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  • Articles  (7,392)
  • J24
  • J31
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  • 1
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    Berlin: Freie Universität Berlin, Fachbereich Wirtschaftswissenschaft
    Publication Date: 2020-01-16
    Description: We decompose permanent earnings risk into contributions from hours and wage shocks. To distinguish between hours shocks, modeled as innovations to the marginal disutility of work, and labor supply reactions to wage shocks we formulate a life-cycle model of consumption and labor supply. Both permanent wage and hours shocks are important to explain earnings risk, but wage shocks have greater relevance. Progressive taxation strongly attenuates cross-sectional earnings risk, its life-cycle insurance impact is much smaller. At the mean, a positive hours shock of one standard deviation raises life-time income by 10%, while a similar wage shock raises it by 12%.
    Keywords: D31 ; J22 ; J31 ; ddc:330 ; Earnings Risk ; Wage Risk ; Labor Supply ; Progressive Taxation ; Consumption Insurance
    Repository Name: EconStor: OA server of the German National Library of Economics - Leibniz Information Centre for Economics
    Language: English
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  • 2
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    Essen: Global Labor Organization (GLO)
    Publication Date: 2020-01-15
    Description: Do firms in China share rents with their workers? We address this question by examining firm-level panel data covering virtually all manufacturing firms over the period 2000-2007, representing an average of 52 million workers per year. We find evidence of rent sharing (RS), with wage-profit elasticies of between 4% and 6%. These results are based on multiple instrumental variables, including firm-specific international trade shocks. We also present a number of complementary findings to understand better the nature of RS in the country: it involves an element of risk sharing, as wages also decrease when profits fall; RS is lower in regions with more latent competition from rural workers; higher minimum wages tend to reduce RS; and, while employer labour market power reduces wages, it increases RS. Overall, despite its importance, RS in China is smaller and more symmetric than in developed economies, which re ects the weaker bargaining power of its workers and the different nature of its labour market institutions.
    Keywords: J31 ; J41 ; J50 ; ddc:330 ; Wages ; Bargaining ; Monopsony
    Repository Name: EconStor: OA server of the German National Library of Economics - Leibniz Information Centre for Economics
    Language: English
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  • 3
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    Essen: Global Labor Organization (GLO)
    Publication Date: 2020-01-11
    Description: We propose a theoretical framework to analyze the offshoring and reshoring decisions of firms in the age of automation. Our theory suggests that increasing productivity in automation leads to a relocation of previously offshored production back to the home economy but without improving low-skilled wages and without creating jobs for low-skilled workers. Since it leads also to increasing wages for high-skilled workers, automation-induced reshoring is associated with an increasing skill premium and increasing inequality. We develop a measure for reshoring activity at the macro-level and, using data from the world input output table, we provide evidence for automation-driven reshoring. On average, within manufacturing sectors, an increase by one robot per 1000 workers is associated with a 3.5% increase of reshoring activity. Using robots in countries with similar sectoral structure as an instrument, we find that an increase by one robot per 1000 workers causes a 2.5% increase of reshoring activity. We also provide the first cross-country evidence that reshoring is positively associated with wages and employment for high-skilled labor but not for low-skilled labor and that tariffs increase the degree of reshoring.
    Keywords: F13 ; F62 ; J31 ; O33 ; ddc:330 ; Automation ; Reshoring ; Employment ; Wages ; Inequality ; Tariffs
    Repository Name: EconStor: OA server of the German National Library of Economics - Leibniz Information Centre for Economics
    Language: English
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  • 4
    Publication Date: 2020-02-01
    Description: In der Diskussion um die Sicherstellung einer bedarfsgerechten Arzneimittelversorgung in Deutschland steht auch die Frage im Raum, wie die Forschungs- und Produktionsstandorte pharmazeutischer Unternehmen vor Ort gestärkt werden können. Die Kriterien, nach denen Unternehmen ihre Standortentscheidungen treffen, sind vielfältig. Neben rechtlichen und institutionellen Rahmenbedingungen spielt auch das verfügbare regionale Arbeitskräfteangebot eine bedeutende Rolle, denn Pharmaunternehmen sind in besonderem Maße auf hochqualifizierte Arbeitskräfte angewiesen. Ist davon auszugehen, dass die Funktionsbereiche eines Unternehmens wie Forschung, Produktion oder Vertrieb einerseits in den europäischen Ländern unterschiedlich ausgeprägt sind und diese andererseits mit spezifischen Anforderungen an die benötigten Arbeitskräfte einhergehen, könnte sich auch die Qualifikationsstruktur der Pharmabeschäftigten von Land zu Land unterscheiden. Damit stellt sich die Frage: Inwieweit vermag das regionale Qualifikationsniveau der verfügbaren Arbeitskräfte die Entwicklungsperspektiven pharmazeutischer Unternehmen zu begünstigen? [...]
    Keywords: J21 ; J23 ; J24 ; L65 ; O52 ; ddc:330
    Repository Name: EconStor: OA server of the German National Library of Economics - Leibniz Information Centre for Economics
    Language: German
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  • 5
    Publication Date: 2020-02-07
    Description: In this article, we investigate the role of several types of educational mismatch in explaining labour market transitions of workers with secondary and higher education. We focus on transitions from employment to unemployment and on job changes, to assess whether mismatch is a temporary or a permanent phenomenon. In the first case, as suggested by matching models, mismatch will be eliminated through job-to-job transitions. In the second case, it might be permanent and caused by employment discontinuity and deskilling processes. By using information from the Italian Survey of Professions (ICP) and the Survey on Labour Participation and Unemployment (PLUS), we calculate three measures of vertical mismatch. This allows comparing the outcomes from self-reported and revealed match measures in order to assess the robustness of the results. In addition, we use a measure of horizontal mismatch and evaluated the effect of Routine Bias Technical change (RBTC) in terms of unemployment risk, through a Routine Task Index (RTI) calculated on Italian data. Results indicate that mismatched workers are at risk of long-term unemployment. More specifically, among workers with higher education, the risk is due to mismatches in the field of studies whereas for secondary educated workers, over-education is the main cause of unemployment risk. The effect of the RTI is often not significant. This adds evidence to the problem of skill gap in Italy, as educational choices are not aligned to market needs. In this respect, both demand side and supply side policies are needed to allow firms to better use this human capital.
    Keywords: D91 ; J24 ; J64 ; J82 ; ddc:330 ; higher education ; over-education ; educational mismatch ; routine bias technical change ; unemployment ; Italy
    Repository Name: EconStor: OA server of the German National Library of Economics - Leibniz Information Centre for Economics
    Language: English
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  • 6
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    Berlin: Deutsches Institut für Wirtschaftsforschung (DIW)
    Publication Date: 2020-02-08
    Description: Paid parental leave schemes have been shown to increase women's employment rates but decrease their wages in case of extended leave durations. In view of these potential trade-offs, many countries are discussing the optimal design of parental leave policies. We analyze the impact of a major parental leave reform on mothers' long-term earnings. The 2007 German parental leave reform replaced a means-tested benefit with a more generous earnings-related benefit that is granted for a shorter period of time. Additionally, a "daddy quota" of two months was introduced. To identify the causal effect of this policy on long-run earnings of mothers, we use a difference-in-difference approach that compares labor market outcomes of mothers who gave birth just before and right after the reform and nets out seasonal effects by including the year before. Using administrative social security data, we confirm previous findings and show that the average duration of employment interruptions increased for high-income mothers. Nevertheless, we find a positive long-run effect on earnings for mothers in this group. This effect cannot be explained by changes in working hours, observed characteristics, changes in employer stability or fertility patterns. Descriptive evidence suggests that the stronger involvement of fathers, incentivized by the "daddy months", could have facilitated mothers' re-entry into the labor market and thereby increased earnings. For mothers with low prior-to-birth earnings, however, we do not find any beneficial labor market effects of this parental leave reform.
    Keywords: H31 ; J13 ; J22 ; J24 ; J31 ; ddc:330 ; parental leave ; wages ; labor supply
    Repository Name: EconStor: OA server of the German National Library of Economics - Leibniz Information Centre for Economics
    Language: English
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  • 7
    Publication Date: 2020-02-12
    Description: This paper investigates the presence of explicit labour-saving heuristics within robotic patents. It analyses innovative actors engaged in robotic technology and their economic environment (identity, location, industry), and identifies the technological fields particularly exposed to labour-saving innovations. It exploits advanced natural language processing and probabilistic topic modelling techniques on the universe of patent applications at the USPTO between 2009 and 2018, matched with ORBIS (Bureau van Dijk) firm-level dataset. The results show that labour-saving patent holders comprise not only robots producers, but also adopters. Consequently, labour-saving robotic patents appear along the entire supply chain. The paper shows that labour-saving innovations challenge manual activities (e.g. in the logistics sector), activities entailing social intelligence (e.g. in the healthcare sector) and cognitive skills (e.g. learning and predicting).
    Keywords: O33 ; J24 ; C38 ; ddc:330 ; Robotic Patents ; Labour-Saving Technology ; Search Heuristics ; Probabilistic Topic Models
    Repository Name: EconStor: OA server of the German National Library of Economics - Leibniz Information Centre for Economics
    Language: English
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  • 8
    Publication Date: 2020-02-15
    Description: This study aims to fill the gap in our understanding about exposure to particulate matters with diameter less than 2.5 μm (PM2.5) and attributable risks and economic costs of mental disorders (MDs). We identify the relationship between PM2.5 and risk of hospital admissions (HAs) for MDs in Beijing and measure the attributable risk and economic cost. We apply a generalized additive model (GAM) with controls for time trend, meteorological conditions, holidays and day of the week. Stratified analyses are performed by age, gender and season. We further estimate health and economic burden of HAs for MDs attributable to PM2.5. A total of 17,252 HAs for MDs are collected. We show that PM2.5 accounts for substantial morbidity and economic burden of MDs. Specifically, a 10 μg/m3 daily increase in PM2.5 is associated with a 3.55% increase in the risk of HAs for MDs, and the effect is more pronounced for older males in colder weather. According to the WHO's air quality guidelines, 15.12 percent of HAs and 16.19 percent of related medical expenses for MDs are respectively attributable to PM2.5.
    Keywords: Q51 ; Q53 ; I24 ; I31 ; G11 ; G41 ; J24 ; ddc:330 ; Attributable risk ; Economic cost ; Hospital admissions ; Mental disorders ; PM2.5
    Repository Name: EconStor: OA server of the German National Library of Economics - Leibniz Information Centre for Economics
    Language: English
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  • 9
    Publication Date: 2020-02-18
    Description: To the best of our knowledge, this study is the first study for Germany to assess the long-term impacts of studying without graduating on three labour market outcomes (working hours, wages, and occupational prestige), and on overall life satisfaction, on the basis of a sample of employed individuals from the Socio-Economic Panel (SOEP) who possess a university entrance qualification. The impact is analyzed relative to individuals who have never been enrolled in university study (baseline group) and to individuals that have attained a university degree. The impacts are assessed by means of a double machine learning procedure that accounts for selection into the three educational paths and generates the counterfactual outcomes for the different paths. The findings indicate an average impact of studying without graduating of plus 5 percentage points on occupational prestige, and minus 2.8 percentage points on life satisfaction relative to the baseline group. The estimates for wages and working hours are not significant. The effects of graduating on all outcomes is positive and substantial relative to studying without graduating or not studying at all.
    Keywords: I21 ; I28 ; J31 ; ddc:330 ; Arbeitsmarkt ; Humankapitalforschung ; Studienerfolg ; Studium ohne Abschluss
    Repository Name: EconStor: OA server of the German National Library of Economics - Leibniz Information Centre for Economics
    Language: English
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  • 10
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    Nürnberg: Friedrich-Alexander-Universität Erlangen-Nürnberg, Lehrstuhl für Arbeitsmarkt- und Regionalpolitik
    Publication Date: 2020-02-18
    Description: This paper analyses gender differences in pay at the mean as well as along the wage distribution. Using data from the German Socio-Economic Panel, we estimate the adjusted gender pay gap applying a machine learning method (post-double-LASSO procedure). Comparing results from this method to conventional models in the literature, we find that the size of the adjusted pay gap differs substantially depending on the approach used. The main reason is that the machine learning approach selects numerous interactions and second-order polynomials as well as different sets of covariates at various points of the wage distribution. This insight suggests that more exible specifications are needed to estimate gender differences in pay more appropriately. We further show that estimates of all models are robust to remaining selection on unobservables.
    Description: Dieser Beitrag untersucht die geschlechtsspezifische Lohnlücke am Mittelwert und entlang der Lohnverteilung. Für unsere Analyse nutzen wir Daten des Sozio-ökonomischen Panels. Wir schätzen die bereinigte Lohnlücke zwischen Männern undFrauen unter Verwendung einer Methode des Maschinellem Lernens (post-double-LASSO Ansatz). Die mit dieser Methode geschätzten bereinigten Lohnlücken unterscheiden sich substantiell von den Ergebnissen konventioneller Ansätze. Hauptgrund für diese Unterschiede ist, dass der Ansatz des Maschinellen Lernens eine Vielzahl von Interaktionen und Polynomen zweiter Ordnung sowie unterschiedliche Kontrollvariablen entlang der Lohnverteilung wählt. Dieses Ergebnis deutet daraufhin, dass flexiblere Modelspezifikationen benötigt werden, um die Geschlechterlohnlücke adäquat zu schätzen. Wir zeigen auch, dass die Schätzergebnisse robust gegenüber Selektion aufgrund unbeobachtbarer Merkmale sind.
    Keywords: J7 ; J16 ; J31 ; ddc:330 ; Gender pay gap ; Machine Learning ; Selection on unobservables
    Repository Name: EconStor: OA server of the German National Library of Economics - Leibniz Information Centre for Economics
    Language: English
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  • 11
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    Münster: Westfälische Wilhelms-Universität Münster, Institut für Organisationsökonomik
    Publication Date: 2020-02-27
    Description: Es gibt große Unterschiede in der Bezahlung von professionellen Fußballerinnen und Fußballern. Während die Sportmedien regelmäßig über hohe Einnahmen männlicher Fußballer berichten, wird die Vergütung von Fußballerinnen nur selten öffentlich thematisiert. Nur wenige professionelle Fußballerinnen selbst auf dem höchsten Niveau können von der Vergütung für ihre sportliche Leistung leben und viele sind auf Nebeneinkünfte und Sponsoren angewiesen. Den Verdienstunterschieden stehen jedoch auch große Leistungsunterschiede zwischen den Geschlechtern sowohl in körperlicher Hinsicht als auch in Turnieren gegenüber. In den USA wird "equal play, equal pay" gefordert für die sportlich und finanziell erfolgreichere weibliche Nationalmannschaft, die trotzdem deutlich weniger verdient als das Herrenteam. Diskriminierung nach dem Geschlecht lässt sich jedoch keineswegs in allen Ländern feststellen, wenn man die Leistung berücksichtigt.
    Description: There are large differences in the remuneration of female and male professional football players. While the sports media regularly report high earnings for male football players, the remuneration of female football players is quite seldom an issue. Only a few female professional football players even at the highest rank can live from the remuneration for their athletic performance and many depend on additional income and sponsors. However, there are also large performance differences between the sexes in physical terms and in tournaments. In the USA "equal play, equal pay" is claimed for the sportily and financially more successful female national team that nevertheless earns significantly less than the men's team. Yet gender discrimination cannot be determined in all countries if the performance is taken into account.
    Keywords: D63 ; J16 ; J24 ; J31 ; J71 ; L83 ; M52 ; Z22 ; ddc:650 ; Leistungsentgelt ; Geschlechterunterschiede ; Geschlechterdiskriminierung ; Profisport ; Fußball
    Repository Name: EconStor: OA server of the German National Library of Economics - Leibniz Information Centre for Economics
    Language: German
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  • 12
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    Berlin: Deutsches Institut für Wirtschaftsforschung (DIW)
    Publication Date: 2020-02-27
    Description: We decompose permanent earnings risk into contributions from hours and wage shocks. To distinguish between hours shocks, modeled as innovations to the marginal disutility of work, and labor supply reactions to wage shocks we formulate a life-cycle model of consumption and labor supply. Both permanent wage and hours shocks are important to explain earnings risk, but wage shocks have greater relevance. Progressive taxation strongly attenuates cross-sectional earnings risk, its life-cycle insurance impact is much smaller. At the mean, a positive hours shock of one standard deviation raises life-time income by 10%, while a similar wage shock raises it by 12%.
    Keywords: D31 ; J22 ; J31 ; ddc:330 ; Earnings Risk ; Wage Risk ; Labor Supply ; Progressive Taxation ; Consumption Insurance
    Repository Name: EconStor: OA server of the German National Library of Economics - Leibniz Information Centre for Economics
    Language: English
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  • 13
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    Berlin: Deutsches Institut für Wirtschaftsforschung (DIW)
    Publication Date: 2020-02-27
    Description: We analyze self-selection of refugees and irregular migrants and test our theory in the context of the European refugee crisis. Using unique datasets from the International Organization for Migration and Gallup World Polls, we provide the first large-scale evidence on reasons to emigrate, and the self-selection and sorting of refugees and irregular migrants. Refugees and female irregular migrants are positively self-selected with respect to human capital, while male irregular migrants are negatively self-selected. These patterns are similar when analyzing individually stated main reason to emigrate, country-level conflict intensity, and sub-regional conflict intensity. Migrants respond to economic incentives and border policies.
    Keywords: F22 ; J15 ; J16 ; J24 ; O15 ; ddc:330 ; international migration ; refugees ; irregular migrants ; self-selection ; human capital ; gender differences in migration
    Repository Name: EconStor: OA server of the German National Library of Economics - Leibniz Information Centre for Economics
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  • 14
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    Berlin: Deutsches Institut für Wirtschaftsforschung (DIW)
    Publication Date: 2020-02-27
    Description: Using quantile regression methods, this paper analyses the gender wage gap across the wage distribution and over time (1990-2014), while controlling for changing sample selection into full-time employment. Our findings show that the selection-corrected gender wage gap is much larger than the one observed in the data, which is mainly due to large positive selection of women into full-time employment. However, we show that selection-corrected wages of male and female workers at the lower half of the distribution have moderately converged over time. The reason for this development have been changes in the composition of the male full-time employment force over time, which in spite of the rather constant male full-time employment rate, have given place to a small but rising selection bias in male observed wages. In the upper half of the wage distribution, however, neither the observed nor the selection-corrected gender wage gap has narrowed over time.
    Keywords: J31 ; J21 ; ddc:330 ; gender wage gap ; quantile regression ; selection into employment
    Repository Name: EconStor: OA server of the German National Library of Economics - Leibniz Information Centre for Economics
    Language: English
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  • 15
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    Mannheim: ZEW - Leibniz-Zentrum für Europäische Wirtschaftsforschung
    Publication Date: 2020-03-05
    Description: Skilled labor is a key input to the innovation process. A shortage in supply of skilled labor may hence impede innovation activities, resulting in lower productivity gains. While governments are concerned about these likely negative impacts, there is only limited empirical evidence whether and to what extent labor shortage affects innovation activities. The paper addresses this question using panel data from three waves (2017 to 2019) of the German innovation survey. We measure labor shortage by job openings that could not be filled at all, not with the required skills or only with significant delay, distinguishing different skill levels. We analyze whether labor shortage resulted in stopping or abandoning of innovation projects. Endogeneity issues are tackled by instrumental variable estimation techniques. Our results show that innovative firms are more likely to be subject to skill shortage, whereas skill shortage induces the cancelation of innovation projects. Effects are stronger for labor shortage related to professional occupations and less for academic qualifications.
    Keywords: J23 ; J24 ; O31 ; C26 ; ddc:330 ; community Innovation Survey ; labor shortage ; innovation ; probit instrumental variable estimation
    Repository Name: EconStor: OA server of the German National Library of Economics - Leibniz Information Centre for Economics
    Language: English
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  • 16
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    Essen: Global Labor Organization (GLO)
    Publication Date: 2020-03-05
    Description: In recent years, there has been an escalation of concern revolving around the effect that automation will have on the future of work. This anxiety has fueled the public and academic debate, fearing that soon this technology will displace jobs at a large scale. Numerous studies have begun to investigate automation's impact on labor markets, although all have focused on industrialized nations, which consist of more service and skilled occupations. Utilizing the World Bank's STEP Skills Measurement Program Database, we examine automation's effect on 10 developing countries throughout Latin America, Africa, and Asia. To address the heterogeneity of occupations across the country, we apply a task-based approach and re-calibrate the effect of automation on labor market while analyzing the task structure across countries. Modeling off previous studies, we created an expectation-maximization algorithm to predict the percentage of tasks that are likely to be automated. Jobs whose task automation output was 70% or higher were then considered to be highly automatable. Our results suggest that these developing countries have higher levels of predicted automation risk. Countries range in their level of highly automatable jobs from the lowest being Yunnan -a Chinese province- with 7.7% to the highest of Ghana with 42.4%. We find that occupations containing relatively more routine tasks are more likely to be automated, while workers with a higher level of education reduce their risks. This is the first paper to estimate automation risk rates for developing nations.
    Keywords: J23 ; J24 ; O33 ; ddc:330 ; Automation ; Developing economies ; digitalization ; technological change ; labor demand
    Repository Name: EconStor: OA server of the German National Library of Economics - Leibniz Information Centre for Economics
    Language: English
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  • 17
    Publication Date: 2020-03-05
    Description: This paper provides a comprehensive quantitative assessment of the employment performance of first- and second-generation immigrants in Belgium compared to that of natives. Using detailed quarterly data for the period 2008-2014, we find not only that first-generation immigrants face a substantial employment penalty (up to -36% points) vis-à-vis their native counterparts, but also that their descendants continue to face serious difficulties in accessing the labour market. The social elevator appears to be broken for descendants of two non-EU-born immigrants. Immigrant women are also found to be particularly affected. Among the key drivers of access to employment, we find: i) education for the descendants of non-EU-born immigrants, and ii) proficiency in the host country language, citizenship acquisition, and (to a lesser extent) duration of residence for first-generation immigrants. Finally, estimates suggest that around a decade is needed for the employment gap between refugees and other foreign-born workers to be (largely) suppressed.
    Keywords: J15 ; J16 ; J21 ; J24 ; J61 ; ddc:330 ; First- and second-generation immigrants ; employment ; moderating factors
    Repository Name: EconStor: OA server of the German National Library of Economics - Leibniz Information Centre for Economics
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  • 18
    Publication Date: 2020-03-06
    Description: Purpose - The purpose of this paper is to explore the mechanisms underlying hiring discrimination against transgender men. Design/methodology/approach - The authors conduct a scenario experiment with final-year business students in which fictitious hiring decisions are made about transgender or cisgender male job candidates. More importantly, these candidates are scored on statements related to theoretical reasons for hiring discrimination given in the literature. The resulting data are analysed using a bivariate analysis. Additionally, a multiple mediation model is run. Findings - Suggestive evidence is found for co-worker and customer taste-based discrimination, but not for employer taste-based discrimination. In addition, results show that transgender men are perceived as being in worse health, being more autonomous and assertive, and have a lower probability to go on parental leave, compared with cisgender men, revealing evidence for (positive and negative) statistical discrimination. Social implications - Targeted policy measures are needed given the substantial labour market discrimination against transgender individuals measured in former studies. However, to combat this discrimination effectively, one needs to understand its underlying mechanisms. This study provides the first comprehensive exploration of these mechanisms. Originality/value - This study innovates in being one of the first to explore the relative empirical importance of dominant (theoretical) explanations for hiring discrimination against transgender men. Thereby, the authors take the logical next step in the literature on labour market discrimination against transgender individuals.
    Keywords: J15 ; J71 ; J16 ; J24 ; J23 ; ddc:330 ; Transgender men ; fictitious hiring decisions ; theories of discrimination ; signalling ; scenario experiment ; risk aversion
    Repository Name: EconStor: OA server of the German National Library of Economics - Leibniz Information Centre for Economics
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  • 19
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    Essen: Global Labor Organization (GLO)
    Publication Date: 2020-03-04
    Description: Purpose – The purpose of this paper is to identify and discuss the on-the-job resilience strategies of mismatched workers. We empirically focus on Egyptian workers.Design/Methodology/Approach – This study relies on a primary micro-data collection based on design and implementation of a self-administered questionnaire survey and on the conduction of a series of semi-structured interviews. Findings – The results are fourfold: first, the combination of over-qualification and under-skilling is the most frequent in our sample; second, resilience strategies adopted by over-skilled workers mainly depend on mobility and entry to entrepreneurship; third, under-skilled workers do not enter entrepreneurship, but tend to rely on informal on-the-job learning and training opportunities. Fourth, religion and spirituality play a transversal role to cope with adversity for all of our interviewed workers. Originality/value – This study is unique as it draws our attention on factors of resilience for mismatched workers in a developing country, Egypt.
    Keywords: J24 ; E24 ; C81 ; ddc:330 ; resilience strategies ; skill mismatches ; qualification mismatches ; Egypt
    Repository Name: EconStor: OA server of the German National Library of Economics - Leibniz Information Centre for Economics
    Language: English
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  • 20
    Publication Date: 2020-03-12
    Description: Identifying the determinants of intergenerational mobility is an important aim in the development literature. In this article, intergenerational transmission is examined for 6 neglected Latin American Economies (Brazil, Costa Rica, Ecuador, Mexico, Panama and Puerto Rico). We use a multinomial logit model of the determinants of choosing a white-collar job for a child of a father working in farming as compared to a child whose father had a blue- or a white-collar job. Our findings show that, in the studied countries, intergenerational occupation transmission is mainly linked to low skilled jobs. Our analysis confirms the low degree of social mobility typical of Latin America, contributing, in turn, to explain their low growth rate. Our findings help identifying specific target groups - talented young women coming from the agricultural sector - to develop in them soft skills while at primary or low secondary school and work-related skills while at the high secondary school or at the university.
    Keywords: D60 ; I30 ; J24 ; J6 ; J62 ; ddc:330 ; Intergenerational occupational mobility ; Intergenerational mobility ; Latin American countries
    Repository Name: EconStor: OA server of the German National Library of Economics - Leibniz Information Centre for Economics
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  • 21
    Publication Date: 2020-03-12
    Description: As work changes, firm-provided training may become more relevant for good economic and social outcomes. However, so far there is little or no causal evidence about the effects of training on firms. This paper studies a large training grants programme in Portugal, contrasting successful firms that received the grants and unsuccessful firms that did not. Combining several rich data sets, we compare a large number of potential outcomes of these firms, while following them over long periods of time before and after the grant decision. Our difference-in-differences models estimate significant positive effects on take up (training hours and expenditure), with limited deadweight; and that such additional training led to increased sales, value added, employment, productivity, and exports. These effects tend to be of at least 5% and, in some cases, 10% or more.
    Keywords: J24 ; H43 ; M53 ; ddc:330 ; Training subsidies ; Productivity ; Counterfactual evaluation
    Repository Name: EconStor: OA server of the German National Library of Economics - Leibniz Information Centre for Economics
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  • 22
    Publication Date: 2020-03-17
    Description: As China's firms upgrade their position in the quality ladder, vocational education may become more important. In this paper, we study returns to secondary vocational education in China paying attention to individual heterogeneity. We use instrumental variables based on geographical and longitudinal changes in enrolment to address the selection between the two types of education. We find that vocational education provides a wage premium vis-à-vis academic education of over 30% but which applies only for individuals at the middle of the conditional wage distribution.
    Keywords: I26 ; I25 ; J24 ; J31 ; C36 ; ddc:330 ; Human capital ; vocational education ; quantile treatment effects
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  • 23
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    Munich: Center for Economic Studies and Ifo Institute (CESifo)
    Publication Date: 2020-03-25
    Description: The social and the private returns to education differ when education can increase productivity, and also be used to signal productivity. We show how instrumental variables can be used to separately identify and estimate the social and private returns to education within the employer learning framework of Farber and Gibbons [1996] and Altonji and Pierret [2001]. What an instrumental variable identifies depends crucially on whether the instrument is hidden from, or observed by, the employers. If the instrument is hidden then it identifies the private returns to education, but if the instrument is observed by employers then it identifies the social returns to education. Interestingly, however, among experienced workers the instrument identifies the social returns to education, regardless of whether or not it is hidden. We operationalize this approach using local variation in compulsory schooling laws across multiple cohorts in Norway. Our preferred estimates indicate that the social return to an additional year of education is 5%, and the private internal rate of return, aggregating the returns over the life-cycle, is 7.2%. Thus, 70% of the private returns to education can be attributed to education raising productivity and 30% to education signaling workers' ability.
    Keywords: J24 ; J31 ; D83 ; ddc:330 ; signaling ; human capital ; employer learning ; instruments
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  • 24
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    Bonn: Institute of Labor Economics (IZA)
    Publication Date: 2020-03-25
    Description: We use a unique question from the Irish Labour Force Survey that captures the reasons for workers being paid below the minimum wage. Compared to existing work, this allows us to more precisely identify sub-minimum wage workers. We find that 5.6 percent of minimum wage workers are paid below the minimum wage for reasons other than those permitted under legislation. This is considerably lower than estimates reported in the existing literature.
    Keywords: J22 ; J23 ; J31 ; J32 ; ddc:330 ; non-compliance ; minimum wage
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  • 25
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    Bonn: Institute of Labor Economics (IZA)
    Publication Date: 2020-03-25
    Description: Modern women often face an uneasy choice: dedicating their time to reproductive household work, or joining the workforce and spending time away from home and household duties. Both choices are associated with benefits, as well as non-trivial costs, and necessarily involve some trade-offs, influencing the general feeling of happiness women experience given their decision. The trade-offs are especially pronounced in traditional developing countries, where both the pressure for women to stay at home and the need to earn additional income are strong, making the choice even more controversial. To understand the implications of this choice on the happiness of women in these types of countries we compare housewives and working women of the South Caucasus region. The rich data collected annually by the Caucasus Research Resource Center allows us to match working women with their housewife counterparts and to compare the level of happiness across the two groups – separately for each country as well as for Armenian and Azerbaijani minorities residing in Georgia. We find a significant negative happiness gap for working women in Armenia and in Azerbaijan, but not in Georgia. The absence of such a gap among the Armenian and Azerbaijani minorities of Georgia indicates that the gap is mostly a country- rather than an ethnicity-specific effect.
    Keywords: I31 ; J16 ; J21 ; J24 ; ddc:330 ; female employment ; reproductive housework ; life satisfaction and happiness ; propensity score matching
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  • 26
    Publication Date: 2020-03-25
    Description: Estimating economic earnings mobility is imperative for understanding the degree to which low pay employment is a temporary or long-term position. The current literature estimates transition probabilities between low and higher pay. This study extends the focus to identify the underlying pecuniary wage change via construction of an intermediate pay zone marginally above low pay. Utilising monthly administrative data we find that individuals with a strong attachment to the low pay sector have a very low probability of shifting into higher pay. Further, these individuals also have a substantially greater risk of experiencing a low pay-no pay cycle relative to those who are intermediate or higher paid. Notably, this finding is only uncovered using within year variation in wages to reveal intensity of labour market attachment.
    Keywords: J62 ; J31 ; C33 ; C55 ; ddc:330 ; low pay dynamics ; transition probability ; state dependence ; dynamic models ; administrative data
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  • 27
    Publication Date: 2020-03-25
    Description: Labor market opportunities and wages may be unfair for various reasons, and how workers respond to different types of unfairness can have major economic consequences. Using an online labor platform, where workers engage in an individual task for a piece-rate wage, we investigate the causal effect of neutral and gender-discriminatory unfair chances on labor supply. We randomize workers into treatments where we control relative pay and chances to receive a low or a high wage. Chances can be fair, unfair based on an unspecified source, or unfair based on gender discrimination. Unequal pay reduces labor supply of low-wage workers, irrespective of whether the low wage is the result of fair or unfair chances. Importantly, the source of unfair chances matters. When a low wage is the result of gender-discriminatory chances, workers matched with a high-wage worker substantially reduce their labor supply compared to the case of equal low wages (–22%). This decrease is twice as large as those induced by low wages due to fair chances or unfair chances coming from an unspecified source. In addition, exploratory analysis suggests that in response to unequal pay, low-wage male workers reduce labor supply irrespective of the source of inequality, whereas low-wage female workers reduce labor supply only if unequal pay is due to gender-discriminatory chances. Our results concerning gender discrimination indicate a new reason for the lower labor supply of women, which is a prominent explanation for the gender gap in earnings.
    Keywords: D90 ; E24 ; J22 ; J31 ; J71 ; M5 ; ddc:330 ; labor supply ; wage inequality ; procedural fairness ; gender discrimination
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  • 28
    Publication Date: 2020-03-25
    Description: Low employability among specific populations (e.g., religious/traditional women, the elderly, disabled workers, immigrants) has unfavorable consequences on the: unemployed individual, society, and the state economy. The latter include: poverty, a heavy toll on welfare budgets, diminished growth, and an increase in the "dependency ratio". We suggest a rather novel policy (borrowed from the field of Career Psychology) that could lead to successful integration into the labor market of low-employability populations: the design of tailor-made training programs that respond to work motives; coupled with a working environment that caters to special needs/restrictions; and complemented with counseling and monitoring. The suggested strategy was illustrated and investigated using a case study of Israeli ultra-religious women, who exhibit lower employment rates than other Israeli women. The motives behind their occupational choices were explored based on data collected by a field experiment. Factor Analysis was then employed to sort out the motives behind their occupational choices, and regression analysis was used to associate job satisfaction with work motivation. Policy implications were suggested based on the findings. There is already some evidence on the successful outcomes of the proposed strategy.
    Keywords: D13 ; D91 ; I38 ; J08 ; J24 ; Z12 ; ddc:330 ; low-employability ; ultra-Orthodox/religious (Haredi) ; Israel ; occupation ; motives ; job satisfaction ; old-age dependency-ratio
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  • 29
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    Bonn: Institute of Labor Economics (IZA)
    Publication Date: 2020-03-25
    Description: Using population-wide Swedish register data on cognitive abilities and productive personality traits, we show that employment growth has been monotonically skill-biased in terms of these general-purpose intellectual skills, despite a simultaneous (polarizing) decline in middle-wage jobs. Employees in declining mid-wage occupations have comparably little of these general intellectual skills. Conversely, growing low-wage occupations are more (intellectually) skill-intensive than other low-wage jobs. Employment has primarily increased in occupations where workers are endowed with verbal and technical abilities, and social maturity. Existing occupational projections imply that the relationship between employment growth and skills in the projected future will resemble the past.
    Keywords: J21 ; J31 ; ddc:330 ; skills ; polarization ; future of work
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  • 30
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    Bonn: Institute of Labor Economics (IZA)
    Publication Date: 2020-03-25
    Description: This paper examines how employee earnings at small firms respond to a cash flow shock in the form of a government R&D grant. We use ranking data on applicant firms, which we link to IRS W2 earnings and other U.S. Census Bureau datasets. In a regression discontinuity design, we find that the grant increases average earnings with a rent-sharing elasticity of 0.07 (0.21) at the employee (firm) level. The beneficiaries are incumbent employees who were present at the firm before the award. Among incumbent employees, the effect increases with worker tenure. The grant also leads to higher employment and revenue, but productivity growth cannot fully explain the immediate effect on earnings. Instead, the data and a grantee survey are consistent with a backloaded wage contract channel, in which employees of financially constrained firms initially accept relatively low wages and are paid more when cash is available.
    Keywords: G32 ; G35 ; J31 ; J41 ; ddc:330 ; earnings inequality ; rent sharing ; R&D grants ; regression discontinuity design
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  • 31
    Publication Date: 2020-03-25
    Description: In this paper we examine the education and occupation mismatch for Hispanics in the US using a novel objective continuous mismatch index and explore the role of immigrants' social networks on this mismatch. We explore whether having a larger social network helps Hispanics in finding jobs that better match with their skill and education levels or whether living in areas with larger concentration of Hispanics leads to more competition for the same jobs in the labor market. Given that the legal status of immigrants influence how the social networks are leveraged and their impact on labor market outcomes, we focus on the citizenship status for Hispanics. The quality of match between Hispanic's college degree major and occupation is measured using one of the continuous indices proposed in Rios-Avila and Saavedra-Caballero (2019) and calculated using pooled data for all college graduates in the US from 2010 to 2017. The Hispanic networks measures are constructed as the share of Hispanic population who are 25 years or older with respect to the total population of the same age and the second measure only includes Hispanics with at least a bachelor's degree using the weighted pooled data from 2010 to 2015. We find that networks have a positive impact on the job-match quality, but mostly for Hispanic citizens and this effect is stronger when the networks constitutes of at least a college degree. This shows that Hispanic citizens living in higher concentration of Hispanic college graduates are better able to leverage their networks or their networks are better able to match them with jobs closer to their field of specialization and skill set.
    Keywords: J15 ; J24 ; J61 ; ddc:330 ; education-occupation mismatch ; horizontal mismatch ; social networks ; hispanics ; citizenship
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  • 32
    Publication Date: 2020-03-25
    Description: This study aims to fill the gap in our understanding about exposure to particulate matters with diameter less than 2.5 μm (PM2.5) and attributable risks and economic costs of mental disorders (MDs). We identify the relationship between PM2.5 and risk of hospital admissions (HAs) for MDs in Beijing and measure the attributable risk and economic cost. We apply a generalized additive model (GAM) with controls for time trend, meteorological conditions, holidays and day of the week. Stratified analyses are performed by age, gender and season. We further estimate health and economic burden of HAs for MDs attributable to PM2.5. A total of 17,252 HAs for MDs are collected. We show that PM2.5 accounts for substantial morbidity and economic burden of MDs. Specifically, a 10 μg/m3 daily increase in PM2.5 is associated with a 3.55% increase in the risk of HAs for MDs, and the effect is more pronounced for older males in colder weather. According to the WHO's air quality guidelines, 15.12 percent of HAs and 16.19 percent of related medical expenses for MDs are respectively attributable to PM2.5.
    Keywords: Q51 ; Q53 ; I24 ; I31 ; G11 ; G41 ; J24 ; ddc:330 ; attributable risk ; economic cost ; hospital admissions ; mental disorders ; PM2.5
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  • 33
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    Bonn: Institute of Labor Economics (IZA)
    Publication Date: 2020-03-25
    Description: The types of workers recruited into teaching and their allocation across classrooms can greatly influence a country's stock of human capital. This paper considers how markets and non-market institutions determine the quantity, wages, skills, and spatial distribution of teachers in developing countries. Schools are a major source of employment in developing countries, particularly for women and professionals. Teacher compensation is also a large share of public budgets. Teacher labor markets in developing countries are likely to grow further as teacher quality becomes a greater focus of education policy, including under the United Nations Sustainable Development Goals. Theoretical approaches to teacher labor markets have emphasized the role of non-market institutions, such as government and unions, and other frictions in teacher employment and wages. The evidence supports the existence and importance of such frictions in how teacher labor markets function. In many countries, large gaps in pay and quality exist between teachers and other professionals; teachers in public and private schools; teachers on permanent and temporary contracts; and teachers in urban and rural areas. Teacher supply increases with wages, though teacher quality does not necessarily increase. However, most evidence comes from studies of short-term effects among existing teachers. Evidence on effects in the long-term, on the supply of new teachers, or on changes in non-pecuniary compensation is scarcer.
    Keywords: J44 ; J45 ; J31 ; J21 ; J23 ; I28 ; ddc:330 ; teacher labor markets ; developing countries ; public sector labor markets ; education ; public service delivery
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  • 34
    Publication Date: 2020-03-21
    Description: Ungleichheitsstudien basieren in der Regel auf Daten zu Jahres- oder Monatseinkommen, um die Verteilung ökonomischer Ressourcen zu einem bestimmten Zeitpunkt im Querschnitt einer Bevölkerung zu bestimmen. Analysen auf Jahres- oder Monatsquerschnitten können jedoch ein unvollständiges Bild liefern, da sie oft nur erwerbstätige Individuen betrachten und sich die individuellen Positionen in der Einkommensverteilung über das Erwerbsleben einer Person ändern. Ein umfassenderes Bild bieten Lebenserwerbseinkommen. Die Analyse von Lebenserwerbseinkommen setzen Informationen über vollständige Erwerbsbiografien voraus. Informationen, die wenn überhaupt nur für spezielle Bevölkerungsgruppen in Form von administrativen Daten der Sozialversicherung vorliegen. Um eine geeignete Datengrundlage zur Analyse von Lebenserwerbseinkommen der gesamten Bevölkerung zu schaffen, nutzen wir eine dynamische Mikrosimulation auf Basis des Sozioökonomischen Panels um vollständige Erwerbsbiografien für die Kohorten 1964 bis 1985 bis ins Jahr 2045 zu konstruieren. Wir können zeigen, dass sich der Unterschied zwischen den Lebenserwerbseinkommen Gering- und Hochqualifizierter Männer in Preisen von 2015 auf über eine Million Euro beläuft, Geringqualifizierte verdiene im Lauf ihres Lebens nur knapp 40 Prozent des Erwerbseinkommens eines Hochqualifizierten. Gleichzeitig finden wir, dass zwischen 1981 und 1985 geborene Frauen im Durchschnitt über den Lebensverlauf hinweg nur rund 55 Prozent der Erwerbseinkommen der Männer verdienen.
    Keywords: D31 ; D63 ; J31 ; ddc:330 ; Lebenserwerbseinkommen ; Dynamische Mikrosimulation ; Gender Lifetime Earnings Gap
    Repository Name: EconStor: OA server of the German National Library of Economics - Leibniz Information Centre for Economics
    Language: German
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  • 35
    Publication Date: 2020-03-25
    Description: The growing gender gap in educational attainment between men and women has raised concerns that the skill development of boys may be more sensitive to family disadvantage than that of girls. Using the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent to Adult Health (Add Health) data we find, as do previous studies, that boys are more likely to experience increased problems in school relative to girls, including suspensions and reduced educational aspirations, when they are in poor quality schools, less-educated neighborhoods, and father-absent households. Following these cohorts into young adulthood, however, we find no evidence that adolescent disadvantage has stronger negative impacts on long-run economic outcomes such as college graduation, employment, or income for men, relative to women. We do find that father absence is more strongly associated with men's marriage and childbearing and weak support for greater male vulnerability to disadvantage in rates of high school graduation. An investigation of adult outcomes for another recent cohort from the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth, 1997 produces a similar pattern of results. We conclude that focusing on gender differences in behavior in school may not lead to valid inferences about the effects of disadvantage on adult skills.
    Keywords: J24 ; J12 ; J16 ; ddc:330 ; gender ; education ; employment ; earnings ; family structure ; father absence ; school quality ; neighborhood effect
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  • 36
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    Bonn: Institute of Labor Economics (IZA)
    Publication Date: 2020-03-25
    Description: The social and the private returns to education differ when education can increase productivity, and also be used to signal productivity. We show how instrumental variables can be used to separately identify and estimate the social and private returns to education within the employer learning framework of Farber and Gibbons [1996] and Altonji and Pierret [2001]. What an instrumental variable identifies depends crucially on whether the instrument is hidden from, or observed by, the employers. If the instrument is hidden then it identifies the private returns to education, but if the instrument is observed by employers then it identifies the social returns to education. Interestingly, however, among experienced workers the instrument identifies the social returns to education, regardless of whether or not it is hidden. We operationalize this approach using local variation in compulsory schooling laws across multiple cohorts in Norway. Our preferred estimates indicate that the social return to an additional year of education is 5%, and the private internal rate of return, aggregating the returns over the life-cycle, is 7.2%. Thus, 70% of the private returns to education can be attributed to education raising productivity and 30% to education signaling workers' ability.
    Keywords: J24 ; J31 ; D83 ; ddc:330 ; signaling ; human capital ; employer learning ; instruments
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  • 37
    Publication Date: 2020-03-25
    Description: This paper investigates the presence of explicit labour-saving heuristics within robotic patents. It analyses innovative actors engaged in robotic technology and their economic environment (identity, location, industry), and identifies the technological fields particularly exposed to labour-saving innovations. It exploits advanced natural language processing and probabilistic topic modelling techniques on the universe of patent applications at the USPTO between 2009 and 2018, matched with ORBIS (Bureau van Dijk) firm-level dataset. The results show that labour-saving patent holders comprise not only robots producers, but also adopters. Consequently, labour-saving robotic patents appear along the entire supply chain. The paper shows that labour-saving innovations challenge manual activities (e.g. in the logistics sector), activities entailing social intelligence (e.g. in the healthcare sector) and cognitive skills (e.g. learning and predicting).
    Keywords: O33 ; J24 ; C38 ; ddc:330 ; robotic patents ; labour-saving technology ; search heuristics ; probabilistic topic models
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  • 38
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    Bonn: Institute of Labor Economics (IZA)
    Publication Date: 2020-03-25
    Description: This report looks at employer–provided training in Europe. We start with a brief outline of the economic theory of training. We then look at the recent facts, by combining data from two employer surveys, the European Investment Bank's Investment Survey (EIBIS) and Eurostat's Continuous Vocational Training Survey (CVTS). We review the recent empirical literature on the relationship between economic institutions and training and between training and productivity and consider whether financing constraints hamper the training provision by firms. The paper concludes by discussing policy implications.
    Keywords: J24 ; ddc:330 ; employer provided training ; Europe
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  • 39
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    Bonn: Institute of Labor Economics (IZA)
    Publication Date: 2020-03-25
    Description: We propose a simple theory of under- and over-employment. Individuals of high type can perform both skilled and unskilled jobs, but only a fraction of low-type workers can perform skilled jobs. People have different non-pecuniary values over these jobs, akin to a Roy model. We calibrate two versions of the model to match moments of 17 OECD economies, considering separately education and skills mismatch. The cost of mismatch is 3% of output on average but varies between -1% to 9% across countries. The key variable that explains the output cost of mismatch is not the percentage of mismatched workers but their wage relative to well-matched workers.
    Keywords: E24 ; J24 ; ddc:330 ; education mismatch ; skill mismatch
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  • 40
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    Bonn: Institute of Labor Economics (IZA)
    Publication Date: 2020-03-25
    Description: I study the long-term effects of landing a first job at a large firm versus a small one using Spanish social security data. Size could be a relevant employer attribute for inexperienced workers since large firms are associated with greater training, higher wages, and enhanced productivity. The key empirical challenge is selection into first jobs – for instance, more able people may land jobs at large firms. I address this challenge developing an instrumental-variables approach that, while keeping business-cycle conditions fixed, leverages variation in the composition of labor demand that labor-market entrants face. I find that initially matching with a larger firm substantially improves long-term outcomes such as lifetime income, and that these benefits persist through subsequent jobs. Additional results point to mechanisms related to search frictions and better skill-development at large firms. Together, these findings shed light on how heterogeneous firms persistently impact young workers' trajectories.
    Keywords: E24 ; J23 ; J24 ; J31 ; J62 ; ddc:330 ; first job ; employer size ; firm heterogeneity ; young workers ; lifetime income ; on-the-job skills
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  • 41
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    Munich: Center for Economic Studies and Ifo Institute (CESifo)
    Publication Date: 2020-03-25
    Description: Labor market opportunities and wages may be unfair for various reasons, and how workers respond to different types of unfairness can have major economic consequences. Using an online labor platform, where workers engage in an individual task for a piece-rate wage, we investigate the causal effect of neutral and gender-discriminatory unfair chances on labor supply. We randomize workers into treatments where we control relative pay and chances to receive a low or a high wage. Chances can be fair, unfair based on an unspecified source, or unfair based on gender discrimination. Unequal pay reduces labor supply of low-wage workers, irrespective of whether the low wage is the result of fair or unfair chances. Importantly, the source of unfair chances matters. When a low wage is the result of gender-discriminatory chances, workers matched with a high-wage worker substantially reduce their labor supply compared to the case of equal low wages (-22%). This decrease is twice as large as those induced by low wages due to fair chances or unfair chances coming from an unspecified source. In addition, exploratory analysis suggests that in response to unequal pay, low-wage male workers reduce labor supply irrespective of the source of inequality, whereas low-wage female workers reduce labor supply only if unequal pay is due to gender-discriminatory chances. Our results concerning gender discrimination indicate a new reason for the lower labor supply of women, which is a prominent explanation for the gender gap in earnings.
    Keywords: D90 ; E24 ; J22 ; J31 ; J71 ; M50 ; ddc:330 ; labor supply ; wage inequality ; procedural fairness ; gender discrimination
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  • 42
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    Munich: Center for Economic Studies and Ifo Institute (CESifo)
    Publication Date: 2020-03-25
    Description: We analyze inequality and mobility across generations in a dynastic economy. Nurture, in terms of bequests and the schooling investment into the next generation, is observable but the draw of nature in terms of ability is hidden, stochastic and persistent across generations. We calibrate the model to U.S. data to illustrate mechanisms through which nurture and nature affect mobility and the transmission of income inequality across generations, thus complementing the vast empirical literature. To provide a benchmark for the observed status quo, we solve for the social optimum in which the planner weighs dynasties equally and chooses optimal tax schedules subject to incentive compatibility. Analyzing the transition from the calibrated steady state to this social optimum, we find that insurance against intergenerational ability risk increases on the transition path by making welfare of family dynasties more dependent on nurture relative to nature. The insurance comes at the cost of less social mobility. We compare welfare in the social optimum and economies with a simple history-independent tax and subsidy system.
    Keywords: E24 ; H21 ; I24 ; J24 ; J62 ; ddc:330 ; human capital ; schooling ; bequests ; asymmetric information ; intergenerational mobility ; inequality
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  • 43
    Publication Date: 2020-03-25
    Description: We use distributional regression analysis to study the impact of a six percent increase in the Irish minimum wage on the distribution of hourly wages and household income. Wage inequality, measured by the ratio of wages in the 90th and 10th percentiles and the 75th and 25th percentiles, decreased by approximately eight percent and four percent respectively. For young workers, aged under 25, the effects were far greater, with a 24 percent reduction in the ratio of wages in the 90th and 10th percentiles. The results point towards wage spillover effects up to the 30th percentile of the wage distribution. We show that minimum wage workers are spread throughout the household income distribution and are often located in high-income households. Therefore, while we observe strong effects on the wage distribution, the impact of a minimum wage increase on the household income distribution is quite limited.
    Keywords: J31 ; J38 ; K31 ; ddc:330 ; minimum wage ; inequality ; wage spillovers ; distributional regression
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  • 44
    Publication Date: 2020-03-25
    Description: The U.S. economy has experienced a significant drop in the fraction of the population employed in middle wage, "routine task-intensive" occupations. Applying machine learning techniques, we identify characteristics of those who used to be employed in such occupations and show they are now less likely to work in routine occupations. Instead, they are either non-participants in the labor force or working at occupations that tend to occupy the bottom of the wage distribution. We then develop a quantitative, heterogeneous agent, general equilibrium model of labor force participation, occupational choice, and capital investment. This allows us to quantify the role of advancement in automation technology in accounting for these labor market changes. We then use this framework as a laboratory to evaluate various public policies aimed at addressing the disappearance of routine employment and its consequent impacts on inequality.
    Keywords: E22 ; E24 ; J23 ; J24 ; ddc:330 ; polarization ; automation ; routine employment ; labor force participation ; universal basic income ; unemployment insurance ; retraining
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  • 45
    Publication Date: 2020-03-25
    Description: Background: Home visiting programs constitute an important policy to support vulnerable families with young children. They mainly aim to improve infant-parent relationships, however evidence on their effectiveness based on observational measures is relatively scarce. The present study provides the rare opportunity to directly examine the effects of a home visiting program, the Pro Kind, on mother-child interactions in a randomized controlled trial (RCT). Methods: A sample of 109 mother-child dyads was videotaped during a 3-min typical play situation at the participants' homes when the child was aged 25 months. We use a novel micro-coding system which allows us to examine how the intervention affected the dynamic feedback responses of both mothers and children in three key measures of behavior: orientation, positive contingency, and negative/lack of contingency. The study is registered in the German Clinical Trial Register (trial ID: DRKS00007554, date of registration: 11 June 2015). Results: The intervention significantly improved the interactions between girls and their mothers, both in strongly stable and partly unstable situations. Mixed impacts were detected for boys. Conclusions: These results have important implications for the analysis of mother-child interactions data and the design of home visiting programs.
    Keywords: I14 ; J13 ; J24 ; ddc:330 ; home visiting ; mother-child interactions ; randomized controlled trial
    Repository Name: EconStor: OA server of the German National Library of Economics - Leibniz Information Centre for Economics
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  • 46
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    Bonn: Institute of Labor Economics (IZA)
    Publication Date: 2020-03-25
    Description: This article reviews the recent literature in economics on small-scale entrepreneurship ("microentrepreneurship") in low-income countries. Major themes in the literature include the determinants and consequences of joining the formal sector; the impacts of access to credit and other financial services; the impacts of business training; barriers to hiring; and the distinction between self-employment by necessity and self-employment as a calling. The article devotes special attention to unique issues that arise with female entrepreneurship.
    Keywords: L26 ; J16 ; J24 ; ddc:330 ; small businesses ; female entrepreneurship ; self-employment ; informal sector
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  • 47
    Publication Date: 2020-03-25
    Description: This paper provides a rationale for the revival of protectionism, based on the rise of the educated class. In a trade model with heterogeneous workers and entrepreneurs, globalization generates aggregate gains but has distributional effects, which can be attenuated through taxation. By playing a two-stage political game, citizens decide on trade openness and the extent of redistribution. In this setting, trade liberalization is politically viable as long as the losers from trade are compensated through the redistributive mechanism. When skilled workers account for a large share of the population, however, there may be limited political support for redistribution, and those who are left behind by globalization – namely unskilled workers and importing-sector entrepreneurs – can form a coalition to impose protectionist measures. We then build a dynamic version of the model, where human capital accumulation is driven by public education. Our analysis suggests that globalization – by favoring the ascent of the educated class and thus eroding the political support for redistribution – may ultimately breed its own decline.
    Keywords: D72 ; F68 ; I24 ; J24 ; O40 ; ddc:330 ; trade ; redistribution ; political economy ; human capital accumulation
    Repository Name: EconStor: OA server of the German National Library of Economics - Leibniz Information Centre for Economics
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  • 48
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    Munich: Center for Economic Studies and Ifo Institute (CESifo)
    Publication Date: 2020-03-25
    Description: Empirical findings suggest a positive correlation between inequality and social immobility, a phenomenon coined the Gatsby curve. However, complete explanations of the phenomenon have not yet been proposed. This paper answers two questions: What are Gatsby curves? When do they exist? We build a theoretical environment in which parental investment and education improve the economic prospects of children. Gatsbian economies and Gatsby curves are formally defined, and we characterize the conditions under which they will arise. We show that an economy may go from being Gatsbian to non-Gatsbian. Finally, we show that the better network of relations of those with high-paying jobs may also generate a Gatsbian economy.
    Keywords: D31 ; H52 ; J31 ; J62 ; ddc:330 ; intergenerational mobility ; income inequality ; education
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  • 49
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    Munich: Center for Economic Studies and Ifo Institute (CESifo)
    Publication Date: 2020-03-25
    Description: This article reviews the recent literature in economics on small-scale entrepreneurship ("microentrepreneurship") in low-income countries. Major themes in the literature include the determinants and consequences of joining the formal sector; the impacts of access to credit and other financial services; the impacts of business training; barriers to hiring; and the distinction between self-employment by necessity and self-employment as a calling. The article devotes special attention to unique issues that arise with female entrepreneurship.
    Keywords: L26 ; J16 ; J24 ; ddc:330
    Repository Name: EconStor: OA server of the German National Library of Economics - Leibniz Information Centre for Economics
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  • 50
    Publication Date: 2020-03-25
    Description: This paper presents a life-cycle model with human capital investment during working life through training and provides a novel empirical test of human capital theory. We exploit a sizable pension reform across adjacent cohorts in a regression discontinuity setting and find that an increase in working life increases training. We discuss and test further predictions regarding the relation between initial schooling, training, and the reform effect, showing that only individuals with a college degree increase human capital investment. Our results speak to a large class of human capital models as well as policies extending or shortening working life.
    Keywords: J24 ; J26 ; H21 ; ddc:330 ; human capital ; retirement policies ; RDD
    Repository Name: EconStor: OA server of the German National Library of Economics - Leibniz Information Centre for Economics
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  • 51
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    Bonn: Institute of Labor Economics (IZA)
    Publication Date: 2020-03-25
    Description: We study the relationship between age and influence in a closed group of 1,000 leading economists. We consider, as a measurement of influence, monthly RePEc rankings. We find that the rankings are not related to age but are related to experience. The optimal level of experience is 30 years from Ph.D. graduation. Additionally, we observe no robust difference in the effect of age and experience between Nobel laureates and leading non-Nobelists. Finally, we find that labor economists enjoy an especially steep improvement in the rankings before they reach the peak; however, the rankings also peak relatively early in their careers.
    Keywords: J24 ; ddc:330 ; aging ; citations ; influence ; Nobel ; research productivity
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  • 52
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    Bonn: Institute of Labor Economics (IZA)
    Publication Date: 2020-03-25
    Description: This research establishes the influence of linguistic traits on human behavior. Exploiting variations in the languages spoken by children of migrants with identical ancestral countries of origin, the analysis indicates that the presence of periphrastic future tense, and its association with long-term orientation has a significant positive impact on educational attainment, whereas the presence of sex-based grammatical gender, and its association with gender bias, has a significant adverse impact on female educational attainment.
    Keywords: D91 ; I25 ; J16 ; J24 ; Z10 ; Z13 ; ddc:330 ; human capital ; long-term orientation ; gender bias ; periphrastic future tense ; sex-based grammatical gender ; culture ; language
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  • 53
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    Bonn: Institute of Labor Economics (IZA)
    Publication Date: 2020-03-25
    Description: Paid parental leave schemes have been shown to increase women's employment rates but decrease their wages in case of extended leave durations. In view of these potential trade-offs, many countries are discussing the optimal design of parental leave policies. We analyze the impact of a major parental leave reform on mothers' long-term earnings. The 2007 German parental leave reform replaced a means-tested benefit with a more generous earnings-related benefit that is granted for a shorter period of time. Additionally, a "daddy quota" of two months was introduced. To identify the causal effect of this policy on long-run earnings of mothers, we use a difference-in-difference approach that compares labor market outcomes of mothers who gave birth just before and right after the reform and nets out seasonal effects by including the year before. Using administrative social security data, we confirm previous findings and show that the average duration of employment interruptions increased for high-income mothers. Nevertheless, we find a positive long-run effect on earnings for mothers in this group. This effect cannot be explained by changes in working hours, observed characteristics, changes in employer stability or fertility patterns. Descriptive evidence suggests that the stronger involvement of fathers, incentivized by the "daddy months", could have facilitated mothers' re-entry into the labor market and thereby increased earnings. For mothers with low prior-to-birth earnings, however, we do not find any beneficial labor market effects of this parental leave reform.
    Keywords: H31 ; J13 ; J22 ; J24 ; J31 ; ddc:330 ; parental leave ; wages ; labor supply
    Repository Name: EconStor: OA server of the German National Library of Economics - Leibniz Information Centre for Economics
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  • 54
    Publication Date: 2020-03-25
    Description: Rising inequality in the United States has raised concerns about potentially widening gaps in educational achievement by socio-economic status (SES). Using assessments from LTT-NAEP, Main-NAEP, TIMSS, and PISA that are psychometrically linked over time, we trace trends in achievement for U.S. student cohorts born between 1954 and 2001. Achievement gaps between the top and bottom quartiles of the SES distribution have been large and remarkably constant for a near half century. These unwavering gaps have not been offset by improved achievement levels, which have risen at age 14 but have remained unchanged at age 17 for the past quarter century.
    Keywords: H4 ; I24 ; J24 ; ddc:330 ; student achievement ; inequality ; socio-economic status ; United States ; NAEP ; TIMSS ; PISA
    Repository Name: EconStor: OA server of the German National Library of Economics - Leibniz Information Centre for Economics
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  • 55
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    Bonn: Institute of Labor Economics (IZA)
    Publication Date: 2020-03-25
    Description: While vocational education is meant to provide occupational-specific skills that are directly employable, their returns may be limited in fast-changing economies. Conversely, general education should provide learning skills, but these may have little value at low levels of education. This paper sheds light on this debate by exploiting a recent Spanish reform that postpones students' choice between these two educational pathways from age 14 to 16. To identify exogenous changes in its staggered implementation, we instrument this with the pre-reform across-province variation in the share of students in general education. Results indicate that, by shifting educational investment from vocational to general education after age 16, the reform improves occupational outcomes, and results in a significant rise in monthly wages. The effects are larger after the financial crisis, but are concentrated among middle to high-skilled individuals. In contrast, those who acquire only basic general education have worse long-term employment prospects than vocationally-trained individuals.
    Keywords: I26 ; I28 ; J24 ; ddc:330 ; general versus vocational education ; heterogeneous returns ; financial crisis
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  • 56
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    Nürnberg: Friedrich-Alexander-Universität Erlangen-Nürnberg, Lehrstuhl für Arbeitsmarkt- und Regionalpolitik
    Publication Date: 2020-03-27
    Description: Using representative linked employer-employee data for Germany, this paper analyzes short- and long-run differences in labor market performance of workers joining start-ups instead of incumbent firms. Applying entropy balancing and following individuals over ten years, we find huge and long-lasting drawbacks from entering a start-up in terms of wages, yearly income, and (un)employment. These disadvantages hold for all groups of workers and types of start-ups analyzed. Although our analysis of different subsequent career paths highlights important heterogeneities, it does not reveal any strategy through which workers joining start-ups can catch up with the income of similar workers entering incumbent firms.
    Description: Mit verbundenen Arbeitgeber-Arbeitnehmer-Daten für Deutschland analysiert diese Studie kurz- und langfristige Unterschiede im Arbeitsmarkterfolg von Arbeitnehmern, die in neu gegründete statt bestehende Betriebe eintreten. Wir verwenden Entropy Balancing und folgen den Individuen in der Beobachtungs- und Kontrollgruppe über zehn Jahre. Dabei finden wir große und langanhaltende Nachteile eines Eintritts in Gründungen bezüglich Lohn, Jahresarbeitseinkommen, Beschäftigung und Arbeitslosigkeit. Diese Nachteile treffen auf alle betrachteten Arbeitnehmergruppen und Gründungstypen zu. Obwohl wir bei Betrachtung unterschiedlicher Karrierepfade einige wichtige Heterogenitäten identifizieren, zeigt sich keine Strategie, durch die in Gründungen eingetretene Arbeitnehmer zum Einkommen ähnlicher Arbeitnehmer aufschließen können, die in bestehende Unternehmen eintraten.
    Keywords: J31 ; J63 ; L26 ; M51 ; ddc:330 ; startups ; young firms ; wages ; linked employer-employee data
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  • 57
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    Tübingen: University of Tübingen, Faculty of Economics and Social Sciences
    Publication Date: 2020-03-26
    Description: Executives are often paid for short-term changes in shareholder wealth, but rational shareholders want executives to maximize long-term shareholder wealth. Incentives for short-term and long-term oriented behavior may depend on an executive's level of pay in the distribution, holding other factors constant. This paper tests for distributional heterogeneity of short-term and long-term incentives in a 12 year cross-country panel of executives. I use the band-pass filter to separate short-term and long-term shareholder wealth changes (Christiano and Fitzgerald, 2003), and estimate of the shareholder wealth-pay relation using method of moments-quantile regression, developed by Machado and Santos Silva (2019), which accounts for time-constant unobserved heterogeneity of executive-firm pairs across the distribution. When using yearly total compensation to measure pay, executives in the upper tail of the conditional compensation distribution have longer-term oriented incentives. In contrast, when accumulated executive wealth is used to measure pay, executives in the upper tail of the wealth distribution have shorter-term oriented incentives. Since executive wealth encompasses changes to executive utility after pay is granted through accumulated equity-linked pay, it is the preferred measure for evaluating equity-linked pay. Results thus suggest that equity-linked pay should have a longer vesting period for executives in the upper tail than in the lower tail. I find evidence that executives in the upper-tail are evaluated relatively to the industry's short-run and long-run performance.
    Keywords: J31 ; M12 ; M52 ; ddc:330 ; Executive Compensation ; Method of Moments-Quantile Regression ; Short-Term Performance ; Long-Term Performance ; Distribution ; Benchmarking
    Repository Name: EconStor: OA server of the German National Library of Economics - Leibniz Information Centre for Economics
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