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  • M14
  • ddc:300
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  • 1
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    Cologne: Max Planck Institute for the Study of Societies
    Publication Date: 2019-02-19
    Description: Based on data that tracks CV and publication records as well as survey information from sociologists in German academia, we examine the effects of parenthood on the publication output of male and female academics. Results indicate that having children leads to a significant decline in the number of publications by women, while not affecting the number of publications by men. We also find that the gendered effect of children on productivity hardly mitigates differences in publication output between men and women, as women still publish about 20 percent less than men after controlling for the adverse effects of children on productivity. We further find that the gendered effect of childbearing depends partly on prior levels of women's academic achievements, which suggests mechanisms of performance-driven self-selection. Lower-performing women tend to suffer a stronger motherhood penalty, while the publication output of more successful women (who have been granted academic awards) is not reduced through childbirth. The results indicate that women are better at managing the 'double burden' of parenthood and career if external, award-giving committees have bestowed prestige upon them and indicated their potential for a scientific career. Overall, these findings contribute to a better understanding of how to reduce the adverse effect of children on female publication output.
    Description: Auf Basis eines Datensatzes, der Lebenslauf- und Publikationsdaten sowie Informationen aus einem Online-Survey von deutschen Soziologinnen und Soziologen verbindet, untersuchen wir die Auswirkungen von Elternschaft auf den Publikationsoutput von Wissenschaftlern und Wissenschaftlerinnen. Die Ergebnisse zeigen, dass Elternschaft zu einem signifikanten Rückgang der Publikationen bei Frauen, nicht aber bei Männern führt. Ebenso zeigt sich jedoch, dass dieser geschlechtsspezifische Effekt bestehende Publikationsunterschiede zwischen Männern und Frauen kaum beseitigt. Frauen publizieren etwa 20 Prozent weniger als Männer, auch nachdem statistisch kontrolliert wird, dass Kinder die Publikationen von Frauen stärker senken als von Männern. Ferner zeigt sich, dass der negative Kinder-Effekt bei Frauen teilweise durch ihre bisherigen akademischen Errungenschaften erklärt werden kann, was auf Selbstselektionseffekte hinweist. Frauen, die mit akademischen Preisen als aussichtsreiche Kandidatinnen für eine akademische Karriere ausgezeichnet wurden, erleben einen geringeren Rückgang an Publikationen, wenn sie Kinder haben. Insgesamt tragen die Resultate zu einem besseren Verständnis dazu bei, wie die negativen Effekte von Elternschaft auf den Publikationsoutput von Frauen verringert werden könnten.
    Keywords: ddc:300 ; academic career ; academic publications ; children ; gender gap ; motherhood penalty ; Benachteiligung von Müttern ; Geschlecht ; Kinder ; wissenschaftliche Karrieren ; wissenschaftliche Publikationen
    Repository Name: EconStor: OA server of the German National Library of Economics - Leibniz Information Centre for Economics
    Language: English
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  • 2
    Publication Date: 2019-03-23
    Description: New economic sociology (NES) in Germany has many similarities with economic sociology in the United States in its conscious efforts to institutionalize its presence within the broader sociology community, its promotion of a canon via handbooks, and its focus on the sociology of markets. At the same time, it differs in its stronger connections to the German classics, the greater vitality of a macrosociological tradition in Germany, the prior existence of a "bridging" generation of economic sociologists, and its later consolidation in a period of neo-liberal globalization, all of which have given NES in the German-speaking world a distinctive character. In addition, it has been influenced by successive waves of French economic sociology - Bourdieu, convention, and actor-network theory - and its bilingual academic tradition has ensured its integration into English-speaking NES. In its contribution to the sociology of markets, the fact that NES emerged later in Germany than in the US led to a greater concern with quality markets rather than commodity markets, and a concomitantly greater attention to issues of value and price. These latter themes, in their turn, establish a continuity with German economic sociology's enduring concern with understanding the role of money. Not surprisingly, therefore, German NES is now making key contributions to discussions on the sociology of money and is increasingly situating its analysis within the broader dynamic of capitalism and current processes of financialization.
    Description: Die Neue Wirtschaftssoziologie (NWS) in Deutschland weist in ihrem anhaltenden Bemühen um eine Institutionalisierung ihrer Präsenz innerhalb der größeren soziologischen Community, ihren Versuchen, vermittels Handbücher einen Kanon zu propagieren, sowie durch ihre Fokussierung auf die Marktsoziologie viele Parallelen zur US-amerikanischen Wirtschaftssoziologie auf. Zugleich unterscheidet sie sich aber auch von ihr, nämlich durch ihre engeren Beziehungen zu den deutschen Klassikern, die größere Lebendigkeit der makrosoziologischen Tradition in Deutschland, die vorherige Existenz einer "Brückengeneration" von Wirtschaftssoziologen und durch ihre später erfolgende Konsolidierung in einer Phase der neoliberalen Globalisierung, wodurch die NWS im deutschsprachigen Raum einen besonderen Charakter angenommen hat. Daneben wurde sie von aufeinanderfolgenden Wellen der französischen Wirtschaftssoziologie - von Bourdieu, der Konventionen- sowie der Akteur-Netzwerk-Theorie - geprägt; ihre bilinguale akademische Tradition garantierte darüber hinaus stets ihre Einbindung in die englischsprachige NWS. Was ihre Beiträge zur Marktsoziologie angeht, so hat der Umstand, dass die NWS in Deutschland später aufkam als in den Vereinigten Staaten, sie zu einer verstärkten Beschäftigung mit Qualitäts- statt mit Commodity-Märkten sowie zu einer damit einhergehenden größeren Aufmerksamkeit für die Themenfelder Wert und Preis geführt. Letztere stellen wiederum eine Kontinuität mit der anhaltenden Beschäftigung der deutschen Wirtschaftssoziologie mit dem Verständnis der Funktion des Geldes dar. Es überrascht daher nicht, dass die deutsche NWS heute wesentliche Beiträge zu den Diskussionen in der Soziologie des Geldes leistet und ihre Analysen zunehmend im Rahmen der übergeordneten Dynamik des Kapitalismus und der Finanzialisierungsprozesse der Gegenwart verortet.
    Keywords: ddc:300 ; German economic sociology ; Max Planck Institute for the Study of Societies and economic sociology ; new economic sociology ; deutsche Wirtschaftssoziologie ; Max-Planck-Institut für Gesellschaftsforschung und Wirtschaftssoziologie ; Neue Wirtschaftssoziologie
    Repository Name: EconStor: OA server of the German National Library of Economics - Leibniz Information Centre for Economics
    Language: English
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  • 3
    Publication Date: 2019-03-19
    Description: [Einleitung] In vielen deutschen Städten lässt sich eine wachsende Spaltung der Stadtgesellschaft beobachten. In einer groß angelegten Studie haben Helbig und Jähnen (2018) für 74 Städte die räumlich ungleiche Verteilung der Wohnstandorte bestimmter Bevölkerungsgruppen untersucht. Beleuchtet wurden alle drei Dimensionen der residenziellen Segregation: die soziale, die demografische und die ethnische. Zwischen 2005 und 2014 hat die räumliche Ballung von Personen, die Leistungen nach dem Sozialgesetzbuch II beziehen, in über 80 Prozent der betrachteten Städte zugenommen. Doch nicht nur arme Menschen wohnen immer öfter Tür an Tür, sondern auch bestimmte Altersgruppen – vor allem die ab 65-Jährigen konzentrieren sich zunehmend in bestimmten Stadtteilen. Im Gegensatz dazu hat die ethnische Segregation von Ausländern im Zeitverlauf abgenommen. [...]
    Keywords: ddc:300
    Repository Name: EconStor: OA server of the German National Library of Economics - Leibniz Information Centre for Economics
    Language: German
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  • 4
    Publication Date: 2019-03-19
    Description: [Einleitung] In den letzten Jahren hat die Diskussion über sozial ungleiche Mittelzuweisung an Schulen Fahrt aufgenommen. Besonders sogenannte „Brennpunktschulen“ werden in diesem Zusammenhang häufig thematisiert. Erstmals ins bundesweite Bewusstsein kam dieser „Schultypus“ mit einem offenen Brief, den Lehrkräfte 2006 an der Berliner Hauptschule der „Rütli-Schule“ verfassten und in dem diese sich über die sozialen Probleme und Sprachbarrieren ihrer Schüler*innen sowie auch die Gewalt ihnen gegenüber beklagten, die ihrer Ansicht nach ein Unterrichten kaum mehr möglich machten. [...]
    Keywords: ddc:300
    Repository Name: EconStor: OA server of the German National Library of Economics - Leibniz Information Centre for Economics
    Language: German
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  • 5
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    Oxford: Oxford University Press | SocArXiv, Center for Open Science Charlottesville, VA
    Publication Date: 2019-04-25
    Description: Mixed-effects multilevel models are often used to investigate cross-level interactions, a specific type of context effect that may be understood as an upper-level variable moderating the association between a lower-level predictor and the outcome. We argue that multilevel models involving cross-level interactions should always include random slopes on the lower-level components of those interactions. Failure to do so will usually result in severely anti-conservative statistical inference. We illustrate the problem with extensive Monte Carlo simulations and examine its practical relevance by studying 30 prototypical cross-level interactions with European Social Survey data for 28 countries. In these empirical applications, introducing a random slope term reduces the absolute t-ratio of the cross-level interaction term by 31 per cent or more in three quarters of cases, with an average reduction of 42 per cent. Many practitioners seem to be unaware of these issues. Roughly half of the cross-level interaction estimates published in the European Sociological Review between 2011 and 2016 are based on models that omit the crucial random slope term. Detailed analysis of the associated test statistics suggests that many of the estimates would not reach conventional thresholds for statistical significance in correctly specified models that include the random slope. This raises the question how much robust evidence of cross-level interactions sociology has actually produced over the past decades.
    Keywords: ddc:300 ; comparative research ; context effects ; hierarchical data ; multi-level and hierarchichal models
    Repository Name: EconStor: OA server of the German National Library of Economics - Leibniz Information Centre for Economics
    Language: English
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  • 6
    Publication Date: 2019-01-30
    Description: The proportion of women on executive boards of the 100 largest banks stagnated at almost nine percent in 2018. In the 60 largest insurance companies, the proportion increased by a good percentage point to almost ten percent. While growth on executive boards has been weakening in past years, it is now slowing down on supervisory boards in the financial sector as well. In 2018, the proportion of women on financial sector supervisory boards remained at around 23 percent. If the current linear development were to continue, it would now take longer-almost until the beginning of the next century- for the top bodies to be composed of equal numbers of men and women. Compared to men, women in the financial sector are less likely to be promoted to senior management positions than in any other sector. This is due to, among other things, particularly inflexible working structures for managers, which ensure that women are hardly represented in middle management although they make up the majority of employees.
    Keywords: G2 ; J16 ; J78 ; L32 ; M14 ; M51 ; ddc:330 ; board composition ; board diversity ; boards of directors ; central banks ; corporate boards ; Europe ; finance industry ; financial sector ; female directors ; Gender gap ; gender equality ; gender quota ; Germany ; insurance companies ; management ; public and private banks ; supervisory boards ; women CEOs
    Repository Name: EconStor: OA server of the German National Library of Economics - Leibniz Information Centre for Economics
    Language: English
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  • 7
    Publication Date: 2019-01-30
    Description: The gender quota for supervisory boards is continuing to show its impact: the proportion of women on the supervisory boards of the 200 highest-performing companies in Germany increased by over two percentage points to 27 percent the past year. In the 100 largest companies, it increased by over three percentage points to 28 percent. However, there are now indications that the companies are only doing the bare minimum, as the proportion of women in the group of the 30 largest DAX companies-many of which have already reached the minimum of 30 percent women-has stagnated at one-third. Additionally, it is becoming more and more apparent that the gender quota does not have the impact hoped for on executive boards, at least not in the short term. Even though the ten percent mark was reached for the first time in the top 100 companies, most development is still taking place at a snail's pace. It is still up to companies to stymie demands for binding board member quotas. To do this, however, they must act as quickly as possible and consistently fill all hierarchical levels, especially beneath the board, with more women in order to increase the pool of potential female board members.
    Keywords: D22 ; J16 ; J59 ; J78 ; L32 ; M14 ; M51 ; ddc:330 ; corporate boards ; board composition ; boards of directors ; board diversity ; Europe ; women directors ; gender equality ; gender quota ; Germany ; management ; private companies ; public companies ; supervisory boards ; executive boards ; CEOs ; women
    Repository Name: EconStor: OA server of the German National Library of Economics - Leibniz Information Centre for Economics
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  • 8
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    Cologne: Max Planck Institute for the Study of Societies
    Publication Date: 2019-02-19
    Description: Germany is an undervaluation regime, a regime that steers economic behavior towards deterioration of the real exchange rate and thereby towards export surpluses. This regime has brought the eurozone to the brink of collapse. But it is much older than the euro. It was established during the Bretton Woods years and has survived all subsequent European currency orders. The regime operates in two steps: competitive disinflation against trading partners; and resistance against correcting revaluations. The Bretton Woods order provided perfect conditions for the establishment and perpetuation of the regime: it was flexible enough for sufficient macroeconomic policy autonomy to bring about differential inflation rates, and sticky enough to delay and minimize revaluations.
    Description: Deutschland ist ein Unterbewertungsregime: ein Regime, das wirtschaftliches Verhalten in Richtung eines sinkenden realen Wechselkurses und damit der Generierung von Exportüberschüssen lenkt. Das hat die Eurozone an den Rand des Zusammenbruchs geführt. Aber das Regime ist viel älter als der Euro. Es wurde in den Bretton-Woods-Jahren errichtet und überlebte alle nachfolgenden europäischen Währungsordnungen. Das Regime operiert in zwei Schritten: kompetitive Disinflationierung gegenüber den Handelspartnern und Widerstand gegen die Korrektur der entstandenen Wechselkursverzerrungen. Bretton Woods stellte perfekte Bedingungen für die Errichtung und Aufrechterhaltung des Regimes bereit. Denn es war flexibel genug für jene Autonomie der makroökonomischen Politik, mit der sich die Inflation der Handelspartner unterbieten ließ, und gleichzeitig schwerfällig genug für die Verzögerung und Minimierung von Aufwertungen.
    Keywords: ddc:300 ; current account surpluses ; exchange rate policy ; inflation ; political economy ; undervaluation ; varieties of capitalism ; Inflation ; Leistungsbilanzüberschüsse ; Politische Ökonomie ; Spielarten des Kapitalismus ; Unterbewertung ; Wechselkurspolitik
    Repository Name: EconStor: OA server of the German National Library of Economics - Leibniz Information Centre for Economics
    Language: English
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  • 9
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    Hamburg: German Institute of Global and Area Studies (GIGA)
    Publication Date: 2019-02-26
    Description: Few political transformations have attacked social inequalities more thoroughly than the 1959 Cuban Revolution. However, as the survey data in this paper shows, 60 years on, structural inequalities which echo the pre-revolutionary socio-ethnic hierarchies are returning. While official Cuban statistics are mute about social differences along racial lines, the authors were able to conduct a unique, nationwide survey which shows the contrary. If the revolutionary, state-run economy and radical social policies were the main social elevators for the formerly underprivileged classes in socialist Cuba, the economic crisis and depressed wages of the past decades have seriously undercut these achievements. Moreover, previously racialised migration patterns have produced highly unequal levels of access to family remittances, and the gradual opening of the private business sector in Cuba has largely disfavoured Afro-Cubans, due to their lack of access to pre-revolutionary property and remittances in the form of start-up capital. While social and racial inequalities have not yet reached the levels of other Latin American countries, behind the face of socialist continuity a profound restructuring of Cuban society is taking place.
    Keywords: ddc:300 ; Cuba ; social inequality ; race ; socialism ; migration ; remittances
    Repository Name: EconStor: OA server of the German National Library of Economics - Leibniz Information Centre for Economics
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  • 10
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    Hamburg: German Institute of Global and Area Studies (GIGA)
    Publication Date: 2019-02-26
    Description: Despite being a consolidated democracy with free and fair elections and having a political system with intense party competition, a relatively vibrant civil society, and a functioning federal set-up, India still ranks poorly in terms of the coverage, generosity, efficiency, and quality of its social protection. This is difficult to explain based on the factors usually advanced for the implementation of generous social policies. A second puzzle is the predominantly protective nature of welfare policies in India in the current era of globalisation, which should necessitate policies enabling workers to participate successfully in a more demanding economic environment. These puzzles may be explained partly by (a) the long-term insulation of the Indian economy from international competition, (b) the low share of industry and modern services in GDP until recently, (c) the precedence of identity policies, (d) the fragmentation of the political sphere, and (e) the meagre empowerment of women in India. We should, however, acknowledge that change is underway and that the picture is not bleak across India as a whole - being supported by economic reforms and growth, a greater degree of decentralisation and party competition within the country, increasingly discerning voters, and progress on female education and employment opportunities.
    Keywords: ddc:300 ; India ; social policies ; productive and protective social policies ; party competition ; clientelism ; women's education and formal employment
    Repository Name: EconStor: OA server of the German National Library of Economics - Leibniz Information Centre for Economics
    Language: English
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  • 11
    Publication Date: 2019-01-19
    Description: Die seit 2016 geltende Geschlechterquote für Aufsichtsräte zeigt weiter ihre Wirkung: In den 200 umsatzstärksten Unternehmen in Deutschland ist der Frauenanteil in den Kontrollgremien im vergangenen Jahr um mehr als zwei Prozentpunkte auf knapp 27 Prozent gestiegen, in den 100 größten Unternehmen sogar um mehr als drei Prozentpunkte auf gut 28 Prozent. Es gibt jedoch auch erste Hinweise, dass die Unternehmen nicht mehr tun als nötig: So stagnierte der Frauenanteil in der Gruppe der 30 größten DAX-Unternehmen, in der viele das Minimum von 30 Prozent Frauen bereits erreicht haben, bei einem Drittel. Zudem zeigt sich immer mehr, dass von der Geschlechterquote zumindest kurzfristig nicht die erhoffte Strahlkraft auf die Vorstandsebene ausgeht. Auch wenn in den Top-100-Unternehmen erstmals die Zehn-Prozent-Marke geknackt wurde, vollzieht sich die Entwicklung weiterhin größtenteils auf niedrigem Niveau im Schneckentempo. Noch haben es die Unternehmen in der Hand, Forderungen nach verbindlichen Quoten auch für die Vorstände den Wind aus den Segeln zu nehmen. Dazu müssen sie jedoch möglichst schnell handeln und beispielsweise konsequent alle Hierarchieebenen, gerade auch unterhalb des Vorstands, stärker mit Frauen besetzen, um den Pool potentieller Vorständinnen zu vergrößern.
    Keywords: D22 ; J16 ; J59 ; J78 ; L21 ; L32 ; M14 ; M51 ; ddc:330 ; corporate boards ; board composition ; boards of directors ; boarddiversity ; Europe ; women directors ; gender equality ; gender quota ; Germany ; management ; private companies ; public companies ; supervisory boards ; executiveboards ; CEOs ; women
    Repository Name: EconStor: OA server of the German National Library of Economics - Leibniz Information Centre for Economics
    Language: German
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  • 12
    Publication Date: 2019-01-19
    Description: Der Frauenanteil in den Vorständen der 100 größten Banken in Deutschland stagnierte 2018 bei knapp neun Prozent. In den 60 größten Versicherungen nahm er um gut einen Prozentpunkt auf fast zehn Prozent zu. Während sich damit in den Vorständen die schon in den vergangenen Jahren schwache Dynamik fortgesetzt hat, fällt sie nun auch in den Aufsichtsräten des Finanzsektors verhalten aus. Der Frauenanteil in den Kontrollgremien lag im Jahr 2018 bei jeweils rund 23 Prozent. Schriebe man die jetzige Entwicklung linear fort, würde es wieder länger - nämlich fast bis zu Beginn des nächsten Jahrhunderts - dauern, bis die Spitzengremien paritätisch besetzt wären. Im Vergleich zu Männern haben Frauen im Finanzsektor so geringe Aufstiegschancen in hohe Führungspositionen wie in keiner anderen Branche. Dies dürfte unter anderem an besonders unflexiblen Arbeitsstrukturen für Führungskräfte liegen, die dafür sorgen, dass Frauen auch in der zweiten Führungsebene kaum vertreten sind, obwohl sie die Mehrheit der Beschäftigten stellen.
    Keywords: G2 ; J16 ; J78 ; L32 ; M14 ; M51 ; ddc:330 ; board composition ; board diversity ; boards of directors ; central banks ; corporate boards ; Europe ; finance industry ; financial sector ; female directors ; Gender gap ; gender equality ; gender quota ; Germany ; insurance companies ; management ; public and private banks ; supervisory boards ; women CEOs
    Repository Name: EconStor: OA server of the German National Library of Economics - Leibniz Information Centre for Economics
    Language: German
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  • 13
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    Stuttgart: Universität Stuttgart, Institut für Sozialwissenschaften, Organisations- und Innovationssoziologie
    Publication Date: 2019-03-23
    Description: Digitalization has long been associated with the promise of a technology-enabled decentralization of social conditions. Although such expectations have regularly fallen short, their underlying generic vision has proven to be astonishingly stable. This paper strives to trace the origin of the notion of decentralizing socio-economic forms of coordination through technological means - from the do-it-yourself scene of the late 1960s, the computer counterculture of the 1970s and the 1980s, and the debates on cyberspace and Web 2.0 in the 1990s and 2000s to present day ideas of decentralized and distributed forms of production and economic systems. An elaboration of the basic patterns of arguments behind technology-based promises of decentralization and their communicative functions then follows.
    Description: Mit der Digitalisierung geht seit jeher das Versprechen einer technikinduzierten Dezentralisierung gesellschaftlicher Verhältnisse einher. Obgleich die daran geknüpften konkreten Erwartungen bislang von den empirischen Entwicklungen regelmäßig enttäuscht worden sind, erweist sich das dahinterliegende allgemeine Zukunftsbild als erstaunlich stabil. Vor diesem Hintergrund verfolgt dieses Papier zum ersten das Ziel, die Entstehungsgeschichte der Vorstellung einer Dezentralisierung sozioökonomischer Koordinationsweisen durch technische Strukturen zu rekonstruieren - von der Do-it-yourself-Szene der späten 1960er-Jahre über die Computer-Gegenkultur der 1970er- und 1980er-Jahre, die Diskussionen um das Web (2.0) in den 1990er- und 2000er-Jahren bis hin zu gegenwärtigen Ideen distribuierter Wirtschaftsweisen. Daran anknüpfend werden zum zweiten die argumentativen Grundmuster und kommunikativen Funktionen technikorientierter Dezentralisierungsthesen herausgearbeitet.
    Keywords: ddc:300
    Repository Name: EconStor: OA server of the German National Library of Economics - Leibniz Information Centre for Economics
    Language: German
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  • 14
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    Mannheim: ZEW - Leibniz-Zentrum für Europäische Wirtschaftsforschung
    Publication Date: 2019-04-10
    Description: The paper reviews the evidence on the challenges of digitalization for direct (corporate profit) and indirect (consumption) taxation. Based on both anecdotal and empirical evidence, we evaluate ongoing developments at the OECD and European Union level and argue that there is no justification for introducing a new tax order for digital businesses. In particular, the significant digital presence and the digital services tax as put forward by the European Commission will most likely distort corporate decisions and spur tax competition. To contribute to the development of tax rules in line with value creation as the gold standard for profit taxation the paper discusses data as a "new" value-driving asset in the digital economy. It draws on insights from interdisciplinary research to highlight that the value of data emerges through proprietary activities conducted within businesses. We ultimately discuss how existing transfer pricing solutions can be adapted to business models employing data mining.
    Keywords: H20 ; H25 ; H26 ; L21 ; L86 ; M14 ; ddc:330 ; Digital Economy ; Corporate Taxation ; Business Model Analysis ; Data Mining ; Tax Planning
    Repository Name: EconStor: OA server of the German National Library of Economics - Leibniz Information Centre for Economics
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  • 15
    Publication Date: 2019-05-17
    Keywords: ddc:300
    Repository Name: Wuppertal Institut für Klima, Umwelt, Energie
    Language: English
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  • 16
    Publication Date: 2019-05-17
    Keywords: ddc:300
    Repository Name: Wuppertal Institut für Klima, Umwelt, Energie
    Language: German
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  • 17
    Publication Date: 2019-04-01
    Keywords: ddc:300
    Repository Name: Wuppertal Institut für Klima, Umwelt, Energie
    Language: German
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  • 18
    Publication Date: 2019-03-19
    Keywords: ddc:300
    Repository Name: Wuppertal Institut für Klima, Umwelt, Energie
    Language: English
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  • 19
    Publication Date: 2019-04-01
    Keywords: ddc:300
    Repository Name: Wuppertal Institut für Klima, Umwelt, Energie
    Language: German
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  • 20
    Publication Date: 2019-03-28
    Description: Der vorliegende Bericht fasst die Inhalte des Projekts "Erfolgsbedingungen für Systemsprünge und Leitbilder einer Ressourcenleichten Gesellschaft" im Überblick zusammen und diskutiert diese. Er stellt damit den ersten Band der Berichte zu diesem Projekt dar. Nach einer Einführung wird die Ressourcenleichte Gesellschaft als ressourcenschonende, weitgehend dematerialisierte Gesellschaft mit hoher Lebensqualität definiert. Es folgt eine Vorstellung der Methodik bei der Leitbildentwicklung und die Skizzierung der Leitbilder selbst. Daraufhin werden die Ergebnisse von Diskussionen zu den Leitbildern mit Expertinnen und Experten in sogenannten Stakeholder-Workshops auf der einen Seite sowie mit Vertreterinnen und Vertretern der verschiedenen sozialen Milieus in Fokusgruppen und einer moderierten Online Community auf der anderen Seite dargestellt.
    Keywords: ddc:300
    Repository Name: Wuppertal Institut für Klima, Umwelt, Energie
    Language: German
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  • 21
    Publication Date: 2019-04-01
    Keywords: ddc:300
    Repository Name: Wuppertal Institut für Klima, Umwelt, Energie
    Language: German
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  • 22
    Publication Date: 2019-02-15
    Keywords: ddc:300
    Repository Name: Wuppertal Institut für Klima, Umwelt, Energie
    Language: German
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    Berlin : Vereinigung für ökologische Wirtschaftsforschung
    Publication Date: 2019-01-31
    Description: Die sozial-ökologische Forschung (SÖF) ist seit fast 20 Jahren ein Förderschwerpunkt des Bundesministeriums für Bildung und Forschung. Zur Weiterentwicklung dieses Förderschwerpunktes wurde bereits in der Vergangenheit ein Austausch mit relevanten Akteuren organisiert, um gemeinsam die Inhalte und Themenschwerpunkte der SÖF zu diskutieren. Ein neuer Agendaprozess ist 2018 gestartet. In einem ersten Schritt konnten bis Juni 2018 Themenvorschläge, sogenannte Agendapapiere, auf einer Plattform hochgeladen und kommentiert werden. Der vorliegende Beitrag ist im Rahmen dieses Prozesses entstanden. Aus Sicht der Autorinnen und Autoren stellt die Erforschung von Arbeit - insbesondere in Bezug zur sozial-ökologischen Forschung in den Feldern Mobilität, Ernährung und Energie - eine eklatante Forschungslücke innerhalb der sozial-ökologischen Forschung dar. Dabei sind etliche Bedarfsfelder geradezu auf unsere Arbeitsgesellschaft hin ausgerichtet. Wenn die Realität der Arbeitsgesellschaft thematisiert wird, geschieht dies jedoch meist ohne Berücksichtigung der damit einhergehenden ökologischen Effekte. Doch in kaum einem anderen Forschungsfeld sind soziale und ökologische Fragen so eng miteinander verzahnt wie in der Arbeitspolitik. Daher wollen sich die Autorinnen und Autoren in diesem Papier für eine sozial-ökologische Ausrichtung der Arbeitsforschung stark machen und plädieren für eine eigenständige Forschungsagenda zu sozial-ökologischer Arbeitspolitik.
    Keywords: ddc:300
    Repository Name: Wuppertal Institut für Klima, Umwelt, Energie
    Language: German
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  • 24
    Publication Date: 2019-05-06
    Keywords: ddc:300
    Repository Name: Wuppertal Institut für Klima, Umwelt, Energie
    Language: German
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  • 25
    Publication Date: 2019-01-11
    Keywords: ddc:300
    Repository Name: Wuppertal Institut für Klima, Umwelt, Energie
    Language: Italian
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  • 26
    Publication Date: 2019-05-18
    Description: Um den Konflikt zwischen EU-Befürwortern und -Kritikern zu beschreiben, wird häufig das wirtschaftspolitische Gegensatzpaar "ökonomischer Nationalismus" versus "globalen Freihandel" bemüht. Der vorliegende Beitrag nimmt das britische EU-Referendum zum Anlass, sich kritisch mit dieser Dichotomie auseinanderzusetzen. Entlang einer wirtschaftssoziologischen, diskursanalytischen Untersuchung von rund 400 Kampagnendokumenten zeigt sich, dass dieses Gegensatzpaar die wirtschaftspolitischen Standpunkte von Gegnern und Befürwortern des Brexit nur unzureichend beschreibt. Es wird deutlich, dass insbesondere die Position der EU-Skeptiker durch die Integration gegensätzlicher wirtschaftspolitischer Idealbilder und historischer Argumente geprägt war. Diese Unbestimmtheit erlaubte wiederkehrende Verweise auf unterschiedliche wirtschaftspolitische Traditionen Großbritanniens: einer Wirtschaftsnation, deren Selbstverständnis historisch sowohl von Nationalismus als auch von Globalismus, sowohl von Liberalismus als auch von Interventionismus geprägt wurde und die daher gleichzeitig nach ökonomischer Öffnung und ökonomischer Schließung strebt. Die Fähigkeit der Brexit-Befürworter, ein heterogenes Bündnis zu mobilisieren, könnte somit auch darin begründet liegen, dass es ihnen gelang, eine potenzielle ökonomische Zukunft zu skizzieren, die verschiedene Facetten der ambivalenten ökonomischen Identität Großbritanniens anspricht und damit für verschiedene Weltanschauungen und Interessen anschlussfähig erscheint.
    Description: The conflict between supporters and critics of the EU is often described in terms of "economic nationalism" versus "global free trade" as opposite positions on economic policy. The paper takes the British EU referendum as an opportunity to critically evaluate this dichotomy. An examination of some 400 campaign documents using an economic sociology approach and discourse analysis reveals that these opposite positions are not sufficient to describe the economic standpoints of Brexit opponents and supporters. It becomes clear that the position of the Eurosceptics in particular was informed also by contradictory economic ideals and historical arguments. This lack of definition made way for recurrent references to different traditions in British economic policy: as a nation whose economic self-identity has been shaped historically by nationalism as well as globalism, liberalism as well as interventionism, the UK simultaneously aspires to economic openness and economic closure. That pro-Brexit campaigners were able to mobilize a heterogeneous coalition to support it might therefore be explained by their success in sketching out a potential economic future that picks up on different facets of Britain's ambivalent economic identity and is thus seemingly compatible with different worldviews and interests.
    Keywords: ddc:300 ; Brexit campaign ; economic identity ; economic imaginaries ; economic nationalism ; free trade ; tradition ; Brexit-Kampagne ; Freihandel ; ökonomische Idealbilder ; ökonomische Identität ; ökonomischer Nationalismus ; Tradition
    Repository Name: EconStor: OA server of the German National Library of Economics - Leibniz Information Centre for Economics
    Language: German
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  • 27
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    Hamburg: German Institute of Global and Area Studies (GIGA)
    Publication Date: 2019-05-22
    Description: Ten years ago, President Barack Obama's unprecedented address to the Muslim world from Cairo was hailed as a landmark in US-Middle Eastern relations and described by contemporary observers as a historical break in US foreign policy in the region. Yet it soon became clear that the president's vision for a "new beginning based on mutual interest and mutual respect" would face many practical constraints. Analysing the thematic and rhetorical development of Obama's speeches during the formative period between summer 2008 and 2009, as well as the public and academic perception of and reaction to these moments, the paper examines the underlying interests and motivations for the president's foreign policy approach in the Middle East. It argues that despite the low priority given to foreign policy issues during the economic crisis occurring at the time, the key pillars of Obama's ambitious vision for the Middle East were rooted in pronounced US interests as well as the president's personal convictions, rather than opportunistic calculations. It thus counters retrospective post-2011 criticism which argues that Obama's words were never meant to be put into practice. The study contributes to the establishment of a solid empirical and conceptual base for further research on the United States' foreign policy in the Middle East under the Obama administration.
    Keywords: ddc:300 ; US foreign policy ; Barack Obama ; Middle East ; New Beginning ; Cairo ; rhetoric
    Repository Name: EconStor: OA server of the German National Library of Economics - Leibniz Information Centre for Economics
    Language: English
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  • 28
    Publication Date: 2019-05-25
    Description: Burkinis, getrennte Schwimmzeiten für muslimische Frauen und Schwimmbadverbote für männliche Flüchtlinge als Präventionsmaßnahme gegen sexuelle Übergriffe - Schwimmbäder in Deutschland wurden in den vergangenen Jahren vermehrt im Zusammenhang mit einem migrationsbezogenen Wandel diskutiert. Dieser Wandel besteht auch in der Neuaushandlung von Säkularität, wobei insbesondere Anpassungen für konservative muslimische Badegäste die Verhandlungsmasse stellen. Im Rahmen dieser Studie wollen wir daher untersuchen, zu welchen Aushandlungsprozessen es zwischen Nutzern, Organisation und Umwelt kommt, wenn besonders freizügige und konservativmuslimische Körperpraktiken im Schwimmbad aufeinandertreffen. Die Analysen beruhen auf einer für deutsche Printmedien für den Zeitraum 1998-2008 durchgeführten Political Claims Analysis sowie einer Umfrage unter Schwimmbädern in Deutschland (n=339). Erhoben wurden die Daten im Rahmen der Teilstudie Schwimmbäder des BMBF-Verbundprojekts BODYRULES.
    Keywords: ddc:300
    Repository Name: EconStor: OA server of the German National Library of Economics - Leibniz Information Centre for Economics
    Language: German
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  • 29
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    Mannheim: ZEW - Leibniz-Zentrum für Europäische Wirtschaftsforschung
    Publication Date: 2019-06-05
    Description: We present a simple model to illustrate how birthplace diversity may affect team performance. The model assumes that birthplace diversity increases the stock of available knowledge due to skill complementarities and decreases effciency due to communication barriers. The consequence of these two opposing effects is a humpshaped relationship between birthplace diversity and team performance. To verify this prediction, we exploit self-collected data on the first division of German male soccer. Our data set covers 7,028 matches and includes information about 3,266 players coming from 98 countries. We propose two different instrumental variable approaches to identify the effect of birthplace diversity on team performance. Our findings suggest that an intermediate level of birthplace diversity maximizes team performance.
    Keywords: F23 ; F66 ; J01 ; J24 ; M14 ; M54 ; ddc:330 ; birthplace diversity ; firm performance ; globalization ; high-skilled migration ; international migration ; productivity ; soccer ; team composition ; team performance
    Repository Name: EconStor: OA server of the German National Library of Economics - Leibniz Information Centre for Economics
    Language: English
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    Copenhagen: Danish Institute for International Studies (DIIS)
    Publication Date: 2019-06-12
    Description: This report provides a backdrop for identifying conflict resolution initiatives in support of a settlement with the Taliban in Afghanistan. It reviews the multifaceted peace processes, both past and present, and provides insights into the most recent developments among the Taliban. Based on secondary sources and interviews with Taliban leaders, commanders and foot soldiers, the report highlights the development of an unprecedented momentum calling for the international community to identify ways to support the Afghan peace and reconciliation process.
    Keywords: ddc:300
    Repository Name: EconStor: OA server of the German National Library of Economics - Leibniz Information Centre for Economics
    Language: English
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    Copenhagen: Danish Institute for International Studies (DIIS)
    Publication Date: 2019-06-12
    Description: Islamic State in Iraq no longer controls territory, but although security is better in Iraq than in recent years, with parliamentary elections being held in May 2018, Iraq faces substantial challenges. This report focuses on three areas of special importance, namely the fragmentation of security provision, the lack of legitimate political institutions, and the effects of corruption and nepotism on the economy.
    Keywords: ddc:300
    Repository Name: EconStor: OA server of the German National Library of Economics - Leibniz Information Centre for Economics
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    Villingen : Paul Scherrer Institute
    Publication Date: 2019-06-21
    Keywords: ddc:300
    Repository Name: Wuppertal Institut für Klima, Umwelt, Energie
    Language: English
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  • 33
    Publication Date: 2019-06-19
    Keywords: E61 ; E62 ; H62 ; H77 ; E32 ; E63 ; F45 ; E02 ; F21 ; G15 ; D22 ; J16 ; J78 ; M14 ; M51 ; J14 ; J26 ; I21 ; I28 ; ddc:330 ; fiscal rules ; public debt ; countercyclical policy ; monetary union ; stabilization funds ; fiscal policy ; capital market integration ; legal harmonization ; institutional differences ; board diversity ; gender equality ; gender quota ; Gender Pension Gap ; Europe ; SHARE ; education ; program evaluation
    Repository Name: EconStor: OA server of the German National Library of Economics - Leibniz Information Centre for Economics
    Language: German
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  • 34
    Publication Date: 2019-06-15
    Keywords: E61 ; E62 ; H62 ; H77 ; E32 ; E63 ; F45 ; E02 ; F21 ; G15 ; D22 ; J16 ; J78 ; M14 ; M51 ; J14 ; J26 ; I21 ; I28 ; ddc:330 ; fiscal rules ; public debt ; countercyclical policy ; monetary union ; stabilization funds ; fiscal policy ; capital market integration ; legal harmonization ; institutional differences ; board diversity ; gender equality ; gender quota ; gender pension gap ; Europe ; SHARE ; education ; program evaluation
    Repository Name: EconStor: OA server of the German National Library of Economics - Leibniz Information Centre for Economics
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  • 35
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    Munich: Center for Economic Studies and Ifo Institute (CESifo)
    Publication Date: 2019-06-22
    Description: I model the strategic interaction between scientists aiming for promotion and a research institution that seeks a highly productive faculty by setting a maternity allowance in the form of a minimum promotion standard. The model shows that maternity allowances need not derive from moral justice arguments but can emerge endogenously from efficiency considerations. The underlying mechanism rests on the assumption that exceptionally productive female professionals are also exceptionally productive if they choose to become mothers. Even though motherhood temporarily handicaps their productivity, it is exactly this cost of motherhood that signals the mothers’ intrinsic high productivity. I explicitly refer to the academic labor market and use empirical evidence from academia to justify the model’s specification, but the conclusions carry over to promotion decisions at the executive level in most professional lines of occupation.
    Keywords: C72 ; D82 ; J13 ; J16 ; M14 ; M51 ; ddc:330 ; maternity ; job market signaling ; fertility ; research productivity ; highly skilled labor ; economics of science ; scientometrics
    Repository Name: EconStor: OA server of the German National Library of Economics - Leibniz Information Centre for Economics
    Language: English
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  • 36
    Publication Date: 2019-07-12
    Keywords: ddc:300
    Repository Name: Wuppertal Institut für Klima, Umwelt, Energie
    Language: German
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  • 37
    Publication Date: 2019-07-12
    Description: Ziel dieses Berichts im Rahmen des Projekts "Erfolgsbedingungen für Systemsprünge und Leitbilder einer Ressourcenleichten Gesellschaft" ist es, eine solche Ressourcenleichte Gesellschaft zu definieren. Hierzu wird zunächst der Rahmen für eine Ressourcenleichte Gesellschaft durch Aufbereitung der relevanten Diskurse bestimmt. Kapitel 1 zeichnet die zeitgeschichtliche Entwicklung des ressourcenbezogenen Nachhaltigkeitsdiskurses von 1972 bis in die Gegenwart nach. Aus dieser Analyse werden relevante Gesichtspunkte für eine Ressourcenleichte Gesellschaft identifiziert und am Ende des Kapitels in einer Übersicht dargestellt. Das zweite Kapitel entwickelt darauf aufbauend den bereits genannten definitorischen Rahmen, d.h. es erfolgt eine grundsätzliche Erarbeitung der normativen Kriterien, die eine solche Gesellschaft ausmachen sollte. Kapitel 3 skizziert dann existierende Zugänge zur Ressourcenleichten Gesellschaft und zeigt wichtige Merkmale dieser Ansätze auf, welche zur Entwicklung der Ressourcenleichten Gesellschaft durch Kontrastierung oder Übernahme von Merkmalen beitragen können.
    Keywords: ddc:300
    Repository Name: Wuppertal Institut für Klima, Umwelt, Energie
    Language: German
    Type: report , doc-type:report
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  • 38
    Publication Date: 2019-07-12
    Description: Der NaWis-Verbund verstärkt seine Bestrebungen, die gesellschaftlichen Wirkungen von transformativer Forschung abzubilden. Damit soll auch die Qualität der Forschungsarbeiten gesichert werden. Die bei der Impact-Messung zur Anwendung kommenden Ansätze unterscheiden sich bislang grundsätzlich. Der vorliegende Beitrag skizziert den Zugang des Wuppertal Instituts für Klima, Umwelt, Energie.
    Keywords: ddc:300
    Repository Name: Wuppertal Institut für Klima, Umwelt, Energie
    Language: German
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  • 39
    Publication Date: 2019-07-12
    Keywords: ddc:300
    Repository Name: Wuppertal Institut für Klima, Umwelt, Energie
    Language: German
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  • 40
    Publication Date: 2019-07-12
    Keywords: ddc:300
    Repository Name: Wuppertal Institut für Klima, Umwelt, Energie
    Language: German
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  • 41
    Publication Date: 2019-07-12
    Keywords: ddc:300
    Repository Name: Wuppertal Institut für Klima, Umwelt, Energie
    Language: English
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  • 42
    Publication Date: 2019-07-12
    Keywords: ddc:300
    Repository Name: Wuppertal Institut für Klima, Umwelt, Energie
    Language: German
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  • 43
    Publication Date: 2019-07-12
    Description: The Paris Agreement introduces long-term strategies as an instrument to inform progressively more ambitious emission reduction objectives, while holding development goals paramount in the context of national circumstances. In the lead up to the twenty-first Conference of the Parties, the Deep Decarbonization Pathways Project developed mid-century low-emission pathways for 16 countries, based on an innovative pathway design framework. In this Perspective, we describe this framework and show how it can support the development of sectorally and technologically detailed, policy-relevant and country-driven strategies consistent with the Paris Agreement climate goal. We also discuss how this framework can be used to engage stakeholder input and buy-in; design implementation policy packages; reveal necessary technological, financial and institutional enabling conditions; and support global stocktaking and increasing of ambition.
    Keywords: ddc:300
    Repository Name: Wuppertal Institut für Klima, Umwelt, Energie
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  • 44
    Publication Date: 2019-07-12
    Description: Transformative Wissenschaft versteht sich als Katalysator für gesellschaftliche Veränderungsprozesse. Sie musste sich in den vergangenen Jahren innerwissenschaftlicher Kritik und Dekonstruktion stellen. Daneben muss sie sich aber auch an ihrer gesellschaftlichen Wirkung messen lassen. Als Zwischenbilanz aus fünf Jahren Debatte um die transformative Wissenschaft halten wir fest: Die nächste Phase in der Weiterentwicklung transformativer Wissenschaft braucht Orte, an denen ihre gesellschaftlich produktive Wirkkraft erfahrbar wird und erprobt werden kann.
    Keywords: ddc:300
    Repository Name: Wuppertal Institut für Klima, Umwelt, Energie
    Language: German
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  • 45
    Publication Date: 2019-07-12
    Keywords: ddc:300
    Repository Name: Wuppertal Institut für Klima, Umwelt, Energie
    Language: German
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  • 46
    Publication Date: 2019-07-12
    Keywords: ddc:300
    Repository Name: Wuppertal Institut für Klima, Umwelt, Energie
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  • 47
    Publication Date: 2019-07-12
    Keywords: ddc:300
    Repository Name: Wuppertal Institut für Klima, Umwelt, Energie
    Language: German
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  • 48
    Publication Date: 2019-07-12
    Description: Zivilgesellschaftliche Organisationen sind zentrale Akteure für den Wandel in Richtung Nachhaltigkeit. Sie treiben dieses zutiefst kulturelle Zivilisationsprojekt auf vielerlei Weise voran. Dabei bewirken sie immer dann besonders viel, wenn sie ihre Rolle als Mahner, Mittler und Motor gut zu kombinieren verstehen.
    Keywords: ddc:300
    Repository Name: Wuppertal Institut für Klima, Umwelt, Energie
    Language: German
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  • 49
    Publication Date: 2019-07-12
    Description: Addressing food waste prevention is one target of the Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs) and a major task for the UN Environmental Programme and the European Commission. It is promising in terms of its environmental saving potential. However, it also leads to consumers being able to save money, which they then are likely to spend, thus again causing a negative environmental impact. This dimension of the so-called indirect rebound effect, which prevents the desired ecological benefits from being achieved, is investigated in this paper. By using a single-region environmentally extended input-output model from a production perspective, the indirect rebound effects from food waste prevention in Germany are analysed. Any political action needs to consider not only a differentiation in income class, but also alternative concepts such as the principles of sufficiency in order to achieve all ecological benefits and specifically the third target of SDG 12.
    Keywords: ddc:300
    Repository Name: Wuppertal Institut für Klima, Umwelt, Energie
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  • 50
    Publication Date: 2019-07-12
    Keywords: ddc:300
    Repository Name: Wuppertal Institut für Klima, Umwelt, Energie
    Language: German
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  • 51
    Publication Date: 2019-07-12
    Description: Der Anlass für die Evaluation des Deutschen Ressourceneffizienzprogramms ProgRess ist seine Fortschreibung im Jahr 2020. In zahlreichen Interviews identifizieren die Autorinnen und Autoren Stärken und Schwächen und zeigen Wege für eine institutionelle und strategische Weiterentwicklung auf. Die Bedeutung des Programms wird als überwiegend positiv, die bisherigen Ressourceneffizienzwirkungen hingegen als durchwachsen bewertet. Den Umsetzungsstand konnten die Befragten wenig beurteilen, da Indikatoren bislang nur für einen Teil der Maßnahmen vorhanden sind. Eine Priorisierung der Aktivitäten, verbindlichere Instrumente und Zielvorgaben sowie eine bessere Mittelausstattung gehören zu den Empfehlungen.
    Keywords: ddc:300
    Repository Name: Wuppertal Institut für Klima, Umwelt, Energie
    Language: German
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  • 52
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    Wuppertal : Wuppertal Institut für Klima, Umwelt, Energie
    Publication Date: 2019-07-09
    Description: Das Ziel der Akzeptanzstudie "Mieterstrom aus Mietersicht" war es, den Blick der Stromkundinnen und -kunden auf das dezentrale Versorgungskonzept "Mieterstrom" zu untersuchen und zu bewerten. Die Studie untersucht, inwiefern Mieterinnen und Mieter über das in ihrem Wohnhaus angebotene Mieterstromprodukt informiert sind, wie sie es annehmen und welche Faktoren die Akzeptanz beeinflussen. Dazu wurden 61 fragebogengestützte Face-to-Face-Interviews in sieben Mieterstromprojekten geführt. Die Bewohnerinnen und Bewohner gaben darin Auskunft zu ihren Motiven bei der Wahl ihrer Stromversorgung und ihrem Informationsstand. Außerdem führte der Autor der Studie, Markus Schäfer, leitfadengestützte Experteninterviews mit den Projektverantwortlichen der Mieterstromanbietern. Die Ergebnisse bestätigen in großen Teilen die zu Beginn der Forschung aufgestellten Thesen. Das Mieterstrommodell ist selbst in Wohnhäusern, in denen ein Mieterstromprodukt angeboten wird, noch häufig unbekannt. Dies ist nicht nur auf unzureichende Information durch die Anbieter zurückzuführen, sondern auch auf das Desinteresse der Stromkunden am Thema Energieversorgung allgemein und als kompliziert wahrgenommenen Konzepten wie Mieterstrom insbesondere. Hohe Beteiligungsquoten konnten nur in Projekten erzielt werden, in denen die Befragten Faktoren wie die Nutzung erneuerbarer Energien und lokale Erzeugung bei der Wahl Ihrer Energieversorgung klar über den Strompreis stellten, oder in denen Mieterstrom besonders günstig angeboten wurde. Allerdings gibt es auch bestimmte Vertriebsmethoden, die zu hohen Beteiligungsquoten führen können. Trotz der unterschiedlichen Rahmenbedingungen bei den untersuchten Projekten kann der Autor die Ergebnisse der Studie nutzen, um Handlungsempfehlungen für die Energiewirtschaft zur Erreichung höherer Beteiligungsquoten in Mieterstromprojekten zu formulieren.
    Keywords: ddc:300
    Repository Name: Wuppertal Institut für Klima, Umwelt, Energie
    Language: German
    Type: masterthesis , doc-type:masterthesis
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  • 53
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    Cologne: Max Planck Institute for the Study of Societies
    Publication Date: 2019-07-10
    Description: The financial foundation of Germany's manufacturing success, according to the comparative capitalism literature, is an ample supply of long-term capital, provided to firms by a three-pillar banking system and "patient" domestic shareholders. This premise also informs the recent literature on growth models, which documents a shift towards a purely export-led growth model in Germany since the 1990s. We challenge this common assumption of continuity in the German financial system. Export-led growth, characterized by aggregate wage suppression and high corporate profits, has allowed non-financial corporations to increasingly finance investment out of retained earnings, thus lowering their dependence on external finance. This paper documents this trend and shows that business lending by banks has increasingly been constrained on the demand side, reducing the power - and relevance - of banks vis-à-vis German industry. The case study suggests a need for students of growth models to pay greater attention to the dynamic interaction between institutional sectors in general, and between the financial and the non-financial sectors in particular.
    Description: Die vergleichende Kapitalismusforschung sieht die finanzielle Grundlage des Erfolgs der deutschen Exportwirtschaft in dem reichhaltigen langfristigen Kapital, das Unternehmen über ein dreisäuliges Bankensystem sowie durch "geduldige" inländische Anteilseigner zur Verfügung steht. Auch die neuere Literatur, die für Deutschland seit den 1990er-Jahren eine Verlagerung auf ein ausschließlich exportorientiertes Wachstumsmodell diagnostiziert, geht von der Gültigkeit dieser Sichtweise aus. Mit diesem Papier stellen wir die gängige Auffassung von der Kontinuität im Verhältnis zwischen Finanzsystem und produzierendem Gewerbe infrage. Exportorientiertes Wachstum, gekennzeichnet durch Unterdrückung des Lohnwachstums und hohe Unternehmensgewinne, hat es nichtfinanziellen Unternehmen ermöglicht, Investitionen zunehmend aus einbehaltenen Gewinnen zu finanzieren und so ihre Abhängigkeit von externer Finanzierung zu reduzieren. Das Papier dokumentiert diesen Trend und zeigt, dass Banken aufgrund schwindender Nachfrage immer weniger Firmenkredite vergeben und dadurch an Bedeutung und Macht gegenüber der deutschen Industrie verlieren. Im Hinblick auf künftige Forschung zu Wachstumsmodellen zeigt unsere Fallstudie, dass die dynamische Interaktion zwischen institutionellen Sektoren im Allgemeinen sowie zwischen dem Finanz- und dem Unternehmenssektor im Besonderen größere Aufmerksamkeit verdient.
    Keywords: ddc:300 ; bank power ; business lending ; corporate finance ; institutional change ; non-financial corporations ; Banken ; exportorientiertes Wachstumsmodell ; institutioneller Wandel ; Kreditgeschäft ; Unternehmensfinanzierung
    Repository Name: EconStor: OA server of the German National Library of Economics - Leibniz Information Centre for Economics
    Language: English
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  • 54
    Publication Date: 2019-07-06
    Description: [Einleitung] Die Zuwanderung nach Deutschland war im Jahr 2015, aber auch noch 2016 und 2017 wesentlich von der Fluchtmigration geprägt. In dieser Zeit sind knapp 1,4 Millionen Schutzsuchende in die Bundesrepublik gekommen, davon ca. 890.000 im Jahr 2015 (BAMF 2019: 10). Diese Situation stellte Politik und Verwaltung vor enorme Herausforderungen. In vielen deutschen Städten wurden zunächst Gemeinschaftsunterkünfte eingerichtet, die zum Teil auch 2019 noch in Betrieb sind. Nach und nach begann man, die Schutzsuchenden dezentral in Wohnungen unterzubringen. Allerdings waren sie nur 2015 die größte Zuwanderergruppe - in den Jahren zuvor und danach waren es EU-Binnenmigranten (BAMF 2019: 10). Besonders gegenüber den (süd)osteuropäischen Ländern Rumänien, Polen und Bulgarien gab es in den letzten Jahren einen relativ hohes Wanderungssaldo (BAMF 2019: 54f; BMI 2016: 34). Wir wollen in dieser Studie untersuchen, wie sich Zuwanderer und insbesondere die Teilgruppe der Schutzsuchenden in den deutschen Städten räumlich verteilen. Wo sind sie 2015 und 2016 angekommen und wo sind sie untergekommen, nachdem sie die (Erst-)Aufnahmeeinrichtungen wieder verlassen haben? Im Fokus unserer Betrachtung steht die Frage, in welchem Zusammenhang der Wohnstandort von Zuwanderern mit der sozialen Zusammensetzung der Bevölkerung in den Ankunftsquartieren steht. Beschreibt man Schutzsuchende und andere Zuwanderungsgruppen nicht vorrangig in ethnischen oder nationalstaatlichen Kategorien, so sind sie in der ersten Zeit nach ihrer Ankunft im Allgemeinen sozioökonomisch eher schwache Gruppen (Grabka et al. 2019). Es liegt daher nahe, dass ihre sozialräumliche Verteilung in den deutschen Städten anhand ökonomischer Kriterien erfolgt. Entsprechend ist zu erwarten, dass die Zuwanderer der letzten Jahre vorrangig dort wohnen, wo bereits andere sozioökonomisch schwache Gruppen leben. Insgesamt untersuchen wir die Verteilung von Zuwanderern zwischen 2014 und 2017 in 86 deutschen Groß- und Mittelstädten, um ein möglichst breites Bild zu erhalten. Dafür nutzen wir Angaben zur Staatsangehörigkeit der Bevölkerung: Wir betrachten sowohl die Gesamtgruppe der Ausländer als auch die Teilgruppe der häufigsten Staatsangehörigkeiten von Asylantragstellern. [...]
    Keywords: ddc:300
    Repository Name: EconStor: OA server of the German National Library of Economics - Leibniz Information Centre for Economics
    Language: German
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  • 55
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    Stockholm : European Council for an Energy Efficient Economy
    Publication Date: 2019-07-17
    Description: In 2016, the European Commission presented the Clean Energy for all Europeans Package , comprising legislative proposals to facilitate the clean energy transition within the EU, such as the revised EPBD 2010/31/EU and EED 2012/27/EU.Besides putting energy efficiency first and achieving global leadership in renewable energy, a third goal of the package was to provide a "fair deal to consumers" with "no one left behind"., While in some Member States the issue of energy poverty already was on the political agenda, enabling affordable access to basic energy services for all households and thus reducing energy poverty is now an explicit policy target of the revised EU Directives. In order to assess and monitor the extent of the issue across the EU and address it by suitable measures, the concept of energy poverty needs to be defined, operationalised and measured. The paper aims to investigate the role of energy poverty indicators for policy making. To do so, it provides an overview on existing measurement approaches.Furthermore, the paper presents the development and current state of energy poverty across the EU using a set of four complementary indicators used by the EU Energy Poverty Observatory. These consensual and expenditure-based indicators are calculated using data from the EU Survey on Income and Living Conditions and the Household Budget Survey. In addition, the paper highlights peculiarities of results on the different indicators, describes persisting issues with regard to their calculation and interpretation against the background of the underlying data base. Based on the results of this analysis, further necessities of data collection and research are pointed out.
    Keywords: ddc:300
    Repository Name: Wuppertal Institut für Klima, Umwelt, Energie
    Language: English
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  • 56
    Publication Date: 2019-07-18
    Description: The German educational system is characterized by pronounced educational disparities based on the parental socioeconomic status. Despite the rather strong stratification of the secondary school sys-tem and social selection into obtaining the university entrance qualification, the transition to higher education is no exception to the general picture of strong inequalities in the German educational system. Social differences in enrolment in higher education might be partly due to the unequal distribution of information and differences in social support. If this were the case, offering information and support via guidance counsellors could reduce educational disparities in the transition to higher education. However, empirical research on this issue in Europe, especially in Germany, is scarce. Against this background, the study "Future and Career Plans Before High School Graduation" (in German: Zukunfts- und Berufspläne vor dem Abitur, ZuBAb) investigates how a broad long-term counselling program affects the educational pathways of university-eligible students by means of a randomized controlled trial (RCT). The study focuses on the reduction of inequalities in university enrolment (primary outcome). Furthermore, we examine the effect of the intervention on the development of socio-emotional competencies, choice of study majors, satisfaction with educational choices, congruence between occupational interests and educational choice, and rational choice components (secondary outcomes). In addition to investigating the effect of the program on educational pathways by means of an RCT, we analyse the social composition of participating students under real world conditions to estimate the effectiveness of the program in reducing educational disparities under real world conditions. The present discussion paper provides an overview of the background of the ZuBAb study, the research questions that are addressed, and the research design. The study is currently being conducted. It is funded by the Ministry of Culture and Science of the German State of North Rhine-Westphalia. Research is jointly carried out by the Berlin Social Science Centre and the University of Cologne.
    Keywords: ddc:300 ; educational inequality ; educational intervention ; randomized controlled trial (RCT)
    Repository Name: EconStor: OA server of the German National Library of Economics - Leibniz Information Centre for Economics
    Language: English
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  • 57
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    Berlin: Wissenschaftszentrum Berlin für Sozialforschung (WZB)
    Publication Date: 2019-07-18
    Description: The fundamental right to gender equality has played an important role in Germany's more recent constitutional history. The rulings of the Federal Constitutional Court (FCC, Bundesverfassungsgericht) and other courts have developed doctrinal standards that are relevant to anti-discrimination legislation overall. This article provides a brief history of gender equality in the German Basic Law (Grundgesetz) and its concretization in key Constitutional Court decisions from 1949 until today. A special emphasis is on the legal doctrine of non-discrimination and on the influence of feminist legal scholars. The article concludes with a discussion of affirmative action measures from the perspective of constitutional law.
    Keywords: ddc:300
    Repository Name: EconStor: OA server of the German National Library of Economics - Leibniz Information Centre for Economics
    Language: English
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  • 58
    Publication Date: 2019-07-16
    Keywords: ddc:300
    Repository Name: Wuppertal Institut für Klima, Umwelt, Energie
    Language: German
    Type: contributiontoperiodical , doc-type:contributiontoperiodical
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  • 59
    Publication Date: 2019-07-27
    Description: People with disabilities (PWD) represent a largely untapped market and customer segment worldwide, as well as an enormous untapped workforce potential. Although there are indications in the literature that the employment of PWD can bring many advantages for companies, the effects on companies and the resulting competitive advantages have rarely been empirically investigated. This article aims to analyze the competitive implications of the employment of PWD, as part of the corporate social responsibility (CSR) strategy. The research is based on a literature review. The selected literature was evaluated regarding the competitive advantage using the value-rarityimitability-organisation (VRIO) framework. The results show that the employment of PWD is valuable, rare, and costly to imitate. If a company succeeds in using this resource effectively, this leads to a sustainable competitive advantage. An established corporate culture is a mandatory prerequisite to integrate PWD successfully. This prerequisite represents an imitation barrier. The promotion of the employment of PWD gives access to a new pool of applicants and can contribute to mitigating or preventing a future shortage of skilled workers. The employment of PWD does not wear off as a human resource. The concept can be transferred to different technologies, products, and markets. The sensitivity gained about people with disabilities can open new markets and customer segments. Therefore, PWD's employment as part of the value creation strategy can make a long-term contribution to the company's success and represent a sustainable competitive advantage.
    Keywords: J14 ; M14 ; I18 ; ddc:330 ; CSR ; Persons with disabilities ; Diversity ; Employment ; HRM
    Repository Name: EconStor: OA server of the German National Library of Economics - Leibniz Information Centre for Economics
    Language: English
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  • 60
    Publication Date: 2019-07-27
    Description: So far companies seem to ignore the potential of persons with disabilities (PWD) as customers and as employees. Although there is some empirical evidence that PWD employment can bring many benefits to companies and that social inclusion can attract a lasting customer base. The employment of PWD and social inclusion, generally, are important social commitments of companies and should represent a central element of the Corporate Social Responsibility (CSR) strategy. CSR is also an interesting marketing instrument for differentiation. However, customers are more aware of productrelated CSR activities than philanthropy or sustainable business initiatives. The aim of this article is to analyze how the promotion of social inclusion, through the example of the employment of PWD, could impact directly or indirectly on business sales. The research is based on a literature review. The selected literature was evaluated regarding the impact on business sales using a deductive content analysis. The results show that social inclusion, as a CSR activity, contributes to increased sales. This is particularly important when it comes to providing services and direct customer contact. Through social inclusion, the company reflects the diversity of existing and potential customers. In this way, new customers can be acquired, customer loyalty promoted or strengthened, and, as a result, sales increased. CSR activities that are used as a marketing tool for differentiation and do not pursue the sole goal of strengthening the company's reputation can create a competitive advantage and thus secure market share, open-up new market segments and permanently increase sales.
    Keywords: J14 ; M14 ; I18 ; ddc:330 ; social inclusion ; disability management ; persons with disabilities ; CSR
    Repository Name: EconStor: OA server of the German National Library of Economics - Leibniz Information Centre for Economics
    Language: English
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  • 61
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    Wuppertal : Wuppertal Institut für Klima, Umwelt, Energie
    Publication Date: 2019-08-07
    Description: Das Wuppertal Institut hat das Forschungsformat der Reallabore konzeptionell und praktisch entscheidend mitgeprägt. Insbesondere in den letzten fünf Jahren erlebt dieses Format einen ungeahnten Aufschwung. Vor diesem Hintergrund blickt der vorliegende In Brief auf die Perspektiven für die künftige Forschung in Reallaboren. Drei Forderungen sind dabei von zentraler Bedeutung: (1) die Besinnung auf die ursprünglichen Kern-Charakteristika der Reallabor-Idee, (2) der systematische Capacity-Aufbau für Reallabore im Wissenschaftssystem und (3) die Etablierung von langfristiger angelegten Reallaborstrukturen.
    Keywords: ddc:300
    Repository Name: Wuppertal Institut für Klima, Umwelt, Energie
    Language: German
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  • 62
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    Cologne: Max Planck Institute for the Study of Societies
    Publication Date: 2019-08-13
    Description: The history of a research field called political economy dates back to the eighteenth century, giving rise to a variety of disciplinary approaches, and experienced a renaissance as a multidisciplinary field after the Second World War, combining economic, political science, and sociological approaches. The divergence between economic globalization and the nationally restricted scope of economic policy directs interest to the relationship between politics and the economy. A quantitative analysis of the articles published in two dedicated political economy journals shows major trends of the developing research field. The relationship between politics and economy is interpreted rather widely, and research is largely focused on Western capitalist nations. In conclusion, two avenues for further research in the field are briefly discussed.
    Description: Die Geschichte eines Forschungsfelds unter der Bezeichnung "politische Ökonomie" geht ins 18. Jahrhundert zurück und führte in der Folgezeit zu unterschiedlichen disziplinären Schulen. Nach dem Zweiten Weltkrieg erlebte die politische Ökonomie eine erstaunliche Renaissance als ein multidisziplinäres Forschungsfeld. Widersprüche zwischen ökonomischer Globalisierung und einer national eingehegten Rolle von Wirtschaftspolitik lenkten das Interesse auf die Wechselbeziehungen zwischen Politik und Ökonomie. Eine quantitative Analyse der in zwei neueren Zeitschriften publizierten Aufsätze zeigt Schwerpunkte der Analyse; die Beziehung zwischen Politik und Ökonomie wird sehr differenziert gesehen und kapitalistische westliche Nationen bilden den Schwerpunkt der Forschung. Abschließend wird auf zwei wichtige Fragen für die Forschung hingewiesen.
    Keywords: ddc:300 ; capitalism ; history of political economy ; relationship politics/economy ; Western capitalist nations ; Geschichte der politischen Ökonomie ; Kapitalismus ; Verhältnis Politik/Ökonomie ; westliche kapitalistische Nationen
    Repository Name: EconStor: OA server of the German National Library of Economics - Leibniz Information Centre for Economics
    Language: English
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  • 63
    Publication Date: 2019-08-16
    Description: To contribute to a better understanding of consumer food leftovers and to facilitate their reduction in out-of-home settings, our study analyzes the effects of two common intervention strategies for reducing leftovers in a holistic behavioral model. Based on a quasi-experimental baseline-intervention design, we analyzed how the display of information posters and the reduction of portion sizes take an effect on personal, social and environmental determinants in a structural equation model. Applying data from online surveys and observations among 880 guests (503 baseline, 377 intervention) during two weeks in a university canteen, the suggested model allows to assign effects from the two interventions on plate leftovers to specific changes in behavioral determinants. Portion size reductions for target dishes are found to relate to lower levels of plate waste based on conscious perception, represented in smaller portion size ratings. Effects from seeing information posters are found to base on changed personal attitudes, subjective norms and perceived behavioral control. However, depending on how an individual reacts to the information (by only making an effort to finish all food or by making an effort and additionally choosing a different dish in the canteen) there are opposite effects on these determinants and consequently also on plate leftovers. Overall, the differentiated results on intervention effects strongly support the benefits of more holistic and in-depth analyses of interventions to reduce plate leftovers and therefore to contribute to more sustainable food consumption in out-of-home settings.
    Keywords: ddc:300
    Repository Name: Wuppertal Institut für Klima, Umwelt, Energie
    Language: English
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  • 64
    Publication Date: 2019-08-23
    Keywords: ddc:300
    Repository Name: Wuppertal Institut für Klima, Umwelt, Energie
    Language: German
    Type: contributiontoperiodical , doc-type:contributiontoperiodical
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  • 65
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    Hamburg: German Institute of Global and Area Studies (GIGA)
    Publication Date: 2019-08-30
    Description: This paper argues that the scholarship on security sector reform (SSR) tends to neglect regional politics in the formulation of its concepts and policies, and that this neglect deprives the study of SSR of a valuable analytical level. It therefore uses comparative historical analysis and the model of regional conflict formations (RCFs) to examine army reforms in Sierra Leone and Iraq from a regional angle, thereby illustrating the explanatory potential that regional politics could bring to the study of SSR and its implementation. The paper also distinguishes between convergent and divergent regional formations, whereby the relationship between SSR outcomes and regional politics is conceived of as constitutive, entangled, and holistic.
    Keywords: ddc:300 ; security sector reform (SSR) ; statebuilding ; regional politics ; army reform ; Iraq ; Sierra Leone ; comparative historical analysis
    Repository Name: EconStor: OA server of the German National Library of Economics - Leibniz Information Centre for Economics
    Language: English
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