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  • 1
    Call number: Z 06.0500
    Type of Medium: Journal available for loan
    Pages: 30 cm
    ISSN: 1824-7741
    Former Title: Vorgänger Geologisch-paläontologische Mitteilungen, Innsbruck
    Language: German , English
    Note: Ersch. unregelmäßig , Beiträge teilweise in Englisch
    Branch Library: GFZ Library
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  • 2
    Monograph available for loan
    Monograph available for loan
    [Edgecumbe, N.Z.] : A. Muller
    Call number: M 15.89146
    Description / Table of Contents: An account of the results of the 2 March 1987 earthquake in the eastern Bay of Plenty and the aftermath's effects on the people and places on the Rangitaiki Plains
    Type of Medium: Monograph available for loan
    Pages: 223 S., , Ill.
    Language: English
    Branch Library: GFZ Library
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  • 3
    Call number: MOP 19538/1d-6d
    Type of Medium: Monograph available for loan
    Pages: 111 S.
    ISSN: 0486-2287
    Language: Russian
    Note: In kyrill. Schr.
    Location: MOP - must be ordered
    Branch Library: GFZ Library
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  • 4
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    Heidelberg ; München ; Landsberg ; Berlin : Decker
    Type of Medium: 11
    Pages: Online
    ISBN: 978-3-7685-6644-5
    Language: German
    Note: Ersch. 4x jährl.; Druckausg. ersch. als Losebl.-Ausg. , Systemvoraussetzungen Einzelplatzversion: läuft auf jedem Standard-PC; ab Windows NT 4.0 (SP3), Windows 2000 bis Windows Vista, Webbrowser (Internet Explorer ab 5.5 oder Mozilla Firefox ab 1.0.7); Mehrbenutzer-/Intranetversion: Windows 2000 (SP4), Windows XP (SP2), empfohlen: Windows NT Server 4.0 (SP6), Windows 2000 Server (SP2), Windows Server 2003, Linux; integrierbar in Webserver IIS 5 od. 6 / Apache 1.3 od. Apache 2 ab Version 2.0.49, auf Windows optional Intranet-Schnelleinrichtung möglich (inkl. Installation eines vorkonfigurierten Apache 1.3 Webservers); ab 2011, Nov.: Einzelplatzversion: läuft auf jedem Standard-PC (Windows und Mac) mit Windows 2000, XP, Vista, 7, Mac OSX 10,5, X 10.6, auch 64-bit-Betriebssystemversionen werden unterstützt; Mehrbenutzer-/Intranetversion: empfohlen: Windows 2000 Server (ab SP 2), Server 2003, Server 2008, 2008 R2, Linux, lauffähig auch auf Windows 2000 (ab SP 4) - Windows 7; auch 64-bit-Betriebssystemversionen werden unterstützt; integrierbar in Webserver IIS 5,6 o. 7, Apache 1.3 od. Apache 2 ab Version 2.0.49, auf Windows optional Intranet-Schnelleinrichtung inkl. Installation eines vorkonfigurierten Apache 2.2 Webservers möglich; ab März 2015: Betriebssystem Windows8, Mac OS X bis 10.10 (Einzelplatzversion) und Windows Server 2012 (Intranetversion); Webserver (Intranetintegration Windows, Linux): Apache 2.4, IIS8 und 8.5, Web
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  • 5
    Call number: S 90.0066(162,1)
    In: Geologisches Jahrbuch / A
    Type of Medium: Series available for loan
    Pages: 261 Seiten , Ill., 1 DVD-ROM (12 cm) und 1 Tafel-Beil. ([2] S.)
    ISBN: 9783510968534
    Series Statement: Geologisches Jahrbuch 162
    Classification: A.2.8.
    Language: German
    Location: Lower compact magazine
    Branch Library: GFZ Library
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  • 6
    Call number: (DE-599)GBV03709842X
    Type of Medium: Monograph available for loan
    Language: German
    Location: MOP - must be ordered
    Branch Library: GFZ Library
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  • 7
    Monograph available for loan
    Monograph available for loan
    Bonn : Helmholtz Association ; 2006-
    Associated volumes
    Call number: 3/S 07.0034(2016)
    In: Annual report
    Type of Medium: Monograph available for loan
    Pages: 51 Seiten
    ISSN: 1865-6439 , 1865-6447
    Parallel Title: Erscheint auch als Annual report ... / Helmholtz Association of German Research Centres
    Language: English
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  • 8
    Call number: M 18.91571
    Type of Medium: Monograph available for loan
    Pages: 134 Seiten
    ISSN: 2363-7196
    Series Statement: Global tectonics and metallogeny : special issue Vol. 10/2-4
    Classification: A.3.4.
    Parallel Title: Erscheint auch als Global tectonics and metallogeny
    Language: English
    Location: Upper compact magazine
    Branch Library: GFZ Library
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  • 9
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    facet.materialart.12
    Issy-les-Moulineaux : Soc. d'Ed. Publique ; 1.2004 -
    Call number: Z 19.5678
    Type of Medium: 12
    Pages: Online-Ressource
    ISSN: 1765-2022
    Former Title: Vorg. Profession politique
    Language: French
    Branch Library: IASS Library
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  • 10
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    New York, NY [u.a.] : Council on Foreign Relations | Buffalo, NY : HeinOnline ; 1.1922/23 -
    Call number: IASS Z 19.93040
    Type of Medium: 12
    Pages: Online-Ressource
    Language: English
    Note: Volltext auch als Teil einer Datenbank verfügbar
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  • 11
    Call number: M 92.0634
    Type of Medium: Monograph available for loan
    ISBN: 9054100605
    Language: English
    Branch Library: GFZ Library
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  • 12
    Call number: IASS 15.89494
    Type of Medium: Monograph available for loan
    Pages: Losebl.-Ausg.
    Edition: Stand: Oktober 2010
    ISBN: 9783768501828
    Language: German
    Branch Library: IASS Library
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  • 13
    Monograph available for loan
    Monograph available for loan
    Garmisch-Partenkirchen : Institut für atmosphärische Umweltforschung der Fraunhofer- Gesellschaft
    Call number: MOP 44829 / Mitte
    Type of Medium: Monograph available for loan
    Pages: 25 S. , graph. Darst.
    Language: English
    Location: MOP - must be ordered
    Branch Library: GFZ Library
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  • 14
    Call number: PIK N 453-17-91096
    Type of Medium: Monograph available for loan
    Pages: 50 Seiten , Illustrationen, Diagramme
    Language: German
    Branch Library: PIK Library
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  • 15
    Monograph available for loan
    Monograph available for loan
    London : Penguin Books
    Type of Medium: Monograph available for loan
    ISBN: 9780141985206
    Language: English
    Branch Library: IASS Library
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  • 16
    Monograph available for loan
    Monograph available for loan
    Leningrad : Gidrometeorolog. Izd.
    Call number: MOP 33767
    Type of Medium: Monograph available for loan
    Pages: 663 S.
    Language: Russian
    Note: In kyrill. Schr., russ.
    Location: MOP - must be ordered
    Branch Library: GFZ Library
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  • 17
    Call number: AWI G6-19-92375
    In: Berichte / Christian-Albrechts-Universität zu Kiel, Institut für Geowissenschaften, Nr. 9
    Type of Medium: Monograph available for loan
    Pages: 278 Seiten , Illustrationen
    ISSN: 0175-9302
    Series Statement: Berichte / Christian-Albrechts-Universität zu Kiel, Institut für Geowissenschaften 9
    Language: German
    Note: Zugleich: Dissertation, Christian-Albrechts-Universität zu Kiel, 1999 , INHALTSVERZEICHNIS 1. Einleitung 1.1 Kenntnisstand und offene Fragen 1.2 Fragestellung und Ziele dieser Arbeit 2. Umweltbedingungen in den Arbeitsgebieten 2.1 Hydrographie, Eisverhältnisse und NAO 2.2 Zur Variation von Wassertiefe und Breite der Dänemarkstraße und zur Vereisung Islands während des letzten Glazials 3. Methoden 3.1 Auswahl der Kernstationen 3.2 Probennahme und Analysen (Übersicht) 3.3 Zur Rekonstruktion von Paläobedingungen im Oberflächenwasser Zur Aussage stabiler Isotopenverhältnisse in planktischen Foraminiferen Zur Messung stabiler Isotopenverhältnisse Zur Massenspektrometrie Zur Rekonstruktion von Oberflächentemperaturen Alkane und Alkohole als Maß für Staubeintrag Eistranspmtiertes Material und vulkanische Aschen 3.4 Zur Rekonstruktion von Paläobedingungen im Zwischen-/ Tiefenwasser Häufigkeit von Cibicides- und anderen benthischen Arten (inkl. Taxonomie) Stabile Isotopenverhältnisse in benthischen Foraminiferen 3.5 AMS 14C-Datierungen Probenreinigung 3. 6 Hauptelementanalysen von vulkanischen Asche-Leithorizonten 3. 7 Geomagnetische Meßgrößen und magnetische Suszeptibiltät 3.8 Techniken zur Spektralanalyse 4. Methodische Ergebnisse 4.1 Zum Einfluß der Probenreinigung auf δ18O-/ δ13C-Werte 4.2 Probleme bei der langfristigen Reproduzierbarkeit von δ18O-Zeitreihen 4.3 Einfluß der Korngröße und Artendefinition planktischer Foraminiferen auf SST-Rekonstruktionen in hohen Breiten 4.4 Vergleich der stabilen Isotopenwerte von Cibicides lobatulus und Cibicidoides wuellerstorfi 5. Stratigraphische Grundlagen und Tiefenprofile der Klimasignale 5.1 Stratigraphische Korrelation zwischen parallel-gekernten GKG- und SL-/KL-Profilen 5.2 Flanktische δ18O-/ δ13C-Kurven, 14C-Alter und biostratigraphische Fixpunkte Westliches Islandbecken Kern PS2644 Kern PS2646 Kern PS2647 Kern 23351 Vøring-Plateau Kern 23071 Kern 23074 5.3 Benthische δ18O-/ δ13C-Werte in Kern PS2644 5.4 Siliziklastische Sedimentkomponenten: Eistransportiertes Material Westliches Islandbecken Kern PS2644 Kern PS2646 Kern PS2647 Vøring-Plateau Kern 23071 Kern 23074 5.5 Vulkanische Glasscherben in Kern PS2644: Wind- und Eiseintrag 5.6 Geochemie und Alter einzelner Tephralagen als Leithorizonte Westliches Islandbecken Kern PS2644 Kern PS2646 Kern PS2647 Vøring-Plateau Kern 23071 Kern 23074 5.7 Magnetische Suszeptibilität in den Kernen PS2644, PS2646 und PS2647 Kern PS2644 Kern PS2646 und PS2647 5.8 Geomagnetische Feldintensität und Richtungsänderungen in Kern PS2644 5.9 Variation von Planktonfauna und -flora Westliches Islandbecken: Kern PS2644 Kern PS2646 und PS2647 Vøring-Plateau: Kern 23071 und 23074 5.10 Benthische Foraminiferen in Kern PS2644 6. Entwicklung von Temperatur und Salzgehalt nördlich der Dänemark-Straße 6.1 Variation der Oberflächentemperatur nach Planktonforaminiferen 6.2 Variation der Oberflächentemperatur nach Uk37 6.3 Variation der Oberflächensalinität 7. Die Feinstratigraphie von Kern PS2644 als Basis für eine Eichung der 14C-Altersskala 22 - 55 ka 7.1 Korrelation zwischen den Klimasignalen in Kern PS2644 und der GISP2-Klimakurve zum Kalibrieren der 14C-Alter und Erstellen eines Altersmodells Tephrachronologische Marker Korrelationsparameter und -regeln Sonderfälle/ Probleme bei der Korrelation 7.2 Alters-stratigraphische Korrelation der Klimakurven von Kern 23071 und 23074 7.3 Variation der Altersanomalien zwischen 20 und 55 14C-ka 7.4 Variabilität des planktischen 14C-Reservoiralters in Schmelzwasserbeeinflußten Seegebieten Variation der planktischen 14C-Alter unmittelbar an der Basis von Heinrich-Ereignis 4 Unterschiede zwischen planktischen und benthischen 14C-Altern in der westlichen Islandsee. Zur Erklärung der inversen Altersdifferenzen 7.5 Differenz zwischen 14C- und Kalenderalter: Zeitliche Variation unter Einfluß des Erdmagnetfeldes - Modell und Befund 7.6 Sedimentationsraten der Kerne 23071, 23074 und PS2644 nach dem GISP2-Altersmodell Vøring-Plateau: Kerne 23071 und 23074 Südwest-Islandsee: Kern PS2644 8. Klimaoszillationen im Europäischen Nordmeer in der Zeit und Frequenzdomäne 8.1 "Der Einzelzyklus" in den Klimakurven von Kern PS2644 8.2 Zur Veränderlichkeit der Warm- und Kaltextreme sowie Zyklenlänge Besonderheiten in der Zyklenlänge Variation der Kalt-(Stadiale) Variation der Interstadiale 8.3 Periodizitäten der Klimasignale im Frequenzband der D.-Oe.-Zyklen. Der D.-Oe.-Zyklus von 1470 J., seine Multiplen und harmonischen Schwingungen Weitere Frequenzen: 1000-1150 Jahre- und 490- 510 Jahre-Zyklizitäten Höhere Frequenzen im Bereich von Jahrhunderten und Dekaden 8.4 Phasenbeziehungen und (örtliche) Steuemngsmechanismen der Dansgaard-Oeschger-Zyklen 9. Schlußfolgerungen Danksagung Literaturverzeichnis Anhang
    Location: AWI Reading room
    Branch Library: AWI Library
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  • 18
    Journal available for loan
    Journal available for loan
    München : Altop-Verlag ; 2007 -
    Call number: Z 19.92410
    Type of Medium: Journal available for loan
    Pages: 30 cm
    ISSN: 1865-4266
    Former Title: Vorg. Nachhaltiges Wirtschaften in Deutschland
    Language: German
    Note: Ungezählte Beil. ab 2010: Special , Erscheint jährlich 4x
    Branch Library: IASS Library
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  • 19
    Monograph available for loan
    Monograph available for loan
    Madrid : Secc
    Call number: PIK N 456-17-90913
    Type of Medium: Monograph available for loan
    Pages: 536 Seiten
    Series Statement: Ministerio de Transportes Turismo Y Comunicaciones : Publicación Serie A 114
    Parallel Title: 1,1=6; 2,1=13 von Publicaciones / D / Ministerio del Aire, Subsecretaria de Aviación Civil, Servicio Meteorológico Nacional
    Language: Spanish
    Branch Library: PIK Library
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  • 20
    Monograph non-lending collection
    Monograph non-lending collection
    Leiden : Nijhoff ; 1.2009 -
    Call number: IASS 17.92082
    Type of Medium: Monograph non-lending collection
    ISSN: 1876-8814
    Language: English
    Branch Library: IASS Library
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  • 21
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    Amsterdam : Elsevier
    Physics Letters B 294 (1992), S. 466-478 
    ISSN: 0370-2693
    Source: Elsevier Journal Backfiles on ScienceDirect 1907 - 2002
    Topics: Physics
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 22
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    Amsterdam : Elsevier
    Physics Letters B 317 (1993), S. 474-484 
    ISSN: 0370-2693
    Source: Elsevier Journal Backfiles on ScienceDirect 1907 - 2002
    Topics: Physics
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 23
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    North West Water Authority
    Publication Date: 2013-03-22
    Description: This is the report from the Central Area Fisheries Advisory Committee meeting, which was held on the 31st March, 1982. It includes information on the River Leven smolt rearing scheme, the annual report on match fishing at Skerton and Mitton fisheries, and the report by the area fisheries officer on fisheries activites from September 1981 to January 1982. The report covers information on river conditions and fishing, migratory fish movements, an update on the work at Middleton hatchery, Salmon cages on the Leven and Langcliffe hatchery. It also includes information on fish disease, fish mortalities, management work and monthly salmon and sea trout catches for rod, line, nets and fixed engines for the 1981 season. The Fisheries Advisory Committee was part of the Regional Water Authorities, in this case the North West Water Authority. This preceded the Environment Agency which came into existence in 1996.
    Keywords: Fisheries ; Limnology ; Management
    Repository Name: Aquatic Commons
    Type: Monograph or Serial Issue , NonPeerReviewed
    Format: application/pdf
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  • 24
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    North West Water Authority
    Publication Date: 2013-03-05
    Description: This is the report from the South and West Cumberland Fisheries Advisory Committee meeting, which was held on the 16th October, 1978. It covers information on fisheries income and expenditure, the study of salmon propagation in England and Wales, work on the future programme of fisheries work, keep nets, and the drought order for the reduction of compensation water from Lake Ennerdale. It also covers the report by the area fisheries officer on fishing activities including river conditions and fishing, migratory fish movements, and an update on Holmwrangle hatchery. The report also looks at stocking numbers of salmon and sea trout in various rivers, predator counts for various rivers, fish mortalities and fish disease. The Fisheries Advisory Committee was part of the Regional Water Authorities, in this case the North West Water Authority. This preceded the Environment Agency which came into existence in 1996.
    Keywords: Fisheries ; Limnology ; Management
    Repository Name: Aquatic Commons
    Type: Monograph or Serial Issue , NonPeerReviewed
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  • 25
    Publication Date: 2019-08-13
    Description: Following Milankovitch's theory the incoming insolation or summer energy at 65°N is typically analysed to predict the waxing or waning of land ice. We here use a model-based deconvolution of the LR04 benthic-d18O stack into land ice distribution (de Boer et al., 2014, Köhler et al., 2015) to verify if the latitudinal focal point of land ice dynamics has changed over the last 2 Myr or whether this choice of 65°N in orbital data is indeed well justified. We find that the 5°-latitudinal band which contributes most to land ice albedo radiative forcing (ΔR_[LI]) is 70-75°N between 2.0-1.5 Myr, which is then until 1.0 Myr gradually substituted by 65-70°N. During the last 1 Myr both 60-65°N and 65-70°N dominate ΔR_[LI] and contribute approximately the same amount, while the relative importance of 70-75°N is shrinking. Our analyses illustrates that the choice of 65°N seems for the last 1 Myr to be well justified, while for earlier parts of the last 2 Myr the dominant land ice changes seems to happen up to 10° further to the north. Focusing on the last 800 kyr (the time for which precise data on atmospheric CO2 concentration exists) we furthermore find that the multi-millennial land ice growth and proxy-based reconstruction of global cooling (= the glaciation) appear synchronously to each other and to decreasing obliquity, but diverge from CO2. This suggests that the global cooling associated with Earth's way into an ice age as deduced in the reconstructions has to be mainly caused by the land ice albedo feedback, and is not dominated by the CO2 greenhouse forcing. One way of perceiving this CO2-glaciation divergence in reconstructions is that the reduced incoming insolation at high latitudes causes land ice growth and cooling, while there is a coexisting process that keeps CO2 at a relatively constant level. Solid Earth modeling experiments have indicated that falling sea level might lead to enhanced magma and CO2 production at mid-ocean ridges. Hasenclever et al. (2017) suggested that the combination of marine volcanism at mid-ocean ridges and at hot spot island volcanoes might react to decreasing sea level and be a potential cause for this CO2-glaciation divergence. This CO2-glaciation divergence needs to be considered, when using paleo data to quantify paleoclimate sensitivity: periods with diverging CO2 and global temperature change should be filtered out when approximating the relationship between global temperature rise and CO2 concentrations (Köhler et al., 2018). References: de Boer et al. (2014). https://doi.org/10.1038/ncomms3999. Köhler et al. (2015). https://doi.org/10.5194/cp-11-1801-2015. Hasenclever et al. (2017). https://doi.org/10.1038/ncomms15867. Köhler et al. (2018). https://doi.org/10.1029/2018GL077717.
    Repository Name: EPIC Alfred Wegener Institut
    Type: Conference , NonPeerReviewed
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  • 26
    Publication Date: 2017-02-24
    Description: Drosophila suzukii (Matsumura), commonly known as Spotted Wing Drosophila (SWD), is a worldwide serious economic threat to the production of berries and stone fruits. The chemical control widely used against this pest is often not able to preventing yield losses because wild flora offers an abundance of fruits to D. suzukii where the pest is able to reproduce and from where it recolonizes neighbouring cultivated fields. Alternatively, within Integrated Pest Management protocols for D. suzukii, biological control could play a key role by reducing its populations particularly in non-cultivated habitats, thus increasing the effectiveness and reducing the side negative effects of other management strategies. Because of the scarcity and of the low efficiency of autochthonous parasitoids in the new invaded territories, in the last few years, a number of surveys started in the native area of D. suzukii to find parasitoid species to be evaluated in quarantine structures and eventually released in the field, following a classical biological control approach. This paper reports the results of these surveys carried out in South Korea and for the first time in China. Among the parasitoids collected, those belonging to the genus Asobara Foerster resulted dominant both by number and species diversity. By combining morphological characters and the mitochondrial COI gene as a molecular marker, we identified seven species of Asobara, of which two associated with D. suzukii, namely A. japonica and A leveri, and five new to science, namely Asobara brevicauda, A. elongata, A mesocauda, A unicolorata, A. triangulata. Our findings offer new opportunity to find effective parasitoids to be introduced in classical biological control programmes in the territories recently invaded by D. suzukii.
    Keywords: Drosophila suzukii ; Spotted Wing Drosophila ; South Korea ; China
    Repository Name: National Museum of Natural History, Netherlands
    Type: Article / Letter to the editor
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  • 27
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    Chicago: University of Chicago Press | ZBW – Leibniz Information Centre for Economics Kiel, Hamburg
    Publication Date: 2019-10-22
    Description: 9-ending prices, which comprise between 40%–95% of retail prices, are popular because shoppers perceive them as being low. We study whether this belief is justified using scanner price-data with over 98-million observations from a large US grocery-chain. We find that 9-ending prices are higher than non 9-ending prices, by as much as 18%. Two factors explain why shoppers believe, mistakenly, that 9-ending prices are low. First, we find that among sale-prices, 9-ending prices are indeed lower than non 9-ending prices, giving 9-ending prices an aura of being low. Second, at first, 9-ending prices were indeed lower than other prices. Shoppers, therefore, learned to associate 9-endings with low prices. Over time, however, 9-ending prices rose substantially, which shoppers failed to notice, because the continuous use of 9-ending prices for promoting deep price cuts draws shoppers’ attention to them, and helps to maintain-and-preserve the image of 9-ending prices as bargain prices.
    Description: Special Issue on Behavioral Pricing
    Keywords: M30 ; M31 ; L11 ; L16 ; L81 ; D12 ; D22 ; D40 ; D90 ; D91 ; E31 ; ddc:330 ; Behavioral Pricing ; Psychological Prices ; Price Perception ; Image Effect ; 9-Ending Prices ; Price Points ; Regular Prices ; Sale Prices
    Repository Name: EconStor: OA server of the German National Library of Economics - Leibniz Information Centre for Economics
    Language: English
    Type: doc-type:article
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  • 28
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    Leiden: Brill | ZBW – Leibniz Information Centre for Economics Kiel, Hamburg
    Publication Date: 2019-02-14
    Description: The Gnassingbé clan has ruled the country since 1967. The demand for political alternance, initiated by institutional and electoral reforms, constituted the major contentious issue between the government and the challengers of the Gnassingbé regime throughout the survey period. An alliance of opposition parties and civil society groups organized peaceful demonstrations in opposition to the regime, which were often violently suppressed. Civil society organizations and representatives of the Christian church supported the demands of the opposition. The legislative elections of 20 December 2018, boycotted by the major opposition parties, resulted in an easy victory of the ruling party. The local elections, crucial for democratization at the grass-roots, but postponed time and again since 1987, were again postponed in December 2018 sine die. The human rights record of the government has improved but remains poor. Despite undeniable improvements to the framework and appearance of the regime's key institutions during the review period, democracy remains far from complete. However, the international community, notably Togo’s African peers, the AU and ECOWAS, followed a ‘laissez-faire’ approach in the interests of regional stability and their national interests in dealing with Togo. Economic growth remained stable at about 5% per annum. Public investment in infrastructure (e.g. roads, harbour) and increases in agricultural productivity, notably of export crops, had been the key drivers of economic growth. However, growth remains vulnerable to external shocks and the climate and has not been inclusive. Positive growth was overshadowed by increasing inter-personal and regional inequality as well as an increase in extreme poverty. Moreover, money-laundering, illegal money transfers and trafficking grew alarmingly. The business climate improved considerably nevertheless.
    Description: Author’s extended and up-dated version of ‘BTI 2020 – Togo Country Report’ (forthcoming)
    Description: RÉSUMÉ: Le clan Gnassingbé dirige le pays depuis 1967. La demande d'alternance politique, initiée par des réformes institutionnelles et électorales, a constitué le principal différend entre le gouvernement et les rivaux du régime de Gnassingbé tout au long de la période d'enquête. Une alliance de partis d'opposition et de groupes de la société civile a organisé des manifestations pacifiques contre le régime, qui ont souvent été réprimées avec violence. Les organisations de la société civile et les représentants de l'église chrétienne ont soutenu les revendications de l'opposition. Les élections législatives du 20 décembre 2018, boycottées par les principaux partis de l'opposition, ont permis une victoire facile du parti au pouvoir. Les élections locales, cruciales pour la démocratisation à la base, mais reportées à plusieurs reprises depuis 1987, ont été à nouveau reportées en décembre 2018 sine die. Le bilan du gouvernement en matière de droits de l'homme s'est amélioré mais reste médiocre. Malgré des améliorations indéniables du cadre et de l’apparence des principales institutions du régime au cours de la période considérée, la démocratie est loin d’être achevée. Cependant, la communauté internationale, notamment ses homologues africains du Togo, l’UA et la CEDEAO, a adopté une approche de «laisser-faire» dans l’intérêt de la stabilité régionale et de leurs intérêts nationaux face au Togo. La croissance économique est restée stable à environ 5% par an. Les investissements publics dans les infrastructures (par exemple, les routes et les ports) et l’augmentation de la productivité agricole, notamment des cultures d’exportation, ont été les principaux moteurs de la croissance économique. Cependant, la croissance reste vulnérable aux chocs extérieurs et au climat et n’a pas été inclusive. La croissance positive a été éclipsée par l'augmentation des inégalités interpersonnelles et régionales ainsi que par l'augmentation de l'extrême pauvreté. En outre, le blanchiment d’argent, les transferts d’argent illégal et le trafic se sont multipliés de manière alarmante. Le climat des affaires s’est néanmoins considérablement amélioré. ---------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------- ZUSAMMENFASSUNG: Der Gnassingbé-Clan hat das Land seit 1967 regiert. Die Forderungen nach institutionellen und Wahlrechtreformen sowie nach politischem Wandel bildeten während des Erhebungszeitraums das umstrittenste Thema zwischen der Regierung und den Herausforderern des Gnassingbé-Regimes. Ein Bündnis von Oppositionsparteien und zivilgesellschaftlichen Gruppen organisierte friedliche Demonstrationen gegen das Regime, die oft gewaltsam unterdrückt wurden. Zivilgesellschaftliche Organisationen und Vertreter der christlichen Kirche unterstützten die Forderungen der Opposition. Die Parlamentswahlen vom 20. Dezember 2018, die von den großen Oppositionsparteien boykottiert wurden, führten zu einem leichten Sieg der Regierungspartei. Die für die Demokratisierung an der Basis entscheidenden Kommunalwahlen, die seit 1987 immer wieder verschoben wurden, wurden im Dezember 2018 erneut auf unbestimmte Zeit verschoben. Die Menschenrechtsbilanz der Regierung hat sich verbessert, ist aber nach wie vor schlecht. Trotz unbestreitbarer Verbesserungen der Rahmenbedingungen und des Erscheinungsbildes der wichtigsten Institutionen des Regimes im Überprüfungszeitraum ist die Demokratisierung bei weitem nicht vollständig. Die internationale Gemeinschaft, insbesondere die afrikanischen peers des togosichen Präsidenten, die AU und die ECOWAS, verfolgten jedoch einen "Laissez-faire" -Ansatz im Interesse der regionalen Stabilität und ihrer nationalen Interessen im Umgang mit Togo. Das Wirtschaftswachstum blieb stabil bei etwa 5% pro Jahr. Öffentliche Investitionen in die Infrastruktur (z. B. Straßen, Häfen) und die Steigerung der landwirtschaftlichen Produktivität, insbesondere von Exportkulturen, waren die Hauptfaktoren des Wirtschaftswachstums. Das Wachstum bleibt jedoch anfällig für externe Schocks und das Wachstum war nicht inklusiv. Das positive Wachstum wurde durch die zunehmende Ungleichheit zwischen Personen und Regionen sowie durch die Zunahme extremer Armut überschattet. Darüber hinaus nahmen Geldwäsche, illegale Geldüberweisungen und Menschenhandel alarmierend zu. Das Geschäftsklima hat sich dennoch deutlich verbessert.
    Keywords: A14 ; F35 ; N97 ; O17 ; O55 ; Z13 ; ddc:330 ; Togo ; West Africa ; ECOWAS ; WAEMU ; Democratization ; Good Governance
    Repository Name: EconStor: OA server of the German National Library of Economics - Leibniz Information Centre for Economics
    Language: English
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  • 29
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    In:  Persoonia - Molecular Phylogeny and Evolution of Fungi (1878-9080) vol.44 (2020) p.1
    Publication Date: 2019-05-29
    Description: Fresh collections and their ascospore and conidial isolates backed up by type studies and molecular phylogenetic analyses of a multigene matrix of partial nuSSU-, complete ITS, partial LSU rDNA, rpb2, tef1 and tub2 sequences were used to evaluate the boundaries and species composition of Fenestella and related genera of the Cucurbitariaceae. Eight species, of which five are new, are recognised in Fenestella s.str., 13 in Parafenestella with eight new species and two in the new genus Synfenestella with one new species. Cucurbitaria crataegi is combined in Fenestella, C. sorbi in Synfenestella, Fenestella faberi and Thyridium salicis in Parafenestella. Cucurbitaria subcaespitosa is distinct from C. sorbi and combined in Neocucurbitaria. Fenestella minor is a synonym of Valsa tetratrupha, which is combined in Parafenestella. Cucurbitaria marchica is synonymous with Parafenestella salicis, Fenestella bavarica with S. sorbi, F. macrospora with F. media, and P. mackenziei is synonymous with P. faberi, and the latter is lectotypified. Cucurbitaria sorbi, C. subcaespitosa and Fenestella macrospora are lecto- and epitypified, Cucurbitaria crataegi, Fenestella media, F. minor and Valsa tetratrupha are epitypified in order to stabilise the names in their phylogenetic positions. A neotype is proposed for Thyridium salicis. A determinative key to species is given. Asexual morphs of fenestelloid fungi are phoma-like and do not differ from those of other representatives of the Cucurbitariaceae. The phylogenetic structure of the fenestelloid clades is complex and can only be resolved at the species level by protein-coding genes, such as rpb2, tef1 and tub2. All fungal species studied here occur, as far as has been possible to determine, on members of Diaporthales, most frequently on asexual and sexual morphs of Cytospora.
    Keywords: Cucurbitaria ; Dothideomycetes ; multigene phylogenetic analysis ; new taxa ; Phoma ; Pleosporales ; Pyrenochaeta
    Repository Name: National Museum of Natural History, Netherlands
    Type: Article / Letter to the editor
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  • 30
    facet.materialart.
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    In:  Persoonia - Molecular Phylogeny and Evolution of Fungi (1878-9080) vol.45 (2020) p.1
    Publication Date: 2019-06-24
    Description: Members of the genus Cytospora are often reported as endophytes, saprobes or phytopathogens, primarily causing canker diseases of woody host plants. They occur on a wide range of hosts and have a worldwide distribution. Although several species have in the past been reported from China, the vast majority are not known from culture or DNA phylogeny. The primary aim of the present study was thus to clarify the taxonomy and phylogeny of a large collection of Cytospora species associated with diverse hosts in China. Cytospora spp. were collected in northeast, northwest, north and southwest China, indicating that the cold and dry environments favour these fungi. In this paper, we provide an assessment of 52 Cytospora spp. in China, focussing on 40 species represented by 88 isolates from 28 host genera. Based on a combination of morphology and a six-locus phylogeny (ITS, LSU, act1, rpb2, tef1-α and tub2), 13 new species and one new combination are introduced. The majority of the species investigated here appear to be host-specific, although further collections and pathogenicity studies will be required to confirm this conclusion.
    Keywords: canker disease ; new taxa ; plant pathogen ; systematics ; taxonomy ; Valsa
    Repository Name: National Museum of Natural History, Netherlands
    Type: Article / Letter to the editor
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  • 31
    Publication Date: 2019-08-04
    Repository Name: EPIC Alfred Wegener Institut
    Type: Conference , NonPeerReviewed
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  • 32
    Publication Date: 2019-08-30
    Description: n our daily lives, we consume foods that have been transported, stored, prepared, cooked, or otherwise processed by ourselves or others. Food storage and preparation have drastic effects on the chemical composition of foods. Untargeted mass spectrometry analysis of food samples has the potential to increase our chemical understanding of these processes by detecting a broad spectrum of chemicals. We performed a time-based analysis of the chemical changes in foods during common preparations, such as fermentation, brewing, and ripening, using untargeted mass spectrometry and molecular networking. The data analysis workflow presented implements an approach to study changes in food chemistry that can reveal global alterations in chemical profiles, identify changes in abundance, as well as identify specific chemicals and their transformation products. The data generated in this study are publicly available, enabling the replication and re-analysis of these data in isolation, and serve as a baseline dataset for future investigations.
    Type: Article , PeerReviewed
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  • 33
    Publication Date: 2019-08-01
    Description: The InSight spacecraft was proposed to be a build-to-print copy of the Phoenix vehicle due to the knowledge that the lander payload would be similar and the trajectory would be similar. However, the InSight aerothermal analysts, based on tests performed in CO2 during the Mars Science Laboratory mission (MSL) and completion of Russian databases, considered radiative heat flux to the aftbody from the wake for the first time for a US Mars mission. The combined convective and radiative heat flux was used to determine if the as-flown Phoenix thermal protection system (TPS) design would be sufficient for InSight. All analyses showed that the design would be adequate. Once the InSight lander was successfully delivered to Mars on November 26, 2018, work began to reconstruct the atmosphere and trajectory in order to evaluate the aerothermal environments that were actually encountered by the spacecraft and to compare them to the design environments.The best estimated trajectory (BET) reconstructed for the InSight atmospheric entry fell between the two trajectories considered for the design, when looking at the velocity versus altitude values. The maximum heat rate design trajectory (MHR) flew at a higher velocity and the maximum heat load design trajectory (MHL) flew at a lower velocity than the BET. For TPS sizing, the MHL trajectory drove the design. Reconstruction has shown that the BET flew for a shorter time than either of the design environments, hence total heat load on the vehicle should have been less than used in design. Utilizing the BET, both DPLR and LAURA were first run to analyze the convective heating on the vehicle with no angle of attack. Both codes were run with axisymmetric, laminar flow in radiative equilibrium and vibrational non-equilibrium with a surface emissivity of 0.8. Eight species Mitcheltree chemistry was assumed with CO2, CO, N2, O2, NO, C, N, and O. Both codes agreed within 1% on the forebody and had the expected differences on the aftbody. The NEQAIR and HARA codes were used to analyze the radiative heating on the vehicle using full spherical ray-tracing. The codes agreed within 5% on most aftbody points of interest.The LAURA code was then used to evaluate the conditions at angle of attack at the peak heating and peak pressure times. Boundary layer properties were investigated to confirm that the flow over the forebody was laminar for the flight.Comparisons of the aerothermal heating determined for the reconstructed trajectory to the design trajectories showed that the as-flown conditions were less severe than design
    Keywords: Fluid Mechanics and Thermodynamics
    Type: ARC-E-DAA-TN69598 , AIAA SciTech 2020; Jan 06, 2020 - Jan 10, 2020; Orlando, FL; United States
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  • 34
    Publication Date: 2019-09-25
    Description: Highlights • There is direct and indirect evidence for hydrate occurrence in several areas around Europe. • Hydrate is particularly widespread offshore Norway and Svalbard and in the Black Sea. • Hydrate occurrence often coincides with conventional thermogenic hydrocarbon provinces. • The regional abundance of hydrate in Europe is poorly known. Abstract Large national programs in the United States and several Asian countries have defined and characterised their marine methane hydrate occurrences in some detail, but European hydrate occurrence has received less attention. The European Union-funded project “Marine gas hydrate – an indigenous resource of natural gas for Europe” (MIGRATE) aimed to determine the European potential inventory of exploitable gas hydrate, to assess current technologies for their production, and to evaluate the associated risks. We present a synthesis of results from a MIGRATE working group that focused on the definition and assessment of hydrate in Europe. Our review includes the western and eastern margins of Greenland, the Barents Sea and onshore and offshore Svalbard, the Atlantic margin of Europe, extending south to the northwestern margin of Morocco, the Mediterranean Sea, the Sea of Marmara, and the western and southern margins of the Black Sea. We have not attempted to cover the high Arctic, the Russian, Ukrainian and Georgian sectors of the Black Sea, or overseas territories of European nations. Following a formalised process, we defined a range of indicators of hydrate presence based on geophysical, geochemical and geological data. Our study was framed by the constraint of the hydrate stability field in European seas. Direct hydrate indicators included sampling of hydrate; the presence of bottom simulating reflectors in seismic reflection profiles; gas seepage into the ocean; and chlorinity anomalies in sediment cores. Indirect indicators included geophysical survey evidence for seismic velocity and/or resistivity anomalies, seismic reflectivity anomalies or subsurface gas escape structures; various seabed features associated with gas escape, and the presence of an underlying conventional petroleum system. We used these indicators to develop a database of hydrate occurrence across Europe. We identified a series of regions where there is substantial evidence for hydrate occurrence (some areas offshore Greenland, offshore west Svalbard, the Barents Sea, the mid-Norwegian margin, the Gulf of Cadiz, parts of the eastern Mediterranean, the Sea of Marmara and the Black Sea) and regions where the evidence is more tenuous (other areas offshore Greenland and of the eastern Mediterranean, onshore Svalbard, offshore Ireland and offshore northwest Iberia). We provide an overview of the evidence for hydrate occurrence in each of these regions. We conclude that around Europe, areas with strong evidence for the presence of hydrate commonly coincide with conventional thermogenic hydrocarbon provinces.
    Type: Article , PeerReviewed , info:eu-repo/semantics/article
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  • 35
    Publication Date: 2019-10-12
    Description: This paper describes the plans, flows, key facilities, components and equipment necessary to fully integrate, functionally test and qualify the Plankton, Aerosol, Cloud, ocean Ecosystem (PACE) Observatory. PACE is currently in the design phase of mission implementation. It is scheduled to launch in 2022, extending and improving NASA's twenty-year record of satellite observations of global ocean biology, aerosols and clouds. PACE will advance the assessment of ocean health by measuring the distribution of phytoplankton, which are small plants and algae that sustain the marine food web. It will also continue systematic records of key atmospheric variables associated with air quality and the Earth's climate. The PACE observatory is comprised of the spacecraft and three instruments, an Ocean Color Instrument (OCI) and two polarimeters, the Hyper-Angular Rainbow Polarimeter 2 (HARP2) and the Spectro-Polarimeter for Exploration (SPEXone). The spacecraft and the OCI, which is the primary instrument, are developed and integrated at the NASA Goddard Space Flight Center (GSFC). The OCI is a hyper-spectral scanning (HSS) radiometer designed to measure spectral radiances from the ultraviolet to shortwave infrared (SWIR) to enable advanced ocean color and heritage cloud and aerosol particle science. The HARP2 and SPEXone are secondary instruments on the PACE observatory, acquired outside of GSFC. The Hyper-Angular Rainbow Polarimeter instrument (HARP2) is a wide swath imaging polarimeter that is capable of characterizing atmospheric aerosols for purposes of sensor atmospheric correction as well as atmospheric science. The SPEXone provides atmospheric aerosol and cloud data at high temporal and spatial resolution. This paper will focus on the Integration and Test (I&T) activities for the PACE mission at NASA GSFC. This I&T phase consists of mechanical, electrical and thermal integration and test of all the spacecraft subsystems and the integration of the instruments with the spacecraft. The PACE observatory environmental tests include electromagnetic interference (EMI)/electromagnetic compatibility (EMC), vibration, acoustics, shock, thermal balance, thermal vacuum, mass properties and center of gravity. This paper will also discuss the observatory shipment to the launch site as well as the launch site processing.
    Keywords: Spacecraft Design, Testing and Performance; Earth Resources and Remote Sensing
    Type: GSFC-E-DAA-TN73647 , IEEE Aerospace Conference; Mar 07, 2020 - Mar 14, 2020; Big Sky, MT; United States
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  • 36
    Publication Date: 2019-10-14
    Description: Highlights • Common HIMU end member in adjacent continental and oceanic volcanic provinces. • End member St. Helena HIMU derived from deep upwelling(s)/plume(s). • Plateau collision & plume interaction with Gondwana active margin causes breakup. • Hybrid volcanic-tectonic margins resulted from Zealandia – Antarctica breakup. Abstract Margins resulting from continental breakup are generally classified as volcanic (related to flood basalt volcanism from a starting plume head) or non-volcanic (caused by tectonic processes), but many margins (breakups) may actually be hybrids caused by a combination of volcanic and tectonic processes. It has been postulated that the collision of the Hikurangi Plateau with the Gondwana margin ∼110 Ma ago caused subduction to cease, followed by large-scale extension and ultimately breakoff of the Zealandia micro-continent from West Antarctica through seafloor spreading which started at ∼85 Ma. Here we report new geochemical (major and trace element and Sr-Nd-Pb-Hf isotope) data for Late Cretaceous (99-69 Ma) volcanism from Zealandia, which include the calc-alkalic, subduction-related Mount Somers (99-96 Ma) and four intraplate igneous provinces: 1) Hikurangi Seamount Province (99-88 Ma), 2) Marlborough Igneous Province (98-94 Ma), 3) Westland Igneous Province (92-69 Ma), and 4) Eastern Chatham Igneous Province (86-79 Ma). Each of the intraplate provinces forms mixing arrays on incompatible-element and isotope ratio plots between HIMU (requiring long-term high U/204Pb) and either a depleted (MORB-source) upper mantle (DM) component or enriched continental (EM) type component (located in the crust and/or upper mantle) or a mixture of both. St. Helena end member HIMU could be the common component in all four provinces. Considering the uniformity in composition of the HIMU end member despite the type of lithosphere (continental, oceanic, oceanic plateau) beneath the igneous provinces, we attribute this component to a sublithospheric source, located beneath all volcanic provinces, and thus most likely a mantle plume. We propose that the plume material rose beneath the active Gondwana margin and flowed along the subducting lithosphere beneath the Hikurangi Plateau and neighboring seafloor and through slab tears/windows beneath the Gondwana (later to become Zealandia) continental lithosphere. We conclude that both plateau collision, resulting in subduction cessation, and the opening of slab tears/windows, allowing hot asthenosphere and/or plume material to upwell to shallow depths, were important in causing the breakup of Zealandia from West Antarctica. Combined tectonic-volcanic processes are also likely to be responsible for causing breakup and the formation of other hybrid type margins.
    Type: Article , PeerReviewed
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  • 37
    Publication Date: 2019-10-18
    Description: Plastic has become indispensable for human life. When plastic debris is discarded into waterways, these items can interact with organisms. Of particular concern are microscopic plastic particles (microplastics) which are subject to ingestion by several taxa. This review summarizes the results of cutting-edge research about the interactions between a range of aquatic species and microplastics, including effects on biota physiology and secondary ingestion. Uptake pathways via digestive or ventilatory systems are discussed, including (1) the physical penetration of microplastic particles into cellular structures, (2) leaching of chemical additives or adsorbed persistent organic pollutants (POPs), and (3) consequences of bacterial or viral microbiota contamination associated with microplastic ingestion. Following uptake, a number of individual-level effects have been observed, including reduction of feeding activities, reduced growth and reproduction through cellular modifications, and oxidative stress. Microplastic-associated effects on marine biota have become increasingly investigated with growing concerns regarding human health through trophic transfer. We argue that research on the cellular interactions with microplastics provide an understanding of their impact to the organisms’ fitness and, therefore, its ability to sustain their functional role in the ecosystem. The review summarizes information from 236 scientific publications. Of those, only 4.6% extrapolate their research of microplastic intake on individual species to the impact on ecosystem functioning. We emphasize the need for risk evaluation from organismal effects to an ecosystem level to effectively evaluate the effect of microplastic pollution on marine environments. Further studies are encouraged to investigate sublethal effects in the context of environmentally relevant microplastic pollution conditions.
    Repository Name: EPIC Alfred Wegener Institut
    Type: Book , NonPeerReviewed
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  • 38
  • 39
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    Amsterdam: Elsevier | ZBW – Leibniz Information Centre for Economics Kiel, Hamburg
    Publication Date: 2019-10-29
    Description: We document an asymmetry in the rigidity of 9-ending prices relative to non-9-ending prices. Consumers have difficulty noticing higher prices if they are 9-ending, or noticing price-increases if the new prices are 9-ending, because 9-endings are used as a signal for low prices. Price setters respond strategically to the consumer-heuristic by setting 9-ending prices more often after price-increases than after price-decreases. 9-ending prices, therefore, remain 9-ending more often after price-increases than after price-decreases, leading to asymmetric rigidity: 9-ending prices are more rigid upward than downward. These findings hold for both transaction-prices and regular-prices, and for both inflation and no-inflation periods.
    Keywords: L16 ; C91 ; E31 ; C93 ; D80 ; M31 ; ddc:330 ; Asymmetric Price Adjustment ; Sticky/Rigid Prices ; 9-Ending Prices ; Psychological Prices ; Price Points ; Regular/Sale Prices
    Repository Name: EconStor: OA server of the German National Library of Economics - Leibniz Information Centre for Economics
    Language: English
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  • 40
    Publication Date: 2019-10-28
    Description: Abstract: ETHNOPHARMACOLOGICAL RELEVANCE: Primates forage on a variety of plant parts to balance their dietary intake to meet requirements of energy, nutrition and maintenance, however the reason(s) leading them to ingest some plants which have no nutritional value and/or contain bioactive or even toxic secondary metabolites is recently gaining closer attention. The growing literature suggests that primates consume plants for medicinal purposes (self-medication) as well, particularly when infected with parasites and pathogens (bacteria, viruses, microbes). Interestingly, some of the plants they consume are also used by humans for similar purposes or may have potential uses for humans. MATERIALS AND METHODS: As part of a 16-month study of the parasite ecology of a sub-species of Japanese macaques (Macaca fuscata yakui) on the island of Yakushima, we surveyed their feeding habits and collected a subset of plants and plant parts observed being ingested by macaques. The ethnomedicinal value of these plants was surveyed and methanolic extracts of 45 plant parts were tested in vitro against important parasites of humans, including four protozoan parasites Plasmodium falciparum, Trypanosoma brucei rhodesiense, T. cruzi and Leishmania donovani, and the trematode flatworm Schistosoma mansoni. Potential toxicity of the extracts was also assessed on mammalian cells. RESULTS: A wide range of ethnomedicinal uses in Asia for these plants is noted, with 37% associated with the treatment of parasites, pathogens and related symptoms. Additionally, the 45 extracts tested showed broad and significant activity against our test organisms. All extracts were active against T. b. rhodesiense. The majority (over 80%) inhibited the growth of P. falciparum and L. donovani. Half of the extracts also displayed antiprotozoal potential against T. cruzi while only several extracts were active against both larval and adult stages of S. mansoni. Cytotoxicity was generally low, although several extracts lacked specific toxicity to test parasites. CONCLUSIONS: Our results indicated a number of plants and their parts to have antiparasitic activity not previously reported in the ethnopharmacological literature. Enhanced understanding of the primate diets, particularly during periods of intensified parasite infection risk may help to further narrow down plants of interest for lead compound development. The study of animal self-medication is a complementary approach, with precedence, to drug discovery of new lead drug compounds against human parasitic diseases.
    Type: Article , PeerReviewed
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  • 41
    Publication Date: 2020
    Description: 〈h3〉Abstract〈/h3〉 〈p〉Intelligent drug delivery systems have attracted great attention in the field of biomedicine and cancer diagnosis. In this work, a drug delivery system that can be gated by doxorubicin itself and together with pH-responsive ability has been designed and prepared based on the upconversion nanoparticles. The drug delivery system is a special core–shell structure, consisting of upconversion nanoparticle core and mesoporous silica shell. The new system tactfully bypasses the use of auxiliary capping agents and exhibits desirable drug release at pH = 5, enhancing HeLa cells inhibition. The introduction of Schiff base plays a key role in the process of achieving pH-responsive drug release. Moreover, upconversion nanoparticles could emit bright yellow-green fluorescence (540 nm) under the irradiation of near-infrared light (980 nm) for in vivo bioimaging. This characteristic provides the possibility of locating tumor tissues and real-time tracing drug delivery.〈/p〉
    Print ISSN: 0022-2461
    Electronic ISSN: 1573-4803
    Topics: Maschinenwesen, Werkstoffwissenschaften, Fertigungstechnik, Bergbau u. Hüttenwesen, Verkehrstechnik, Feinwerktechnik , Physics
    Published by Springer
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  • 42
    Publication Date: 2020
    Description: 〈h3〉Abstract〈/h3〉 〈p〉Polylactic acid (PLA) is a biodegradable thermoplastic polymer that is presented as a good alternative to petroleum-derived plastics. Some of the major drawbacks of this material are its lack of thermal stability and rapid degradation in large-scale production; thus, special care must be taken during processing. To improve their properties, a reactive extrusion with a multi-epoxy chain extender (SAmfE) has been performed at pilot plant scale. The induced topological modifications produce a mixture of several types of non-uniform structures. Conventional chromatographic (SEC—static light scattering) or spectroscopic (nuclear magnetic resonance) techniques usually fail in characterizing non-uniform structures. A method for the classification of modified PLA samples based on a multivariate treatment of the spectral data obtained by Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy, jointly with the application of feature extraction and classification algorithms, was applied in this study. The results of this work show the potential of the methodology proposed to improve quality control during manufacturing.〈/p〉
    Print ISSN: 0022-2461
    Electronic ISSN: 1573-4803
    Topics: Maschinenwesen, Werkstoffwissenschaften, Fertigungstechnik, Bergbau u. Hüttenwesen, Verkehrstechnik, Feinwerktechnik , Physics
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  • 43
    Publication Date: 2020
    Description: 〈h3〉Abstract〈/h3〉 〈p〉Despite the vast available literature on the synergistic action between zeolites and intumescent formulations, the influence of the acidity of the zeolite on the flame-retardant properties of the materials has not yet been properly addressed. This work investigates the effect of the concentration and the strength of the acidic sites of faujasite Y zeolites on their synergistic action with an intumescent formulation composed of ammonium polyphosphate (APP) and pentaerythritol (PER) in a polypropylene matrix. The results from the limiting oxygen index, cone calorimetry and glow-wire indicate that the zeolites with higher concentration of moderate strength acidic sites can catalyse more efficiently the reaction between APP and PER, which produces phosphate esters, precursors of 〈em〉char〈/em〉, enhancing the flame-retardant properties. However, an over increase in the acidic sites strength shows the opposite effect, as the zeolite can be prematurely deactivated during the initial steps of 〈em〉char〈/em〉 formation. Therefore, the increase in the concentration of the faujasite Y acidic sites with moderate strength might be a good strategy in order to obtain materials with better flame-retardant properties.〈/p〉
    Print ISSN: 0022-2461
    Electronic ISSN: 1573-4803
    Topics: Maschinenwesen, Werkstoffwissenschaften, Fertigungstechnik, Bergbau u. Hüttenwesen, Verkehrstechnik, Feinwerktechnik , Physics
    Published by Springer
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  • 44
    Publication Date: 2020
    Description: 〈h3〉Abstract〈/h3〉 〈p〉By means of the CRYSTAL computer program package, first-principles calculations of polar ZrO-, Ca- and O-terminated CaZrO〈sub〉3〈/sub〉 (011) surfaces were performed. Our calculation results for polar CaZrO〈sub〉3〈/sub〉 (011) surfaces are compared with the previous ab initio calculation results for ABO〈sub〉3〈/sub〉 perovskite (011) and (001) surfaces. From the results of our hybrid B3LYP calculations, all upper-layer atoms on the ZrO-, Ca- and O-terminated CaZrO〈sub〉3〈/sub〉 (011) surfaces relax inwards. The only exception from this systematic trend is outward relaxation of the oxygen atom on the ZrO-terminated CaZrO〈sub〉3〈/sub〉 (011) surface. Different ZrO, Ca and O terminations of the CaZrO〈sub〉3〈/sub〉 (011) surface lead to a quite different surface energies of 3.46, 1.49, and 2.08 eV. Our calculations predict a considerable increase in the Zr–O chemical bond covalency near the CaZrO〈sub〉3〈/sub〉 (011) surface, both in the directions perpendicular to the surface (0.240〈em〉e〈/em〉) as well as in the plane (0.138〈em〉e〈/em〉), as compared to the CaZrO〈sub〉3〈/sub〉 (001) surface (0.102〈em〉e〈/em〉) and to the bulk (0.086〈em〉e〈/em〉). Such increase in the B–O chemical bond population from the bulk towards the (001) and especially (011) surfaces is a systematic trend in all our eight calculated ABO〈sub〉3〈/sub〉 perovskites.〈/p〉
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  • 45
    Publication Date: 2020
    Description: 〈p〉1) The symbol “〈em〉w〈/em〉〈sub〉〈em〉f〈/em〉〈/sub〉” in Eq. (2) on p. 3458 denotes the weight fraction of HNTs in PVA/ST/HNT nanocomposites.〈/p〉
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  • 46
    Publication Date: 2020
    Description: 〈h3〉Abstract〈/h3〉 〈p〉The needle-like TiO〈sub〉2〈/sub〉 obtained by hydrothermal treatment combines with Graphene by adding cetyltrimethylammonium bromide (CTAB) as auxiliary dispersant. On this basis, the needle-like TiO〈sub〉2〈/sub〉/Graphene composite conductive material was prepared which is increasing the compatibility of conductive Graphene. The growth mechanism of the needle-like TiO〈sub〉2〈/sub〉/Graphene was discussed and supported by scanning electron microscopy, transmission electron microscopy and other test methods. Experimental results show that hydrothermal temperature has a great influence on the formation of needle-like TiO〈sub〉2〈/sub〉. The quick electron transportation properties between TiO〈sub〉2〈/sub〉 and Graphene make the TiO〈sub〉2〈/sub〉/Graphene have excellent conductive ability. Needle-like TiO〈sub〉2〈/sub〉 can facilitate electron transport on the layer of Graphene. The three-dimensional mesh structure formed by crisscross of needle-like TiO〈sub〉2〈/sub〉 is attached to the Graphene surface by the auxiliary effect of CTAB, is forming a conductive network to increase the transmission rate of electrons, so that the TiO〈sub〉2〈/sub〉/Graphene is endowed with good electrical conductivity. Finally, the resistivity of TiO〈sub〉2〈/sub〉/Graphene is as low as 1.655 × 10〈sup〉−3〈/sup〉 Ω m at 7 wt% Graphene, which conforms to the electrical conductive standard of the materials prepared by the factory.〈/p〉
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  • 47
    Publication Date: 2020
    Description: 〈h3〉Abstract〈/h3〉 〈p〉The application of Co-W-P plating technology in high-temperature package structure is advantageous from a point of structural reliability because Co-W-P metallization is known to deliver strong bonding to both high-temperature-compatible Ag-sintered joining and high-temperature-compatible encapsulation resins. However, Co-W-P, unlike a noble metal, has a potential risk of surface oxidation in the module fabrication process. This surface oxidation can result in a decrease in resin adhesion. In this paper, the effects of W content (7 wt%, 11 wt%, 21 wt%) in Co-W-P metallization on both the oxidation resistance and the resin adhesion were studied. The resin adhesion on the annealed Co-W-P metallization with a high W content (21 wt%) was found to be sufficiently strong even after 250 °C anneal for 1 h. This resin adhesion strength was not present in other Co-W-P metallization tests. SEM–EDS analysis revealed that the oxidization of the Co-W-P-metallized surface during the anneal process proceeded more slowly in the case of the Co-W-P metallization with a doping 21 wt% W. XPS analysis revealed that Co(OH)〈sub〉2〈/sub〉, necessary for a chemical reaction with the resin, exists mainly on the Co-W-P-metallized surface in the case of doping 21 wt% W, even after 250 °C anneal. XRD analysis revealed its structure to be a characteristic Co-W solid solution, unlike the structures found in other Co-W-P metallization. The findings in this study are significant for the promotion of Co-W-P metallization in the module fabrication process, as well as to the fundamental understanding of oxidation resistance and adhesion behavior on Co-W-P metallization.〈/p〉
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  • 48
    Publication Date: 2020
    Description: 〈h3〉Abstract〈/h3〉 〈p〉Semiconductor nanocrystals (NCs) heavily doped with cation/anion vacancies or foreign metal ions can support localized surface plasmon resonance (LSPR) in the near-infrared (NIR) and mid-infrared (MIR) spectral wavelengths. Typically, nonstoichiometric copper sulfide Cu〈sub〉2−〈em〉x〈/em〉〈/sub〉S NCs with different 〈em〉x〈/em〉 values (0 〈 〈em〉x〈/em〉 ≤ 1) have attracted numerous attention because of hole-based, particle size, morphology, hole density and crystal phase-dependent LSPR. In spite of excited development of methodology for LSPR manipulation, systematic LSPR tuning of Cu〈sub〉2−〈em〉x〈/em〉〈/sub〉S NCs with a special crystal phase has been limited. Herein, roxbyite Cu〈sub〉1.8〈/sub〉S nanodisks (NDs) were selected as a model and their LSPR was readily tuned by particle size, hole density via chemical oxidation and reduction, self-assembly and disassembly in solution and plasmon coupling in multilayer films. Particle size, hole density and plasmon coupling severely affect their LSPR peak position and absorption intensity. Therefore, the ability of flexible LSPR tuning gifts roxbyite Cu〈sub〉1.8〈/sub〉S NDs great potential in plasmonic applications, including photocatalysis, photothermal agent, two-photon photochemistry and many others in NIR and MIR regions.〈/p〉
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  • 49
    Publication Date: 2020
    Description: 〈h3〉Abstract〈/h3〉 〈p〉A series of promising Ce–Co–Fe catalysts were successfully synthesized using a cetyl-trimethylammonium-bromide-assisted co-precipitation method and investigated for diesel soot combustion. The surface morphological and structural properties were systematically examined using various techniques: X-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscope, N〈sub〉2〈/sub〉 adsorption–desorption, Raman spectroscopy, temperature-programmed reduction and in situ diffuse reflection infrared Fourier transform spectroscopy. The catalyst–soot combustion activities were tested in O〈sub〉2〈/sub〉 and NO + O〈sub〉2〈/sub〉 using a temperature-programmed technique. Nanometer crystalline solid solutions were formed with high surface areas when the Fe and Co cations were co-doped in the ceria lattice. Transition metals doping played a key role in increasing oxygen vacancies and promoting the redox performance of Ce–Co–Fe catalysts. Co–Fe co-doping accelerated the oxidation of soot under both “tight” and “loose” contact conditions. Among all the ceria-based catalysts, Ce〈sub〉80〈/sub〉Co〈sub〉15〈/sub〉Fe〈sub〉5〈/sub〉 showed superior activity with 〈em〉T〈/em〉〈sub〉10〈/sub〉 = 256 °C and high selectivity with 〈span〉 〈span〉\( S_{{{\text{CO}}_{ 2} }} \, = \,100\% \)〈/span〉 〈/span〉 under tight a contact mode. The observed high catalytic activity following co-doping was proved to have occurred because of various reasons such as improved redox properties, increased oxygen vacancies and high surface area. The presence of NO in O〈sub〉2〈/sub〉 also promoted soot oxidation, which follows the NO〈sub〉2〈/sub〉-assisted mechanism. Moreover, the in situ DRIFTS performed under an isothermal condition in NO + O〈sub〉2〈/sub〉 confirmed the strong adsorption capacity for NO〈em〉x〈/em〉 species on the doped ceria catalyst.〈/p〉
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  • 50
    Publication Date: 2020
    Description: 〈h3〉Abstract〈/h3〉 〈p〉Wearable flexible sensors based on fabrics possessing advantages of softness, flexibility and foldability have gained great attention nowadays. Here, a flexible assembled sensor is composed of one fabric coated with a certain circuit pattern by polyaniline (PANI) coating and another fabric with PANI/nano-silver coating. The sensor is delicately designed by face-to-face placing the conductive surfaces of two cotton fabrics to form an interpolation structure. The features of resultant sensor are confirmed by SEM, XRD and EDS tests. In addition, the dynamic response tests of the sensor show high sensitivity of 0.04–0.10 kPa〈sup〉−1〈/sup〉, high durability of 500 cycles, broad sensing range of about 0–20 kPa and quick response and recovery time of about 0.40 s, and the breaking strength is 25.00 MPa and the elongation at break is 19.00%. The sensor also can effectively monitor various forces and detect multiple human body movements. Thanks to the unique properties of the fabric and the superior performance of the sensor, we believe this mechanical sensor based on flexible fabrics will exhibit great potential for motion monitoring and vocal cord vibration recognition.〈/p〉
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  • 51
    Publication Date: 2020
    Description: 〈h3〉Abstract〈/h3〉 〈p〉Polyvinylidene fluoride (PVDF) membranes were surface-modified via a simple coating method for improvement of the hydrophilicity performance. In this work, TP/PEI/PVDF modified membrane was successfully prepared by using tea polyphenol as a multifunctional coating. The physicochemical properties of membranes were characterized by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, X-ray energy-dispersive spectrometry, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy scanning electron microscopy and atomic force microscopy. The water contact angle, pure water flux and methylene blue rejection ratio of membranes were investigated in detail. Compared with the pristine membrane, the water contact angle of the modified membrane decreased to 48.8°, and the rejection ratios were increased to 95.2% when the modified membrane was used to separate methylene blue. In addition, the modified membrane showed excellent antifouling performance in the experiment, and the flux recovery ratio still reached 84.6% after three fouling/washing cycles. In the oxidation experiment, the modified membranes were immersed in KMnO〈sub〉4〈/sub〉 solution for 6 h, and the results show that the water contact angle, pure water flux and methylene blue rejection of the modified membranes only have changed slightly. Therefore, this study could have a great potential for widening the application of membranes in the treatment of dye wastewater containing oxidants.〈/p〉
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  • 52
    Publication Date: 2020
    Description: 〈h3〉Abstract〈/h3〉 〈p〉The electronic structures of 〈span〉 〈span〉\(\hbox {Hf}_{1-x}\hbox {Zr}_{x}\hbox {S}_{3}\)〈/span〉 〈/span〉 and 〈span〉 〈span〉\(\hbox {Hf}_{1-x}\hbox {Zr}_{x}\hbox {Se}_{3}\)〈/span〉 〈/span〉 trichalcogenides are investigated by first-principles calculation. In particular, step change of Zr concentration is intensively investigated. Our calculations reveal that doping of Zr atoms increase the strength of cohesion between the atoms in 〈span〉 〈span〉\(\hbox {HfX}_ 3\)〈/span〉 〈/span〉 (X = S, Se) monolayers, and results in occurring of energetically more stable alloys. In addition, doping of Zr atoms in 〈span〉 〈span〉\(\hbox {HfS}_3\)〈/span〉 〈/span〉 causes band gap bowing, which means the curve of band gap values shows quadratic nonlinearities while change from semimetal to semiconductor is observed in 〈span〉 〈span〉\(\hbox {HfSe}_3\)〈/span〉 〈/span〉 case. The examined band structures indicate that 〈span〉 〈span〉\(\hbox {Hf}_{1-x}\hbox {Zr}_{x}\hbox {S}_{3}\)〈/span〉 〈/span〉 monolayers have very suitable band gap values for water splitting and also their band edge potentials have sufficiently higher or lower positions than the required potential values for the reduction or oxidation potentials. 〈/p〉
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  • 53
    Publication Date: 2020
    Description: 〈h3〉Abstract〈/h3〉 〈p〉The texture structure of the multi-crystalline silicon (mc-Si) pyramid was realized by a combination of acidic and alkaline etching. The results showed that the structure of the corrosion pits could be first obtained on the mc-Si surface by acid etching, and the subsequent alkaline etching could further transform the pits into a pyramid structure. The best solar cell obtained based on the textured structure showed superior photovoltaic property, and its photovoltaic conversion efficiency reached 18.17%, which was significantly higher than that of solar cell without texture structure. The improvement in efficiency was mainly owing to the light-trapping effect of texture structure, which was confirmed by the external quantum efficiency measurement. This work offers a simple way to prepare low-cost mc-Si solar cells with high performance.〈/p〉
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  • 54
    Publication Date: 2020
    Description: 〈h3〉Abstract〈/h3〉 〈p〉Flexible unidirectional (UD) composite laminates are commonly being used for ballistic-resistant body armor. These laminates comprise UD layers, each constructed by laminating thin layers of high-performance fibers held in place using very low modulus binder resins, with the fibers in each layer oriented parallel to each other. As these materials are used in body armor, it is important to investigate their long-term reliability, particularly with regard to exposure to temperature and humidity as these are known causes of degradation in other commonly used body armor materials. This work investigates the tensile behavior of a poly(〈em〉p〈/em〉-phenylene terephthalamide), or PPTA flexible UD laminate aged for up to 150 days at accelerated aging conditions of 70 °C and 76% relative humidity. Tests were performed at three different crosshead displacement rates and three different gauge lengths. The effect of aging on the mechanical properties of the material was observed as less than 10% degradation in tensile strength, with a more significant reduction in longer specimens when tested at slower rates.〈/p〉
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  • 55
    Publication Date: 2020
    Description: 〈h3〉Abstract〈/h3〉 〈p〉In this work, the magnetic and transport properties of La〈sub〉0.7〈/sub〉Ca〈sub〉0.3〈/sub〉MnO〈sub〉3〈/sub〉 (LCMO) films are compared with films capped with Fe〈sub〉3〈/sub〉O〈sub〉4〈/sub〉. The capping layers for films with the thicknesses of 50 nm and 100 nm broadened the metal–insulator transition, though they produced rather few changes to other properties. The results were dramatically different for a 20-nm-thick LCMO layer compared to other thicker films. The metal–insulator transition temperature increased from 160 to 200 K for capped LCMO film despite the fact that the capping layer reduced the magnitude of magnetization. The temperature of maximum magnetoresistance (MR) shifted from 115 to 185 K. However, its magnitude, 1500% at 5 T, remained unchanged due to capping. This behavior was attributed to atomic inter-diffusion at the LCMO/Fe〈sub〉3〈/sub〉O〈sub〉4〈/sub〉 interface which resulted in the generation of Mn〈sup〉2+〈/sup〉 ions. These results are of great significance and suggest a promising future for both the fundamental research and device applications involving thin films of LCMO.〈/p〉
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  • 56
    Publication Date: 2020
    Description: 〈h3〉Abstract〈/h3〉 〈p〉Magnesium-based alloys presented great potential for biodegradable implant materials. However, the poor mechanical properties and high corrosion rate blocked its extensive application. In this study, a new biodegradable Mg–Zn–Y–Gd–Zr alloy was fabricated and extruded. The microstructure, corrosion morphologies and corrosion products film of the as-cast, homogenized and as-extruded alloys were characterized by optical micrographs, scanning electron microscopy, X-ray diffraction and laser scanning confocal microscopy. Moreover, the corrosion mechanisms of the as-cast and as-extruded alloys were proposed, and the influencing factors of corrosion properties were discussed. The electrochemical test, immersion tests and corrosion morphologies demonstrated that the as-extruded alloy exhibited favorable corrosion properties. The as-cast and homogenized alloys displayed localized corrosion mode, and the as-extruded alloy displayed uniform corrosion mode. The Volta potential of the Mg〈sub〉3〈/sub〉(Y,Gd)〈sub〉2〈/sub〉Zn〈sub〉3〈/sub〉 phase relative to Mg matrix was measured by using Kelvin probe force microscopy. 〈/p〉
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  • 57
    Publication Date: 2020
    Description: 〈h3〉Abstract〈/h3〉 〈p〉2,4,6-Triamino-5-nitropyrimidine-1,3-dioxide (ICM-102) is a new high-energy crystal which has outstanding combination of performance, effects of three common small molecules H〈sub〉2〈/sub〉O, NH〈sub〉3〈/sub〉 and H〈sub〉2〈/sub〉S on its molecular, crystal and electronic structures, and elastic, optical and thermodynamic properties of the compound were studied by the first-principle calculation and Hirshfeld surface analysis in this work. The results showed that H〈sub〉2〈/sub〉O, NH〈sub〉3〈/sub〉 and H〈sub〉2〈/sub〉S do have significant effects on the structure and property of ICM-102, and different molecules made various influence on all kinds of properties. The low-sensitivity feature of ICM-102 was confirmed, and H〈sub〉2〈/sub〉O molecule was found to further increase the stability of ICM-102 crystal obviously by enriching different kinds of close contacts. While the stabilization effect of NH〈sub〉3〈/sub〉 and H〈sub〉2〈/sub〉S on the ICM-102 was weaker than that of H〈sub〉2〈/sub〉O and H〈sub〉2〈/sub〉O also improved the density, stiffness, fracture strength and ductility, absorption to purple, blue, green and yellow lights, and thermodynamics parameters of ICM-102, but it decreased the band gap, anisotropy, plasticity, absorption to near ultraviolet and orange, red and infrared lights, and dielectric constant. However, different to H〈sub〉2〈/sub〉O, NH〈sub〉3〈/sub〉 and H〈sub〉2〈/sub〉S reduced stiffness, fracture strength and ductility but increased the band gap of ICM-102. Besides, H〈sub〉2〈/sub〉S was found to completely eliminate the region where light cannot be transmitted in the solid crystal ICM-102. This study may be helpful for using small molecules to stabilize the structure and adjust the property of energetic materials. 〈/p〉
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  • 58
    Publication Date: 2020
    Description: 〈h3〉Abstract〈/h3〉 〈p〉Transition metal phosphides have been regarded as reliable supercapacitor electrode materials and extensively researched. In this work, a facile three-step way has been taken to synthesize NiCoP@NiCoP core–shell nanoarrays directly grown on carbon cloth, which was used as a high-performance supercapacitor electrode. Compared with the NiCo-LDH precursor and NiCoP nanowire and NiCoP nanosheet, NiCoP@NiCoP core–shell composite shows higher electrochemical performance owing to the integration of the advantages of phosphides and core–shell structure. To be specific, the as-fabricated NiCoP C–S electrode exhibits great electrochemical performance with high specific capacitance (1492.5 F g〈sup〉−1〈/sup〉 at 1 A g〈sup〉−1〈/sup〉), good rate performance (68.82% of the initial specific capacitance at 15 A g〈sup〉−1〈/sup〉) and outstanding cycling stability (maintains 80.9% of the initial capacitances after 5000 cycles at 10 A g〈sup〉−1〈/sup〉). Moreover, the assembled NiCoP C–S//rGO asymmetric supercapacitor device delivers a high energy density of 48.13 Wh kg〈sup〉−1〈/sup〉 at the power density of 1125 W kg〈sup〉−1〈/sup〉 and it still retains 20.94 Wh kg〈sup〉−1〈/sup〉 at a high power density of 11250 W kg〈sup〉−1〈/sup〉, indicating its great possibility of practical application. 〈/p〉
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  • 59
    Publication Date: 2020
    Description: 〈h3〉Abstract〈/h3〉 〈p〉In this work, a novel magnetic nanocomposite combining selenium nanoparticles (SeNPs) with iron oxide nanoparticles (IONPs) was synthesized for the first time, in which the size of the iron oxide nanoparticles was 7–12 nm, and nearly spherical or rod-like selenium nanoparticles were obtained according to the different pH values of the reaction mixtures. Selenium incorporation into iron oxide nanoparticles was improved by using a chitosan coating with pentasodium triphosphate as a crosslinking agent. The micromorphology, crystalline structure and magnetic properties of the nanocomposites were characterized by a transmission electron microscope, X-ray diffractometer and a superconducting quantum interference device. More importantly, the nanocomposites exhibited excellent anti-biofilm activity in the presence of an external magnetic field with significantly less toxicity toward human dermal fibroblast cells. The relative fraction of dead-to-live bacteria of the nanocomposites (400.0%) was much higher than that of SeNPs (51.6%) and IONPs (60.0%) by using ImageJ analysis. In this manner, the results of this study suggest that this presently created composite of selenium nanoparticles and iron oxide nanoparticles should be further studied (including in vivo assessment for blood compatibility and immune response) for a wide range of magnetically controlled biomedical applications.〈/p〉
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  • 60
    Publication Date: 2020
    Description: 〈h3〉Abstract〈/h3〉 〈p〉The growing interest and rapid development of portable and flexible wearable electronics has significantly escalated the need of designing miniaturized on-chip energy storage and conversion units as power sources for smart electronic devices. Current aqueous microsupercapacitors suffer from a low energy density due to their small working potential, which limits their potential application. This study presents the fabrication of a 1.6 V flexible, aqueous asymmetric microsupercapacitor (AMSC) with 83% capacitance retention after 5000 cycles which designed by the integration and voltage balance of functionalized graphene-based cathode as a double-layer supercapacitive electrode and iodine-doped graphene anode as a pseudocapacitive electrode. The combination of electrostatic and faradic charge storage mechanism in this all-graphene-based AMSC enables the device to deliver an ultra-high energy–power density (4.75 mWh cm〈sup〉−3〈/sup〉 at 61.55 W cm〈sup〉−3〈/sup〉) and a stabilized performance even after 2000 repeated bending cycles, which suggests the promising potential of the all-graphene AMSC as a substantial power source for future flexible electronic devices.〈/p〉
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  • 61
    Publication Date: 2019-11-14
    Description: The effects of ocean warming on the physiological performance of marine organisms have been widely studied. However, few studies have considered the relevance of seasonal acclimation to elevated temperatures and whether native and non-native species have similar tolerances to warming. We tested the hypotheses that the susceptibility to warming in two species of sea anemones from temperate latitudes is (i) higher in winter than in summer, and (ii) higher in the native than in the non-native species. Seasonal variability in the upper thermal tolerance limit of Anthothoe chilensis (native) and Anemonia alicemartinae (non-native) individuals from the northern-central coast of Chile was assessed in laboratory experiments during the austral winter 2015 and summer 2016. In line with our predictions, seawater warming (up to 16 °C above natural levels) significantly suppressed individual performance proxies such as survival and asexual reproduction (longitudinal fission) in the native species, but not in the non-native species. However, asexual reproduction in the non-native sea anemone was rare across warming treatments, and the native species showed a stronger capacity to detach from the substratum under adverse thermal conditions. Negative effects of warming on survival and fission were evident only in winter, when asexual reproduction is more intense in these taxa. Finally, water temperatures of 30 °C or more were lethal for both native and non-native sea anemones. These results show that the non-native species may have a broader thermal tolerance (in terms of survival) than the native taxonomically related species, but the latter displays behavioral adaptations to avoid adverse conditions of high temperatures. We suggest that knowledge about life history traits related to seasonal variations in water temperature and the invasion status of a species can help to predict its performance in a warming ocean.
    Type: Article , PeerReviewed
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    Format: text
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  • 62
    Publication Date: 2019-11-17
    Description: Water masses and depositional environments over the last 500 ka were reconstructed using absolute and relative abundances of lithogenous, biogenous and redox-sensitive elements in four sediment cores from two channel-levee systems of the Wilkes Land continental slope (East Antarctica). Sediments older than the Mid-Bruhnes event (MBE, 430 ka BP) show reduced glacial/interglacial variability in the abundance of elements associated to the terrigenous mineral phases (i.e. Al, Ti, Fe and partly Si). This suggests minor ice-sheet size changes occurred in the Antarctic margin during the pre-MBE “lukewarm” interval. Post-MBE sediments record instead a high variability between glacial and interglacial periods in the concentration of terrigenous and biogenous (i.e. Ca, Ba) elements suggesting larger amplitude changes in both ice-sheet size and ocean conditions toward the gradual establishment of last glacial cycle conditions. Moreover, a marked increase of Mn during the glacial to interglacial transitions, indicates a post-depositional migration of the redox front and re-oxidation of the surface sediment layers linked to major changes in bottom water oxygen conditions associated to Antarctic Bottom Water formation along the margin at the onset of deglaciations.
    Repository Name: EPIC Alfred Wegener Institut
    Type: Article , NonPeerReviewed
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  • 63
    Publication Date: 2020-01-01
    Print ISSN: 0009-2541
    Electronic ISSN: 1872-6836
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology , Geosciences
    Published by Elsevier
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  • 64
    Publication Date: 2020-03-02
    Print ISSN: 0003-004X
    Electronic ISSN: 1945-3027
    Topics: Geosciences
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  • 65
    Publication Date: 2019-11-18
    Description: Boron isotope (δ11B) analysis using bulk foraminifera samples is a widely used method to reconstruct paleo sea water pH conditions. Although, these analyses exhibit high analytical precision, short term information is lost due to the pooling of tests with distinct and diverse boron isotope signatures resulting in average values for the time interval encompassed in the sample. Here we present and assess the analysis of δ11B of individual foraminifera by means of Laser Ablation Multi-Collector Inductively Coupled Plasma Mass Spectrometry (LA-MC-ICP-MS) to obtain seasonal variability patterns and to test the limits of precision of LA-MC-ICP-MS on the planktonic foraminifera Orbulina universa. The results show that relative seasonal differences (of ∼11 ‰) can be captured from either uncleaned or cleaned individual O. universa tests with an average precision of ±2.9 ‰ (2 SE). The δ11B variability among foraminifera representing the same season is on average 7.4 ‰ (2 SD) irrespective of cleaning state. With our approach, analyses on oxidatively cleaned O. universa do not require the use of a matrix matched standard to obtain B isotope values in the range of those expected for solution multi-specimen analyses from determining local pH. Our results are useful for considering the potential spread caused by foraminifera vital effects and for obtaining information of seasonal ranges of pH and possible bias related to seasonality hidden within conventional solution based δ11B analyses.
    Type: Article , PeerReviewed
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  • 66
    Publication Date: 2020-02-01
    Print ISSN: 2038-1719
    Electronic ISSN: 2038-1727
    Topics: Geosciences
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  • 67
    Publication Date: 2020-02-01
    Description: Many buildings of the historic centre of Urbino (Marche, Central Italy), included in the UNESCO World Heritage List, are characterized by portals consisting of sedimentary rocks such as limestones or sandstones. In order to identify the possible quarries of provenance of sandstones used for architecture, we addressed our research to the Sant'Ippolito area (20 km ESE of Urbino), where historical stonemasons have been extensively documented since the 14th century. Few traces of ancient exploitation indicate some extraction sites. All the investigated rocks (both from monumental portals of Urbino and geological outcrops) consist of fine to medium grainsize sandstones with a variable content of bioclasts. Two different groups were recognized (using the petrographic Q-F-R classification diagram): (i) lithic arenites belonging to the Colombacci Formation; and (ii) feldspathic lithic arenites referable to the Tripoli Unit. In particular, petrographic data indicate that the sandstones used in the historical buildings of Urbino, come from the arenitic lithofacies of the Messinian p.p. Colombacci Formation of the Sant'Ippolito area. In addition, comparative geochemical studies of whole rock major and trace elements point out three outcrops, of the above formation, as possible sites of ancient extraction. Sandstones of the Tripoli Unit and the Marnoso-Arenacea Formation, widespread in the study area and near Urbino respectively, are ruled out as source rocks, based on both petrographic and geochemical data. Anomalously high values of some heavy elements such as Pb, Zn and As, recognized in some of the portals, likely derive from a combination of various anthropogenic sources of pollution close to the investigated monuments, such as domestic heating and emissions from road traffic in the past. From a mechanical point of view, the uniaxial compressive strength tests, carried out on a representative number of selected samples of the Colombacci Formation lithic arenites, yelded low values and high variability. Other investigated physical parameters also indicate that the stones used for the portals did not represent a good choice as building material. This implies that the stonemasons of Sant'Ippolito chose local raw materials for their availability, aesthetic qualities and good workability, rather than structural properties.
    Print ISSN: 2038-1719
    Electronic ISSN: 2038-1727
    Topics: Geosciences
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  • 69
    Publication Date: 2020-02-01
    Description: Mass-transport deposits (MTDs) intercalated in slope/basinal successions, produced by submarine collapses and mass flows, are generally constituted of allochthonous elements sourced from platform margins. Here we present a noticeable exception where Toarcian calciclastic deposits made of pelagic carbonate elements are embedded in other pelagic carbonates. Selected outcrops pertaining to the Rosso Ammonitico Fm of three different pelagic carbonate platform (PCP)-basin systems were studied. The pelagic successions of the study areas onlap Early Jurassic structural highs. These clastic bodies partially replace the typical Toarcian reddish marls and shales of the Umbria-Marche-Sabina palaeogeographic Domain at different stratigraphic levels. The clasts range from blocks to megablocks; extraclasts of Corniola facies (Pliensbachian) and, sporadically, of Calcare Massiccio peritidal carbonates (Hettangian) are associated with Rosso Ammonitico intraclasts. The internal architecture of the MTDs and their emplacement processes, as well as their source and accumulation areas, were identified. Three distinct lithofacies characterise the clastic bodies, each one corresponding to a different emplacement process or to a different portion of the flow. The occurrence of lithified megablocks (〉20 m across) of Corniola Fm suggests the exhumation of the buried portion of the unit. Synsedimentary extensional tectonics is the most likely triggering mechanism. Sedimentological analysis, coupled with geological mapping of the study areas, reveals the key role played by PCPs in the genesis of these MTDs. The early Toarcian reactivation of Hettangian palaeofaults bounding the structural highs is inferred. These faults, characterised by moderate offsets, crosscut the onlap wedges of the hangingwall successions, exhuming the older and lithified portion of Corniola Fm. Once became inactive, the fault planes were then eroded producing palaeoescarpments. Their backstepping, coupled with seismic shocks, produced the accumulation of the study clastic bodies.
    Print ISSN: 2038-1719
    Electronic ISSN: 2038-1727
    Topics: Geosciences
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