavy meromyosin (HMM). They appear helically coiled and doubly twisted, and form tubular structures when contracted.
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  • 15
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    New York, NY : Wiley-Blackwell
    ISSN: 0886-1544
    Keywords: Life and Medical Sciences ; Cell & Developmental Biology
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Biology , Medicine
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  • 16
    ISSN: 0886-1544
    Keywords: fast axonal transport ; mitochondria ; membrane receptors ; cytoskeleton ; Life and Medical Sciences ; Cell & Developmental Biology
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Biology , Medicine
    Notes: In living tissue, membrane-bound organelles, including mitochondria, move along parallel cytoplasmic pathways. Motion is directed and tends to be confined to a single path. Deviations from this single path motion are rare. When present, however, they tend to occur at points of intersection of cytoskeletal linear elements (LE). Such intersections are relatively uncommon in intact axons and extruded axoplasm. However, we have found that such intersections can be produced in extruded preparations by shear forces directed tangential to the axoplasmic surface.We have studied the detailed behavior of mitochondria in extruded squid axoplasm. Special attention was directed to the relationship between mitochondrial shape changes and orientation of cytoskeletal LE. The most striking of these changes in shape is branching. In this process, the mitochondrion transiently assumes a triradial (three-ended) shape. This appearance may be maintained for seconds to minutes before the normal cylindrical shape is resumed by absorption of either the newly formed end or, more commonly, one of the original ends. The frequency of branching appears to be dependent on the degree of cytoskeletal organization. It becomes more common as the number of apparent intersections between cytoskeletal LE increases. Further, the formation of new ends seems to occur along paths defined by cytoskeletal elements.These observations suggest that the mitochondrial membrane is multivalent. That is, it contains multiple sites capable of interacting with the axonal force generation apparatus. Furthermore, LE in the cytoskeleton may indicate the paths along which these interactions are permissible.
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  • 17
    ISSN: 0886-1544
    Keywords: axonal transport ; ATP ; nucleotides ; saltatory movement ; dynein ; video microscopy ; Life and Medical Sciences ; Cell & Developmental Biology
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Biology , Medicine
    Notes: In a permeabilized axon model, exogenous ATP can reactivate intraaxonal saltatory organelle movements (microscopically visible manifestations of fast axonal transport). We have studied the dependence of the reactivated movements on the ATP concentration and have also examined the nucleotide specificity of the reactivation. Organelle transport was visualized in isolated lobster giant motor axons using Nomarski optics and video microscopy. The axons were permeabilized with saponin, and movement was reactivated with ATP or other nucleotides. Some slight movement was seen with ATP concentrations as low as 10 μM. The velocity and frequency of the reactivated transport increased with increasing ATP concentrations up to about 5 mM. Movement was also reactivated by deoxyadenosine triphosphate, but not by AMP-PNP (a nonhydrolyzable ATP analogue), ADP, or AMP. Although other nucleotides (CTP, GTP, UTP, ITP) could reactivate transport, movement equivalent to that produced by 0.1 mM ATP was only seen with tenfold or greater concentrations of the other nucleotides. This pattern of specificity is consistent with the hypothesis that a dynein-like ATPase, rather than a myosin, is involved in fast axonal transport.
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  • 18
    ISSN: 0886-1544
    Keywords: Life and Medical Sciences ; Cell & Developmental Biology
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Biology , Medicine
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  • 19
    ISSN: 0886-1544
    Keywords: cytoskeleton ; motility ; cell spreading ; epithelial cells ; Life and Medical Sciences ; Cell & Developmental Biology
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Biology , Medicine
    Notes: Reorganization of intermediate filaments during cell spreading is examined by immunofluorescence, electron microscopy, and time-lapse video microscopy. A juxtanuclear cap, believed to correspond to the intermediate filament distribution center, was observed to be spatially related to the organization of the intermediate filament network as cells spread. A keratin cap was observed, which appeared spontaneously in motile PtK1 cells. Cap formation may be a consequence of retraction of intermediate filaments from the cytoplasm as cells move. The position of this juxtanuclear cap is related to the direction of movement, located on the side of the nucleus near the advancing edge of the cell. As the cell spreads, the cap disappears as the keratin filament network returns to the cytoplasm. Evidence presented here is consistent with the hypothesis that the distribution center mediates keratin filament organization during cell shape change.
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  • 20
    ISSN: 0886-1544
    Keywords: sperm motility ; flagellum ; axoneme ; microscopy ; Life and Medical Sciences ; Cell & Developmental Biology
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Biology , Medicine
    Notes: Iontophoretic application of ATP to the flagellum of the demembranated hamster spermatozoon produced a planar pair of bends at the two ends of the stimulated site. During bend propagation, torsion appeared in the vicinity of the interbend in some responses such that the distal bend was twisted clockwise when viewed from the base of the flagellum. This pattern of propagation is consistent with the instantaneous configurations of free-swimming cells previously described. The technique used here establishes that the three dimensionality arises from propagation per se, and does not depend on forces developed during swimming. The rolling of both free-swimming intact and demembranated spermatozoa was examined by two-color darkground videomicroscopy and the direction of rotation was, as predicted, always anticlockwise. A hypothetical mechanism, involving differential speeds of propagation of active sliding within the active microtubule subset, is proposed to account for the observed waveforms.
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  • 21
    ISSN: 0886-1544
    Keywords: cytoskeleton ; centrosome ; tonofilaments ; Life and Medical Sciences ; Cell & Developmental Biology
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Biology , Medicine
    Notes: We present observations on the relative location of the centriole and keratin filament cap in motile PtK1 cells. Subconfluent cells were double labeled with anticentriole and antikeratin sera. These preparations revealed that the centriole is separate from, but neighboring, the keratin filament cap. Serial ultrathin sections confirm this observation. These observations are consistent with the idea that the microtubule organizing center and intermediate filament distribution center are not identical or concentric in PtK1 cells.
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  • 22
    ISSN: 0886-1544
    Keywords: microfilaments ; microtubules ; contraction ; collagen gel ; fibroblasts ; Life and Medical Sciences ; Cell & Developmental Biology
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Biology , Medicine
    Notes: In vitro models have been developed recently to study the ability of fibroblasts to generate tensile force within collagen gels. The present study was initiated to assess the role of the cytoskeleton in the cell shape changes and force generation in one such model system. Porcine periodontal ligament fibroblasts (PPLF) were cultured within three-dimensional collagen gels attached to glass coverslips. Fluorescence microscopy, using nitrobenzooxadizole (NBD)-phallacidin labeling for microfilaments and tubulin antibody staining for microtubules, was combined with phase and Nomarski optics to determine the intra- and extracellular architecture of the cells and collagen fibers. Samples were observed from 30 minutes to 24 hours after initiation of cell attachment. During attachment and spreading, NBD-phallacidin staining changed dramatically until large microfilament bundles became prominent. Collagen fiber alignment, compaction, and finally tearing from the coverslip occurred during this time. After release of tension, microfilament bundles were no longer evident. The change in microtubule distribution during these processes was less dramatic, appearing to follow the change in cell shape. These results indicate that microfilaments play an essential role in generating force to align and compact collagen, while microtubules may have a secondary role only.
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  • 23
    ISSN: 0886-1544
    Keywords: Chlamydomonas ; flagella ; cell surface ; adhesion ; glycoproteins ; iodination ; lactoperoxidase ; Iodogen ; Life and Medical Sciences ; Cell & Developmental Biology
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Biology , Medicine
    Notes: The Chlamydomonas flagellar surface exhibits interesting adhesive properties that are associated with flagellar surface motility. This dynamic surface property can be exhibited as the binding and movement of small polystyrene microspheres or as the interaction of the flagellar surface with a solid substrate followed by whole cell locomotion, termed “gliding.” In order to identify flagellar surface proteins that mediate substrate interaction during flagellar surface motility, two immobilized iodination systems were employed that mimic the conditions for flagellar surface motility: small polystyrene microspheres derivatized with lactoperoxidase, and large glass beads derivatized with Iodogen. Use of these iodination conditions resulted in preferential iodination of a high-molecular-weight glycoprotein with apparent molecular weight of 300,000-350,000. These results suggest this glycoprotein as a major candidate for the surface-exposed adhesive component that directly interacts with the substrate and couples the substrate to a system of force transduction presumed to be located within the flagellum.
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  • 24
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    New York, NY : Wiley-Blackwell
    ISSN: 0886-1544
    Keywords: Life and Medical Sciences ; Cell & Developmental Biology
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Biology , Medicine
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  • 25
    ISSN: 0886-1544
    Keywords: taxol ; microtubules ; mitosis ; mitotic spindle ; calcium ; Life and Medical Sciences ; Cell & Developmental Biology
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Biology , Medicine
    Notes: Taxol stabilizes or promotes the assembly of microtubules. In this report we characterize the rate, extent, and reversibility of taxol stabilization of calciumlabile microtubules in isolated mitotic spindles, principally from embryos of the sand dollar Echinarachnius parma. The intense depolymerizing action of 100 μM Ca2+ was used to assess the extent of stabilization by taxol. Changes in spindle microtubule assembly were evaluated and recorded by measuring changes in spindle birefringent retardation (BR). Membrane-free mitotic spindles, isolated with a calcium-chelating, nonionic detergent buffer, were stored in an EGTA-gylcerol storage buffer to prevent microtubule depolymerization. When perfused with an EGTA-buffer without glycerol, microtubules in these isolated spindles depolymerized gradually over 60-120 min; but in isolated spindles perfused with buffer that contained 100 μM Ca2+, BR decreased by 90% within 2-5 sec. In contrast, spindles that were pretreated for 3 min with 1 μM taxol, or for about 30 sec with 10 μM taxol, lost less than 10% of their initial BR when perfused with buffer containing 100 μM Ca2+. The rate and extent of microtubule stabilization by taxol depended on both the concentration and the duration of exposure to taxol. Taxol stabilization was reversible. After a 15 min preincubation with 1 μM or 10 μM taxol then washout, stability of spindle BR to 100 μM Ca2+ decreased exponentially with a time constant of 30-60 min. Thus taxol dissociates from spindle microtubules at significant rates; taxol-stabilized microtubules are not “fixed.”
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  • 26
    ISSN: 0886-1544
    Keywords: tubulin ; assembly ; mitotic apparatus ; bimane ; fluorescence microscopy ; Life and Medical Sciences ; Cell & Developmental Biology
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Biology , Medicine
    Notes: Fluorescent derivatives of cellular proteins that retain their native characteristics have become useful probes to investigate the dynamics of specific cytoskeletal proteins. In the experiments reported here, a previously characterized fluorescent derivative of tubulin, bimane-tubulin [Wadsworth and Sloboda, 1982a], was used to investigate microtubule assembly in vitro. The results demonstrate that bimanetubulin was competent to assemble onto a variety of organizing centers in vitro, including microtubule organizing centers (MTOCs) present in homogenates of sea urchin eggs, isolated mitotic apparatuses (MAs), and lysed mitotic cells. When homogenates of fertilized sea urchin eggs containing MTOCs were incubated with bimane-tubulin at 37°C, discrete areas of linear fluorescence were observed. Only diffuse fluorescence was observed when calcium or colchicine was added to the homogenate or if the temperature was maintained at 0°C. Negative-stain electron microscopy of the fluorescent arrays revealed morphologically normal microtubules radiating from electron dense regions. When mitotic spindles, isolated in glycerol containing buffers and therefore cold stable, were incubated with bimane-tubulin, linear fluorescence was observed emanating from the spindle poles but not from the region occupied by the kinetochores. MAs incubated with bimane-labeled bovine serum albumin or bimane-labeled microtubule-associated proteins showed only diffuse fluorescence. However, when mitotic cells which were hypotonically lysed in the absence of detergents or microtubule stabilizing solvents, were perfused with bimane-tubulin intense fluorescence was observed in the asters and throughout the spindle. Two experiments suggested that the fluorescence observed in the results outlined above was due to the assembly of normal microtubules from the fluorescent subunits. First, the observed fluorescence was sensitive to cold temperataure, which is known to disassemble microtubules. Second, when the isolated, fluorescent MAs were examined by thin section electron microscopy, microtubules of normal diameter were seen. No aggregated material appeared associated with the walls of the microtubules, which might have been expected if the fluorescent protein was nonspecifically adsorbed to the microtubules. The results of these experiments demonstrate that isolated, stabilized MAs support the growth of new microtubules from the spindle poles while labile spindles, present in lysed cells, incorporate fluorescent tubulin throughout the spindle and asters. The significance of these results for hypotheses concerning microtubule assembly and disassembly during mitosis is discussed.
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  • 27
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    Keywords: Life and Medical Sciences ; Cell & Developmental Biology
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  • 28
    ISSN: 0886-1544
    Keywords: axonemal mutants ; Ca++ response ; ciliary reversal ; electrophysiology ; models ; Life and Medical Sciences ; Cell & Developmental Biology
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Biology , Medicine
    Notes: Six mutants of Paramecium tetraurelia, which display altered axonemal responses to Ca++, are described. The mutants, designated atalantas, are impaired in their ability to swim backward when stimulated by ions or heat; instead they spin very rapidly in one place. Three mutants, ataA1-3, are completely unable to swim backward. The three lines, however, can be distinguished from one another by their forward swimming velocities. The remaining three mutants are leaky. ataB swims backward briefly when stimulated, then stops and spins in place. ataC and ataD are extremely leaky and only display the spinning phenotype at elevated temperatures. An electrophysiological analysis reveals that all six mutants have normal membrane properties, including the Ca++ inward current under voltage clamp. When the membrane is disrupted so as to allow the axoneme free access to Ca++, wild-type cells swim backward, but the mutants do not. These data indicate the site(s) of lesion in the mutants is in the axoneme or in some step linking Ca++ influx and the axoneme, not within the ciliary membrane. These mutants may be useful in investigating the role of Ca++ in the regulation of axonemal motion.
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  • 29
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    Cell Motility and the Cytoskeleton 4 (1984), S. 305-314 
    ISSN: 0886-1544
    Keywords: cell surface motility ; axopodia ; reticulopodia ; Allogromia ; Echinosphaerium (Actinosphaerium) nucleofilum ; surf-riding ; Life and Medical Sciences ; Cell & Developmental Biology
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Biology , Medicine
    Notes: The mechanism responsible for the energy-dependent movement of membrane components (ie, surface motility) is unknown. Recently a potentially unifying model, termed “surf-riding” [Hewitt, 1979] or “surf-boarding” [Berlin and Oliver, 1982], has been proposed to explain surface motility. Using phase-contrast light microscopy and membrane surface markers (polystyrene microspheres), we have tested the surf-riding/surf-boarding hypothesis on two protozoan systems: the axopodia of the heliozoan Echinosphaerium nucleofilum and the reticulopodial networks of the allogromiid foraminiferans Allogromia laticollaris and Allogromia sp, strain NF. Our evidence indicates that surface motility, as displayed by these organisms, does not occur by a surf-riding/surf-boarding mechanism. Previouś observations on surface motility associated with the Chlamydomonas flagellum indicate that this system is also incompatible with the surf-boarding/surf-riding hypothesis.
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  • 30
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    Cell Motility and the Cytoskeleton 4 (1984), S. 403-404 
    ISSN: 0886-1544
    Keywords: Life and Medical Sciences ; Cell & Developmental Biology
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
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  • 31
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    Cell Motility and the Cytoskeleton 4 (1984), S. 469-503 
    ISSN: 0886-1544
    Keywords: cytogel ; actomyosin ; Physarum ; oscillations ; mechanics ; Life and Medical Sciences ; Cell & Developmental Biology
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Biology , Medicine
    Notes: The contractility of actomyosin gels is the basis for a variety of cellular motility phenomena. We present here a mechanical analysis of contractile gels. By making certain hypotheses on the chemical regulation of cytogel contraction we formulate a model for the rhythmic contractions of plasmodia in the slime mold Physarum polycephalum which is in accord with a number of experimental observations.
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  • 32
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    Keywords: cell motility ; membrane recycling ; immunofluorescence microscopy ; Life and Medical Sciences ; Cell & Developmental Biology
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Biology , Medicine
    Notes: Mouse peritoneal macrophages subjected to gradients of activated mouse serum were found by immunofluorescence observations to have their Golgi apparatus and their microtubule-organizing center largely oriented in the direction of the gradient. By analogy with similar results obtained with motile fibroblasts, it is proposed that these two organelles are rapidly and coordinately reoriented inside the macrophages in order to direct the insertion of new membrane mass, via vesicles derived from the Golgi apparatus, into the leading edge of the cell. Consistent with the importance of such membrane insertion to cell migration, we found that the ionophore monensin, an inhibitor of Golgi functions, inhibited cell motility in the chemostactic gradient. It was further shown that several inhibitors of chemotaxis (monensin, cytochalasin D, cycloheximide) did not inhibit the reorientation of the Golgi apparatus/microtubule-organizing center in cells exposed to a chemotactic gradient, and that the reorientation required extracellular Ca+2.
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  • 33
    ISSN: 0886-1544
    Keywords: dynein ; erythro-9-[3-2-(hydroxynonyl)]adenine (EHNA) ; ATPase ; inhibition ; axoneme ; cytoplasm ; Life and Medical Sciences ; Cell & Developmental Biology
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Biology , Medicine
    Notes: In current purification strategies, affinity for microtubules or calmodulin is used to identify and purify cytoplasmic dynein-like ATPase from cell-free extracts of unfertilized sea urchin eggs. However, affinity purification procedures, though they define dynein-like ATPase activity, have not yet proven to be quantitative. An alternative purification strategy capable of producing a high yield of enzyme would require a specific assay in order to monitor cytoplasmic dynein purity at each step.In this study, we make a detailed comparison of the effects of EHNA on 22 different ATP-metabolizing enzyme activities, including 13 Mg++-ATPases. We isolate cytoplasmic dynein-like ATPase activity from three species of sea urchin eggs and sperm and show by means of dose-response curves that their sensitivities to inhibition by EHNA are very similar to one another. We demonstrate further that the EHNA dose-response characteristics of fourteen other ATP-metabolizing enzyme activities, including seven nondynein Mg++-ATPases, differ quantitatively from those of dynein-like ATPases.In studies of three other agents (vanadate, Ca++/calmodulin, and Triton X-100), we find that dynein-like ATPases vary by two orders of magnitude in their sensitivities to inhibition by vanadate, and little or no stimulation by either Ca++/calmodulin or Triton X-100 is seen. Our results suggest that inhibition by EHNA is a universal and specific property of dynein-like ATPases, which ultimately should prove useful in the quantitative purification and characterization of cytoplasmic dynein-like ATPase (s).
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  • 34
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    Keywords: Life and Medical Sciences ; Cell & Developmental Biology
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  • 35
    ISSN: 0886-1544
    Keywords: locomotion and shape control ; epithelial cells ; calcium ; reflection-interference contrast-microscopy ; cinematography ; Life and Medical Sciences ; Cell & Developmental Biology
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Biology , Medicine
    Notes: The role of calcium in the induction of locomotion, control of direction of locomotion, and modulation of shape of epithelial cells derived from Xenopus laevis tadpole epidermis is investigated. Local influx of calcium is achieved by electrophoretic release of small amounts of calcium from a micropipette (tip diameter 0.1-0.5 μUm) closely apposed to the cell body or lamella. The cells are made permeable for calcium by calcium ionophore A23187, and they are kept in Ca++-free, Mg++-rich EGTA Ringer. Another method used to induce Ca++ influx is local application of A23187 while cells move in normal culture medium.Influx of Ca++ into the lamella induces a localised increase in thickness and enlargement of the lamella. Stationary cells become active and show movement in the direction of the Ca++ gradient. Fried-egg-shaped cells tend to acquire a semicircular shape and start moving. Moving cells change the direction of their locomotion, following the direction of Ca++ release. Influx of Ca++ in the cell body region induces its contraction concomitant with an increase in lamellar area.These observations suggest the presence of two different Ca++-sensitive components: an actomyosin meshwork in the cell body and an actin gel in the lamella. Influx of Ca++ induces contraction of actomyosin and solation of actin gel. Interaction of these two systems would explain modulation of shape and generation of locomotion in epithelial cells.
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    Keywords: Life and Medical Sciences ; Cell & Developmental Biology
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  • 37
    ISSN: 0886-1544
    Keywords: gliding ; cell motility ; cytoskeleton ; diatoms ; capping ; Life and Medical Sciences ; Cell & Developmental Biology
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Biology , Medicine
    Notes: Gliding motility was investigated in the marine diatom, Amphora coffeaeformis. Ultrastructural, biochemical, and pharmacological protocols were employed to probe the possible involvement of cytoskeletal proteins and a secretory process in gliding motility. Motility rate was measured using a video recording apparatus, and the effects of various cytoskeleton-disrupting drugs on motility were tested. Cytochalasins D and E, podophyllotoxin, and vinblastine (all at 25 μUg/ml) reversibly inhibited motility, as did monensin (10 μUM) and pronase (25 μUg/ml). Biochemical protein analysis of whole-cell extracts by one- and two-dimensional polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis revealed polypeptides comigrating with rabbit skeletal muscle actin and bovine brain tubulin; however, specific assays used to separate actin from whole-cell preparations gave ambiguous results. Ultrastructural studies revealed the presence of extracellular material between the raphe canal and the substratum in motile cultures. An assay was devised for the detection of radioactively labeled material (MW 〉 1800 Daltons) released by motile cultures into the culture medium. When cultures were treated with either an anticytoskeletal drug or monensin, motility was inhibited while the amount of measured radioactivity increased over solvent-treated control groups. The results from this study indicate possible roles for both actin- and tubulin-based structures in gliding motility of Amphora. Though secretion may be necessary for gliding to occur, its exact relationship to motility was not deduced. The data obtained in this study are compatible with a theory for the mechanism of gliding which involves the surface translocation of externally exposed membrane proteins against an immobile matrix of substratum-attached secreted material to generate the force required for movement.
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  • 38
    ISSN: 0886-1544
    Keywords: central pair ; radial spoke ; flagella ; mutant ; Chlamydomonas ; suppressor ; Life and Medical Sciences ; Cell & Developmental Biology
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Biology , Medicine
    Notes: Flash photomicrography at frequencies up to 300 Hz and computer-assisted image analysis have been used to obtain parameters describing the flagellar bending patterns of mutants of Chlamydomonas reinhardtii. All strains contained the uni1 mutation, to facilitate photography. The radial spoke head deficient mutant pf17, and the central pair deficient mutant, pf15, in combination with suppressor mutations that restore motility without restoring the ultrastructural or biochemical deficiencies, both generate forward mode bending patterns with increased shear amplitude and decreased asymmetry relative to the “wild-type” uni1 flagella described previously. In the reverse beating mode, the suppressed pf17 mutants generate reverse bending patterns with large shear amplitudes. Reverse beating of the suppressed pf15 mutants is rare. There is a reciprocal relationship between increased shear amplitude and decreased beat frequency, so that the velocity of sliding between flagellar microtubules is not increased by an increase in shear amplitude. The suppressor mutations alone cause decreased frequency and sliding velocity in both forward and reverse mode beating, with little change in shear amplitude or symmetry.
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  • 39
    ISSN: 0886-1544
    Keywords: primary cilia ; connective tissues ; secretory organelles ; extracellular matrix ; cybernetic probe ; Life and Medical Sciences ; Cell & Developmental Biology
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Biology , Medicine
    Notes: More than 300 primary cilia have been identified electronmicroscopically in a variety of embryonic and mature connective tissue cells. To further define the enigmatic function of these cilia, we examined the interrelationships between the basal apparatus and cytoplasmic organelles and the ciliary shaft and the extracellular matrix. The basal diplosome was consistently associated with the secretory organelles including the maturing face of the Golgi complex, Golgi vacuoles and vesicles, the microtubular network, the plasma membrane, and coated pits and vesicles. Small vesicles and amorphous granules were also observed within the ciliary lumen and adjacent to the ciliary membrane. Microtubule-membrane bridges linked axonemal tubules to the ciliary membrane. The position, projection, and orientation of the axoneme were influenced by the structural organisation and mechanical properties of the matrix and frequently caused angulation of the ciliary shaft relative to the basal body. Located midway between the secretory apparatus and the extracellular matrix, primary cilia would appear ideally situated to mediate the necessry interaction between the cell and its surrounding environment prerequisite to the formation and maintenance of a functionally effective matrix. We propose that primary cilia in connective tissue cells could act as multifunctional, cellular cybernetic probes, receiving, transducing, and conducting a variety of extrinsic stimuli to the intracellular organelles responsible for effecting the appropriate homeostatic feedback response to changes in the extracellular microenvironment.
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  • 40
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    Cell Motility and the Cytoskeleton 5 (1985), S. 209-224 
    ISSN: 0886-1544
    Keywords: flagellar dynein ; cyclic nucleotides ; sperm activation ; Life and Medical Sciences ; Cell & Developmental Biology
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Biology , Medicine
    Notes: Methods of demembranation and reactivation of Lytechinus pictus sperm were developed that result in non-motile sperm which take on a stable bend of about 3.5 radians at the proximal end of the cell. The middle and distal portion of the flagellum is relatively straight or slightly bent in the same direction forming a somewhat “C” shaped sperm cell. In these studies, we refer to this characteristic shape as the quiescent form, and as opposed to “rigor wave” sperm, the quiescent form is induced and maintained by a relatively high concentration of MgATP2- (〉 0.2 mM). Other conditions important to the production and maintenance of the quiescent form in demembranated sperm include: starting with concentrated, undiluted sperm, maintaining low Ca++ in the demembranation buffer, using a minimum of 0.2 mM MgATP2- and pH of 7.9-8.1 in the reactivation buffer. Deviation from some of these conditions results in a dramatic increase in motile, asymmetrically beating sperm. Addition of 0.4 mM CaCl2 to the reactivation buffer increased the proximal bend angle to 5 radians. The induction and maintenance of the stationary bend is mediated by dynein activity: “rigor wave” sperm were transformed to the quiescent form upon 0.2 mM ATP addition; micromolar vanadate abolished the quiescent form by “relaxation” of the proximal bend; and the vanadate relaxed sperm were restored to quiescent form by catechol. Importantly, 20 μM cAMP activated motility of the otherwise quiescent-form sperm. Quiescent-form, demembranated sperm were also activated by mild trypsin digestion. These and other data suggest that the quiescent-form sperm are trapped at the end of the principal bend, and these data are consistent with the proposal that the single stationary bend results from asymmetry of active microtubule sliding [Gibbons and Gibbons, (1980): J. Cell Biol. 84:13-27].
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  • 41
    ISSN: 0886-1544
    Keywords: neural crest ; migratory behavior ; microfilaments ; stress fibers ; tractional force ; Life and Medical Sciences ; Cell & Developmental Biology
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Biology , Medicine
    Notes: We have investigated one aspect of the migratory behavior of quail neural crest (NC) cells by comparing the organization of microfilament bundles and the ability to distort migratory substrata by NC, somite, and notochord cells in vitro. In contrast to the numerous cytoplasmic stress fibers in somite-derived fibroblasts and notochord cells revealed by rhodamine-phalloidin staining and thin-section electron microscopy, microfilaments in NC cells are restricted to the cell cortex. To test the relative degrees of tension generated by these cell types on the underlying substratum, cells were cultured in collagen gels and on distortable silicone rubber sheets. Explanted somites and notochords produced dramatic radial alignment of 750 μg/ml collagen gels, whereas neural crest cells only aligned gels of lower concentrations. Fibroblasts did not migrate individually from explanted somites and notochords into 250 μg/ml collagen gels as readily as into higher concentration collagen lattices. In contrast, neural crest cells migrated into matrices of low concentration as well as into higher concentration collagen gels. Neural crest cells and their pigmented derivatives did not distort silicone rubber sheets, whereas somite and notochord-derived fibroblasts wrinkle this substratum after 4 days in culture. Thus, the differences in organization of the actin cytoskeleton reflect the tractional force exerted by these cells on their substratum. We hypothesize that the migratory behavior of NC cells in vivo may be related to their ability to translocate through embryonic extracellular matrices while generating relatively weak adhesions with the substratum, whereas the stronger forces generated by other embryonic cell types upon the delicate extracellular matrix may restrict their migration and may be associated with other morphogenetic events.
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  • 42
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    Keywords: Life and Medical Sciences ; Cell & Developmental Biology
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  • 43
    ISSN: 0886-1544
    Keywords: actin ; cleavage ; fluorescein-labeled phalloidin ; microinjection ; phalloidin ; sand dollar eggs ; Life and Medical Sciences ; Cell & Developmental Biology
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Biology , Medicine
    Notes: Effects of microinjection of phalloidin on fertilization and cleavage of sand dollar (Clypeaster japonicus and Scaphechinus mirabilis) eggs were studied. The drug, previously injected into unfertilized eggs, showed no effect on the elevation of the fertilization membrane upon insemination up to an intracellular concentration of 50 μM. However, the movement of the egg pronucleus to the sperm pronucleus was inhibited and the fusion of pronuclei did not occur. The subsequent development no longer took place. When phalloidin was injected into fertilized eggs, the thickness of the cortical layer increased and the microvilli became conspicuous. Both nuclear division and cleavage were inhibited at the intracellular concentration of more than 20 μM, though the latter seemed to be more sensitive to phalloidin than the former.Fluorescein-labeled phalloidin (FL-phalloidin) was injected into eggs in order to investigate F-actin localization by fluorescence microscopy. In both unfertilized and fertilized eggs, FL-phalloidin was localized in the cortical layer within 1 min after injection. It was also localized in the cortical layer as radially oriented rodlike structures when injected into fertilized eggs before the disappearance of the nuclear membrane. No distinct fluorescence was detected in the mitotic apparatus or in the cleavage furrow. FL-phalloidin redistributed gradually into egg cytoplasm. In unfertilized eggs, fluorescent rods were found especially in the egg pronucleus 30 min after injection.
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  • 44
    ISSN: 0886-1544
    Keywords: higher land plant contractile system ; actin activation of myosin ; S-1 decoration of actin ; polymerization of actin ; calcium sensitivity of actomyosin interaction ; Life and Medical Sciences ; Cell & Developmental Biology
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Biology , Medicine
    Notes: This paper describes the initial isolation of actin- and myosin-like proteins from the cytoplasm of the endocarp tissue cells of the fruit of the tomato, Lycopersicon esculentum. Low ionic strength buffers extracted the 42,000 molecular weight tomato actin in the depolymerized form. Tomato actin can be polymerized in 0.1 M KCl, 2 mM MgCl2 to form 6 nm diameter filaments resembling rabbit skeletal muscle F-actin in their ultrastructure and pattern of decoration with rabbit myosin subfragment-1 (S-1). Tomato F-actin activates the low ionic strength Mg2+ ATPase of rabbit S-1 up to ten-fold. High ionic strength extracts of tomato yield a myosinlike enzyme whose ATPase activity in 0.5 M KCl is maximal in the presence of K+-EDTA and is repressed in the presence of Mg2+. The column-purified enzyme forms a complex with rabbit F-actin, which can be dissociated by Mg2+ ATP. The low ionic strength Mg2+ ATPase of tomato myosin can be activated ten-fold by rabbit actin and up to nineteen-fold by tomato actin. No activation of the tomato myosin by rabbit F-actin occurs in the absence of free calcium ions.
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  • 45
    ISSN: 0886-1544
    Keywords: centrosome-associated proteins ; calcium-binding proteins ; flagellar apparatus ; Life and Medical Sciences ; Cell & Developmental Biology
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Biology , Medicine
    Notes: Affinity-purified antibodies that recognize the 20,000-dalton molecular weight (20 kd) striated flagellar root protein of Tetraselmis striata have been used to identify antigenic homologs in other eucaryotic organisms of diverse evolutionary origins. Among the green algae, Tetraselmis and Chlamydomonas, and their colorless relative, Polytomella, the 20-kd homologs appear associated with basal bodies. This occurs most prominnently in the form of flagellar roots of both striated and microtubule subtended types. Among cultured mammalian cells (PtK2 and primary mouse macrophage cell lines), flagellar root protein homologs appear as basal feet, pericentriolar fibrils, and pericentriolar satellites. Mammalian sperm cells also show flagellar root protein homologs associated with their basal bodies. We envisage a functional role for these fibrous calcium-sensitive contractile proteins in altering the orientation of centrioles or basal bodies with their associated MTOCs by responding to topological calcium fluxes.
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  • 46
    ISSN: 0886-1544
    Keywords: Life and Medical Sciences ; Cell & Developmental Biology
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Biology , Medicine
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  • 47
    ISSN: 0886-1544
    Keywords: uniplanar flagella ; doublet microtubules ; doublet interaction ; Life and Medical Sciences ; Cell & Developmental Biology
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Biology , Medicine
    Notes: The structural and mechanical properties of the helix-shaped isolated doublet microtubules described by Costello [Biol. Bull. 145:279-291, 1973], Zobel [J. Cell Biol. 59:573-94, 1973], and Miki-Noumura and Kamiya [Exp. Cell Res. 97:451-53, 1976, J. Cell Biol 81:355-60, 1979] are simulated by a left-handed superhelix model that consists of two intertwined springlike helices with a slight difference in their pitches. It is shown by combinations of two and more superhelices of this kind that the straight shape of the doublets in the axoneme is the consequence of a position-dependent mechanical coil-coil interaction between interconnected doublets whose curvatures bend against one another. A counterclockwise torsion changes the sense of the superhelix from the left-handed form with a smaller pitch (L2) to the right-handed form with a larger pitch (R3). The coil-coil interaction of L helices with R helices results in uniplanar, meanderlike shapes or in flattened helices. The one-sided distribution of L and R doublets as described for sperm axonemes by Costello [Biol. Bull. 145:279-91, 1973] may therefore be responsible for the uniplanar. meanderlike shape of these flagella.
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  • 48
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    Keywords: Life and Medical Sciences ; Cell & Developmental Biology
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  • 49
    ISSN: 0886-1544
    Keywords: Somitogenesis ; neurulation ; alpha-actinin ; morphogenesis ; Life and Medical Sciences ; Cell & Developmental Biology
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Biology , Medicine
    Notes: A discrete stage in two different morphogenetic processes has been examined employing fluorescently labelled alpha-actinin as a probe to localize native alpha-actinin and antibodies to localize fibronectin and collagen type I. The stage of somitogenesis examined is the transition from the compact mesenchymal somitic mass to the epithelial somitic vesicle (ie, epithelialization of the somite). The stage of neurulation examined is the transition from the relatively flat neuroepithelium to the approximation of the neural folds. Before these morphogenetic movements begin, the neuroepithelium is sitting upon a basal lamina and interstitial collagen, and the somite is surrounded by a meshwork of interstitial collagen. During both of these processes, the cells become narrowed at their apices in the region of the tissue that is becoming concave, and alpha-actinin is localized in the apices. The localization of intracellular alpha-actinin and extracellular fibronectin, and the distribution of collagen, suggest that there is a coordinated appearance and distribution of these molecules that is temporally associated with these discrete morphogenetic events.
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  • 50
    ISSN: 0886-1544
    Keywords: neutrophils ; cytoskeleton ; actin polymerization ; NBDphallacidin ; Life and Medical Sciences ; Cell & Developmental Biology
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Biology , Medicine
    Notes: The studies presented here characterize a simple, quantitative NBDphallacidin extraction assay for determining the F-actin content of fMLP-activated neutrophils. The NBDphallacidin extraction assay is based upon the specificity of NBDphallacidin binding to F-actin and the solubility of NBDphallacidin in methanol. Cells are fixed, permeabilized, and stained with NBDphallacidin; the cells are then pelleted, the bound NBDphallacidin is extracted into methanol, and the RFI (excite 465; emit 535) of the solution is determined. Binding of NBDphallacidin to neutrophils is saturable and 90% of bound NBDphallacidin is displaced by nonfluorescent phalloidin. The extraction of bound NBDphallacidin into methanol is complete and the excitation/emission characteristics of NBDphallacidin are not altered by extraction. The assay is relatively inexpensive, applicable to the study of cells in suspension or on substratum, allows kinetic studies with 5-10s time resolution, and is not affected by the shape of the cell or the distribution of the probe. We used the NBDphallacidin extraction assay to study the kinetics of fMLP-induced change in the F-actin content of neutrophils and the effect of tBOC peptide, an inhibitor of fMLP binding, on these changes. The extraction assay reveals a rapid, sequential fMLP-induced increase followed by a decrease in F-actin content. The tBOC peptide inhibits fMLP-induced actin polymerization. Addition of tBOC during fMLP-induced polymerization or at times when F-actin content is maximal enhances F-actin depolymerization. The rate of F-actin depolymerization is ≥ fourfold faster in the presence than in the absence of tBOC. The results show that (1) The NBDphallacidin extraction assay is useful for studying the kinetics of change in F-actin content of nonmuscle cells; (2) fMLP receptor occupancy is required for fMLP-dependent polymerization but not depolymerization; and (3) both the actin polymerizing and depolymerizing processes are active in the cell within 5 s after fMLP stimulation. Implications of these observations for understanding the observed increase and, then, decrease in F-actin content of fMLP-activated cells are discussed.
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  • 51
    ISSN: 0886-1544
    Keywords: respiratory cilia ; dynein ; ATPases ; porcine trachea ; Life and Medical Sciences ; Cell & Developmental Biology
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Biology , Medicine
    Notes: Milligram amounts of mammalian ciliary axonemes were isolated from porcine tracheas. These were reactivated upon addition of ATP, indicating intact functional capability with a mean beat frequency at 37°C of 8.2 Hz. Electron microscopy showed typical ultrastructure of the isolated demembranated axonemes. Electrophoresis into polyacrylamide gradient gels containing sodium dodecyl sulfate revealed reproducible protein profiles from ten different tracheal preparations. Four major protein bands were observed in the 300-330 K molecular weight region, as well as tubulin at 51-54K. Extraction of the isolated tracheal axonemes with 0.6M KCl removed the outer dynein arms seen in electron microscopic cross-section of axonemes, preferentially solubilized two of the high molecular weight proteins at 320 and 330 K, and resulted in a three- to four-fold increase in ATPase specific activity. Sedimentation of the dialyzed salt extract on a 5-30% sucrose density gradient and subsequent fractionation yielded two peaks of ATPase activity. The faster migrating, 19S major ATPase peak correlated with the 320 and 330 K proteins, and two other proteins at 81 and 67 K. The slower sedimenting, 12S minor ATPase peak corresponded to a 308 K protein and two smaller proteins at 33 and 48 K. Thus, the outer dynein arm of tracheal cilia appeared to be associated with at least two high molecular weight proteins. These results demonstrate that adequate quantities of functionally intact axonemes can be reproducibly isolated from porcine tracheas, allowing further fractionation and analysis of mammalian cilia.
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  • 52
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    New York, NY : Wiley-Blackwell
    ISSN: 0886-1544
    Keywords: Life and Medical Sciences ; Cell & Developmental Biology
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Biology , Medicine
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  • 53
    ISSN: 0886-1544
    Keywords: basal body ; centrosome ; ciliated epithelium ; ciliary rootlet ; cortex of metozoan ciliated cells ; monoclonal antibody ; Life and Medical Sciences ; Cell & Developmental Biology
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Biology , Medicine
    Notes: Basal bodies from laying quail oviduct were semipurified and used as immunogen to produce monoclonal antibodies. On 38 clones obtained and among those staining the apical pole of the ciliated cell, CC-310 was chosen because it labeled the apical region with a punctated aspect, suggesting a staining of basal bodies or of basal body-associated structures; the basal pole was also labeled.The ultrastructural localization performed by the immunogold technique showed that the labeling was mainly associated with the striated rootlets. The basal feet, the side of the basal bodies, and the basal poles of the demembranated cells were also decorated. The identification of the antigen performed by immunoblots of deciliated cortices revealed two proteins of 175,000 and 40,000, whereas immunoblots of basal bodies showed only the 175,000-mw protein. The possibility of these two proteins sharing the same epitope, located at both poles of the cell, is discussed.Immunofluorescence ascertained that CC-310 decorated the striated rootlets in ciliated epithelia from other species: mussel, frog, and human tissue. Finally, when tested on cultured cell lines, CC-310 labeled the centrosome and its associated rootlets on PtK2 during interphase. During mitosis the poles of the mitotic spindle were stained without any apparent rootlet-like structure.
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  • 54
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    New York, NY : Wiley-Blackwell
    Cell Motility and the Cytoskeleton 6 (1986), S. 82-82 
    ISSN: 0886-1544
    Keywords: Life and Medical Sciences ; Cell & Developmental Biology
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Biology , Medicine
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  • 55
    ISSN: 0886-1544
    Keywords: sperm movement ; human spermatozoa ; periaxonemal structure ; flagellum ; Life and Medical Sciences ; Cell & Developmental Biology
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Biology , Medicine
    Notes: The spermatozoa from four infertile patients showing a flagellar dyskinesia due to abnormal flagellar wave development have been studied by light and transmission electron microscopy (TEM) for flagellar morphology. No axonemal anomalies were found but modification of the periaxonemal structures was observed. The results of a stereological analysis revealed abnormal extension of the individual dense fibres along the axoneme in the four cases as compared with a control group. The order of termination of those structures was therefore altered. However, the overall fibre extension was the same in both groups (ie, 60% of the principal piece). The number and the location of the longitudinal columns were also modified, the predominant anomaly being the presence of a single column. The possible influence of those structural anomalies on the pattern of sperm movement is discussed. Our observations seem to agree with a previous hypothesis of the literature, that the dense fibres might play a role in flagellar flexibility. More particularly, we suggest that the abnormal extension of dense fibres No. 2, 3, and 4 and the symmetric distribution of the dense fibres on both sides of the plane of beating may alter the flagellar curvature amplitude and the cell rotation frequency.
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  • 56
    ISSN: 0886-1544
    Keywords: sea urchin ; spermatozoa ; Triton model ; protein kinase ; cyclic AMP ; phosphoprotein phosphatase ; Life and Medical Sciences ; Cell & Developmental Biology
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Biology , Medicine
    Notes: Flagellar motility of Triton models of sea urchin spermatozoa was reactivated by cyclic AMP-dependent protein kinase and a protein factor, termed motility activator, both of which were prepared from the detergent-extract of sea urchin spermatozoa. It was shown that phosphorylation of the motility activator by the protein kinase is necessary for the reactivation of flagellar motility [Ishiguro et al, J. Cell Biol. 92:777-782, 1982; Murofushi et al, in “Biological Functions of Microtubules and Related Structures,” Academic Press, 1982]. Reactivating factor was also detected in a KCI-extract of the axoneme fraction devoid of the detergent-extractable materials. The activity of this factor was also cyclic AMP- and protein kinase-dependent. Furthermore, when freshly prepared Triton models were treated with phosphoprotein phosphatase prepared from bovine cardiac muscle, the flagellar motility was drastically suppressed. This inhibition of the motility was partially recovered by the addition of cyclic AMP and protein kinase to the phosphatase-treated models.
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  • 57
    ISSN: 0886-1544
    Keywords: mitosis ; microtubules ; tubulin incorporation ; assembly polarity ; Chaetopterus ; HeLa cells ; Life and Medical Sciences ; Cell & Developmental Biology
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Biology , Medicine
    Notes: The incorporation of tubulin into mitotic spindles in situ was studied by incubating permeabilized mitotic cells in solutions containing [3H]GTP-labeled or dichlorotriazinylamino fluorescein (DTAF)-labeled tubulin. Metaphase HeLa cells or spindle-containing “minicells” from Chaetopterus oocytes were lysed in a microtubule-assembly buffer plus 0.5% Nonidet P-40, 1 mg/ml 120,000g supernatant mammalian brain tubulin, and [3H]GTP. After different periods of incubation, mitotic spindles were isolated in 2 M-glycerol-containing assembly buffer and separated from unbound counts by centrifugation through a 4 M-glycerol cushion; 3H counts per mg protein increase linearly for 8-12 min and then reach a plateau or steady state in both Chaetopterus oocytes and HeLa cells. Addition of 4 mM CaCl2 blocks or reverses incorporation. Little or no [3H]GTP is incorporated if exogenous tubulin or lysed cells are omitted from the assembly mixture.To measure the loss rate of [3H]GTP-tubulin from mitotic spindles, cells were incubated in tubulin plus [3H]GTP for 30 min, and a 20-fold excess of cold GTP (2 mM) was added. Samples were removed after incubation for different periods, and spindles were isolated as described above and counted for 3H content. [3H]GTP is lost from spindles at a rate of about 16%/min until a new steady state is reached in about 8 min. These results are consistent with an incorporation and turnover of [3H]GTP-tubulin in spindle microtubules of these lysed-cell models.The location of this newly incorporated tubulin in the spindle was investigated by incorporating fluorescent DTAF-tubulin into mitotic spindles of these lysed cell types. A short pulse (2-5 min) appears to label microtubules (MTs) near metaphase chromosomes and longer exposures label the entire spindle.The rates of incorporation and turnover that we see by [3H]GTP and fluorescent tubulin incorporation in situ are faster than those observed with brain MTs at steady state in vitro but are in the range of the rates of spindle fiber formation in prophase, and spindle MT reassembly after cooling.
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  • 58
    ISSN: 0886-1544
    Keywords: microtubules ; rootlets ; monoclonals ; immunofluorescence ; mitosis ; cytokinesis ; Life and Medical Sciences ; Cell & Developmental Biology
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Biology , Medicine
    Notes: We have used immunofluorescence staining with monoclonal antibodies to tubulin and to components of the flagellar basal apparatus to examine duplication of the basal apparatus and the microtubule system assembled from it during cell division in the quadriflagellate alga Polytomella. The monoclonal antitubulin, prepared against Polytomella flagellar axonemes, detects Polytomella and mammalian tubulin by immunoblotting. By immunofluorescence and immunogold electron microscopy, it detects all microtubular structures that have been described in Polytomella. One of the antibodies generated using the isolated basal apparatus as immunogen appears to stain four of the eight basal body rootlets and is used in this study to detect early stages in the duplication of the flagellar apparatus. A cytoplasmic microtubule system is present, the elongate morphology of the cell is maintained, and the cells are motile throughout mitosis. The closed mitotic spindle forms perpendicular to the long axis of the cell. During mitosis, the newly formed basal bodies mature and four additional elongating flagella appear. Following mitosis, the eight flagella segregate into two groups, which begin to separate towards opposite poles of the cell. Concomitant with this separation, the rootlets of the parental basal apparatus separate and new rootlets are detected. We suggest that the components of the parental flagellar apparatus are segregated equally to the daughter cells. An interphase cytoskeletal microtubule array is assembled from each basal apparatus, and the morphology of the two cells is progressively established during cytokinesis.
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  • 59
    ISSN: 0886-1544
    Keywords: motion analysis ; axonal transport ; cytoplasmic transport ; Brownian motion ; AVEC-DIC microscopy ; saltatory particle motion ; Life and Medical Sciences ; Cell & Developmental Biology
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Biology , Medicine
    Notes: A survey study of organelle movements in a variety of cell types of plant and animal origin was made with the aid of video-enhanced contrast, differential interference contrast (AVEC-DIC) microscopy followed by fine analysis of the motile behavior of the individual organelles. We found that there exists besides Brownian motion a wide spectrum of active motions in cells, i.e. motion that is directionally biased through the expenditure of metabolic energy. The types of active motion seen range from a continuous motion (sometimes appearing as streaming) in plant cells and neurons to various types of less ordered and less well directed motion. We did not see any clear-cut qualitative difference between plant and animal cells or between systems presumed to be actin- and microtubule-based. A preliminary classification of the types of active motion is presented. The ongoing research activities, which aim at a more precise definition of the different types of motion by a set of quantitative parameters, are described, and the progress made so far is reported.
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  • 60
    Electronic Resource
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    New York, NY : Wiley-Blackwell
    Cell Motility and the Cytoskeleton 2 (1982), S. 333-341 
    ISSN: 0886-1544
    Keywords: cell motility ; collagen ; Life and Medical Sciences ; Cell & Developmental Biology
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Biology ,