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  • 1995-1999  (1,011)
  • 1920-1924  (1,010)
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  • 1
    ISSN: 1618-2650
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology
    Notes: Abstract The Database COMAR now includes data from more than 8640 CRMs supplied by 180 producers in 24 countries. These data are divided into 8 main categories, containing up to 10 sub-categories. Quality of life as well as biological and clinical CRMs are two main categories where a great increase could be observed in the past years. These fields represent approximately 20|X% of the data records. Therefore it will be possible to gather different statistical information from these data.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 2
    ISSN: 1618-2650
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology
    Notes: Abstract The Australian Government Analytical Laboratories (AGAL) has historically been the major provider of chemical and micro biological analytical services to the Australian Government. An equally important role has been the provision of specialist functions associated with: •development and implementation of new and improved testing methods; •evaluation and commissioning of new instrumentation; •advice and assistance to government with the design, implementation and conduct of proficiency testing programs, particularly in areas of chemical testing related to international trade. In July 1993, in response to increasing international interest in chemical metrology, AGAL established a Valid Analytical Measurement program focused on improving the acceptability of laboratory data and supporting the development of appropriate standards through the National Standards Commission. AGAL has recently surveyed Australian residue testing laboratories to determine their priority requirements for reference materials and inter laboratory check sample programs. Survey results have clearly demonstrated a need for reasonably priced, certified reference materials for pesticide and antibiotic residue testing in raw agricultural produce. There are few reference materials available in this field of testing, particularly for residues of concern in Australia. AGAL has therefore initiated action as follows: •Preparation and certification of two priority reference materials (i) organochlorines (dieldrin and heptachlor epoxide) in animal fat, (ii) organophosphates (diazinon, chlorpyrifos and ethion) in animal fat. •Investigation of storage stability of animal liver samples containing avermectin, sulphonamide and other antibiotic residues to ascertain suitability for reference material production. In the area of proficiency testing, AGAL provides ongoing services (in close consultation with NATA, the National Association of Testing Authorities) to the Australian export meat industry. AGAL is seeking to expand this role to involve a wider range of laboratories engaged in residue testing of both export and domestic produce. The Australian Government believes it has an important role to play, particularly in the South East Asian and Pacific Rim regions, in co-operation, collaboration, assistance with training, and provision of specialist technical services.
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  • 3
    ISSN: 1618-2650
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology
    Notes: Abstract Horseradish peroxidase (HRPO) was used as a probe to quantitate aflatoxin B1 by a homogeneous immunoassay. The conjugation of AFB1 to HRPO resulted in 54% loss of enyzme activity. In the presence of AFB1 specific antibodies, the HRPO-AFB1 conjugate showed reversal of its lost enzyme activity by 12%. This positive modulatory effect of antibody on the enzyme activity was used as an analytical tool to quantitate AFB1. The homogeneous assay carried out with free AFB1 and HRPO-AFB1 conjugate in the presence of antibodies indicated poor linearity as compared to the heterogeneous assay. It was observed that the number of HRPO-lysine residues involved in AFB1 conjugation were 6–8. The low level of modulation of enzyme activity by antibody with respect to HRPO-AFB1 conjugate, could possibly be attributed to the limited number of lysine residues in the HRPO molecule and its proximity to the active site of the enzyme. Thus, HRPO was found to be limiting as an enzyme with respect to the homogeneous enzyme immunoassay for AFB1 analysis. The antibodies raised were specific for AFB1, and showed excellent linearity even at high dilution for the detection of AFB1 by ELISA indicating that antibodies per se were not the limiting factor.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 4
    ISSN: 1618-2650
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology
    Notes: Abstract Recently the subcommittee on Food Definition of the AOAC INTERNATIONAL Task Force on Methods for Nutrition Labeling proposed a “Food Matrix Organizational System” [4] to systematically judge the applicability of collaboratively studied methods over a range of food matrices. This system describes a food matrix by its location in one of nine sectors in a triangle, with each point of the triangle defined as representing 100% and the opposite side representing 0% of the normalized contents of each of three major components of FAT, PROTEIN and CARBOHYDRATE. Foods falling within the same sector would be chemically similar and thus should behave in a similar analytical manner. This same scheme can be used to select one or two food matrices representing each sector, for development of a series of reference materials representing all foods. The list of 5250 foods contained in the USDA Nutrient Data Base for Standard Reference has been sorted and matched to this schematic to determine the scope of the selection process. In addition the list of foods in the “USDA Data Base for Food Consumption Surveys” has been examined. Results and progress of this selection process are reported.
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  • 5
    ISSN: 1618-2650
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology
    Notes: Abstract A PC-based interactive programme is described which is designed to help in suggesting the best estimate of the true value of an analyte content from results of collective studies aiming at deriving consensus values and/or reference material preparation by employing combined statistical and analytical considerations. The Grubbs, Dixon, Huber tests, and the coefficients of skewness and curtosis tests are used for outlier detection, the Bartlett, Cochran, and the standard error tests are employed for testing variance homogeneity testing and/or variance outliers identification, while the normality of results distribution is tested according to the Kolmogoroff-Smirnoff-Lilliefors and Shapiro-Wilk tests. One-way analysis of variance (ANOVA) is employed to test differences among means of results obtained in different conditions (laboratories, analytical methods, etc.) and to calculate the overall mean and its confidence interval accordingly. Points for an analytical discussion are given which should be considered prior to a decision whether a result of a trace element determination, identified as an outlier from statistical reasons, should be rejected.
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  • 6
    ISSN: 1618-2650
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology
    Notes: Abstract As part of the analytical assurance system of the FAO European Cooperative Research Network on Trace Elements programme an ARC/CL-coded carrot flakes powder (CFP) candidate reference material (RM) has been prepared from a lot of commercial carrot flakes. The candidate RM has been homogenized using a Robot Coupe blender fitted with titanium blades, carefully homogenized in large teflon/polypropylene containers, bottled in 1000 numbered polyethylene containers (20 g samples) and tested for homogeneity. Interlaboratory comparison studies for 9 essential elements, cadmium and total dietary fiber (TDF) based on the AOAC-method resulted in the characterization of the contents of those compounds in the above material. After exclusion of outliers, mean values from at least nine different laboratories based altogether on three independent analytical principles have been used to calculate the recommended concentration ranges for mineral elements. Testing of homogeneity and stability for β-carotene over a period of one year has been additionally carried out. The mean water content in the material amounted to 4.97% and remained stable over a one-year period. Homogeneity of the RM was within 3.0% for almost all included mineral elements as tested for a sample size of 0.5 g. The 95% confidence limits for the mean values of the established recommended concentrations of mineral elements in the present ARC/CL Carrot Powder candidate RM fell within 5% for all the other elements and TDF except for Fe (6.3%) and B (5.7%). The stability of β-carotene in the present candidate RM stored in darkness over a one-year period at room temperature was within 6.3%.
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  • 7
    ISSN: 1618-2650
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology
    Notes: Abstract In June 1993 the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) released the third version of “Constituent Elements in Coal Fly Ash” Standard Reference Material (SRM 1633b). This material is intended for quality assurance purposes in evaluating the analytical methods used for the determination of constituent elements in coal fly ash or in materials with similar matrices. It has been certified for 23 major, minor and trace elements using ten different analytical techniques. For an element to be certified in a NIST SRM, its concentration is usually determined by at least two independent analytical techniques. The concentrations of additional 24 elements are provided for “information only” purposes in the new fly ash. Current plans are to certify the concentrations of a number of rare earths upon completion of additional analytical work now in progress. Homogeneity testing was accomplished using instrumental neutron activation analysis and X-ray fluorescence. This presentation summarizes the preparation of this new material and the analytical results used for certification.
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  • 8
    ISSN: 1618-2650
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology
    Notes: Abstract A quality control programme is presented for the determination of 210Po in samples from the phosphate ore-processing industry. Accuracy and precision of selected steps of the analytical procedure are quantified and the change in these parameters is monitored by analysis of hundreds of reference samples during the last two years.
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  • 9
    ISSN: 1618-2650
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology
    Notes: Abstract The NOAA National Status and Trends (NS&T) Program determines the current status of, and changes over time in the environmental health of U.S estuarine and coastal waters. Concentrations of organic and inorganic contaminants are determined in bivalves, bottom-dwelling fish and sediments. The quality of the analytical data generated by the NS&T Program is over-seen by the performance-based Quality Assurance Project, which is designed to document sampling protocols, analytical procedures, and laboratory performance, and to reduce intralaboratory and interlaboratory variation. All NS&T cooperating laboratories are required to participate in yearly intercomparison exercises. The analysis of reference materials, such as the National Research Council of Canada's Certified Reference Materials (CRMs) and National Institute of Standards and Technology's (NIST) Standard Reference Materials (SRMs), and of control materials, is required. Because of the need for marine matrix reference materials and standards, NOAA contributed to the production of eight NIST SRMs and seven internal standard solutions. Analytical data from all control materials and all matrix reference materials are reported to the Program office.
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  • 10
    ISSN: 1618-2650
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology
    Notes: Abstract SRM 1941a, Organics in Marine Sediment, has been recently issued with certified concentrations for 23 polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, 21 polychlorinated biphenyl congeners, 6 chlorinated pesticides, and sulfur. Noncertified concentrations have been also reported for additional PAHs, PCB congeners, and chlorinated pesticides and for percent total organic carbon (TOC), aliphatic hydrocarbons, and trace elements. SRM 1941a is the most extensively characterized natural matrix SRM issued by the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST).
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