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  • Articles  (160)
  • La Paz: Institute for Advanced Development Studies (INESAD)
  • 1
    Publication Date: 2018-11-19
    Description: Flood risk is increasing in urban areas due to increased population and urban development, a changing climate, coastal subsidence, and deforestation. To reduce people's exposure to floods, many countries have identified the need for Early Warning Systems for Floods (EWSFs). In the United Nations Climate Change COP15, sixteen of the 21 Latin American countries listed the improvement and establishment of early warning systems as a priority need. In this paper, we present a multi-scalar operational research framework that is being used to investigate EWSFs across three countries in Latin America. This novel framework can be applied to institutions or flood-prone communities, providing a standardized and integrative analysis at local and national levels. By analyzing interventions before, during and after flooding events, this generalizable assessment tool provides decision makers with information to evaluate the resource requirements for improving EWSFs.
    Keywords: D63 ; D81 ; I31 ; Q54 ; ddc:330 ; Early warning systems ; flooding ; vulnerability ; risk management ; Latin America
    Repository Name: EconStor: OA server of the German National Library of Economics - Leibniz Information Centre for Economics
    Language: English
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  • 2
    Publication Date: 2018-11-19
    Description: There is conceptually a big difference between inequality of opportunity and inequality of outcomes, and the policies needed to address the two different kinds of inequality are also very different. However, it is difficult to measure inequality of opportunity. This paper proposes a new measure of equality of opportunity, based on the importance of family background variables for nutritional status in early childhood. We applied the proposed methodology to 166 Demographic and Health Surveys, from 60 different countries, carried out between 1991 and 2015. What stands out most strongly from these estimations is the low level of equality of opportunity in Latin America compared to the rest of the world. Family background is much more important for children's nutritional status in this region than in the rest of the world. In contrast, the countries of sub-Saharan Africa were found to have surprisingly high equality of opportunity, suggesting that in this region other factors than family background determine nutritional outcomes. The paper also explores relations between equality of opportunity and key development variables, as well as changes over time.
    Keywords: I14 ; I15 ; ddc:330 ; Equality of opportunity ; early childhood development ; social mobility ; nutritional mobility ; Demographic and Health Surveys
    Repository Name: EconStor: OA server of the German National Library of Economics - Leibniz Information Centre for Economics
    Language: English
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  • 3
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    La Paz: Institute for Advanced Development Studies (INESAD)
    Publication Date: 2018-11-19
    Description: This paper calculates and analyzes key indicators from Bolivia's Green National Accounts during the period 1990 - 2015, which covers an entire Commodity Super Cycle. The first half includes the Great Commodities Depression while the second half of the period is characterized by an unprecedented commodities boom. We show that the contribution of ecosystem goods and services to the Bolivian economy remain relatively stable over the cycle, while the contribution of non-renewable resources increases by a factor of four between the bottom of the cycle (1993) and the top of the cycle (2011). Similarly, the differences between Net Capital Formation and Environmentally-adjusted Net Capital formation is small at the bottom of the Commodity Super Cycle (2.3% of GDP) but much larger at the top of the cycle (7.7% of GDP).
    Keywords: Q56 ; Q01 ; Q32 ; Q51 ; ddc:330 ; Green Accounting ; Natural Resource Rents ; Bolivia
    Repository Name: EconStor: OA server of the German National Library of Economics - Leibniz Information Centre for Economics
    Language: English
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  • 4
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    La Paz: Institute for Advanced Development Studies (INESAD)
    Publication Date: 2018-11-19
    Description: In this study, I use the timing and eligibility criteria of a large-scale conditional cash transfer program in Bolivian public schools to identify the efect of the program on adults' labor supply. I find that adult females increase their labor supply due to the program, mostly through self-employment. To understand these results, I sketch a simple theoretical framework of selection into employment that introduces fixed costs to work and imperfections in capital markets, two main features of the process of development. In this environment, households select into employment only if they are able to self-finance the fixed costs. I derive additional predictions that are empirically tested. First, the positive treatment efects should manifest at the extensive and not the intensive margin. Estimating treatment efects along the cumulative density function of work hours/week, I find that the efects on labor supply come exclusively from the extensive margin. Second, the efects of an income shock should be stronger when capital market frictions are more salient. Using baseline data for the supply of financial services at the municipality level as a third diference, I find that the efects on labor supply are higher for women in more credit-constrained areas. I compare these results with compelling alternative explanations such as in creases in local aggregate demand induced by the program and the relaxation of time constraints for mothers due to the condition component of the program. I find no evidence supporting these two alternative mechanisms. Overall, the results suggest that after considering the role of credit and labor market frictions, the first step in limbing the ladder of development is to cover come the barriers households face in simply starting to work.
    Keywords: D13 ; J46 ; J21 ; J22 ; O12 ; O18 ; ddc:330 ; Labor supply ; poverty traps ; gender ; conditional cash transfers
    Repository Name: EconStor: OA server of the German National Library of Economics - Leibniz Information Centre for Economics
    Language: English
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  • 5
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    La Paz: Institute for Advanced Development Studies (INESAD)
    Publication Date: 2018-11-19
    Description: Average treatment effects estimands can present significant bias under the presence of outliers. Moreover, outliers can be particularly hard to detect, creating bias and inconsistency in the semi-parametric ATE estimads. In this paper, we use Monte Carlo simulations to demonstrate that semi-parametric methods, such as matching, are biased in the presence of outliers. Bad and good leverage points outliers are considered. The bias arises because bad leverage points completely change the distribution of the metrics used to define counterfactuals. Whereas good leverage points increase the chance of breaking the common support condition and distort the balance of the covariates and which may push practitioners to misspecify the propensity score. We provide some clues to diagnose the presence of outliers and propose a reweighting estimator that is robust against outliers based on the Stahel-Donoho multivariate estimator of scale and location. An application of this estimator to LaLonde's (1986) data allows us to explain the Dehejia and Wahba (2002) and Smith and Todd (2005) debate on the inability of matching estimators to deal with the evaluation problem.
    Keywords: C21 ; C14 ; C52 ; C13 ; ddc:330 ; Treatment effects ; Outliers ; Propensity score ; Mahalanobis distance
    Repository Name: EconStor: OA server of the German National Library of Economics - Leibniz Information Centre for Economics
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  • 6
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    La Paz: Institute for Advanced Development Studies (INESAD)
    Publication Date: 2018-11-19
    Description: This paper analyzes Bolivian Global Value Chains (GVC) for 2002, 2005 and 2011, using the Vertical Specialization Index (EV) of Hummels et al. (2001) and the measure of Upstreamness of Antràs y Chor (2011) (cited by Antràs et al., 2012b). Indicators show that trade patterns are represented by a concentration of raw materials, which have also taken advantage from those derived from GVC; while manufacturing sectors have been less important in this dynamic, and they even lost their relevance over time.
    Keywords: C02 ; F01 ; F14 ; ddc:330 ; Global Value Chains ; fragmentation indicators ; Bolivia
    Repository Name: EconStor: OA server of the German National Library of Economics - Leibniz Information Centre for Economics
    Language: Spanish
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  • 7
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    La Paz: Institute for Advanced Development Studies (INESAD)
    Publication Date: 2018-11-19
    Description: La estimación de las cuentas ambientales a nivel subnacional es importante en Bolivia, debido a la heterogénea distribución espacial de los activos ambientales en el territorio nacional, en particular para departamentos de escasa diversificación productiva, donde la extracción de recursos naturales constituye su principal base económica. El presente trabajo se concentra en el departamento de Pando en Bolivia. Aplica la metodología non-survey de regionalización de matrices insumo producto, a una clasificación adecuada de activos y recursos ambientales, para obtener el Producto Interno Bruto (PIB) ambientalmente ajustado del mencionado departamento, cuya desagregación según ingreso permite la estimación cuantitativa del aporte de la naturaleza en la generación del producto e ingreso departamental, medida a través del cálculo de la renta de los recursos naturales. Los resultados de la investigación también confirman la dependencia económica de Pando, respecto de los recursos naturales, al cuantificar su alto grado de apertura hacia mercados externos al departamento, superior al nacional y constituirse en exportador neto de recursos naturales.
    Keywords: Q56 ; R11 ; R15 ; ddc:330 ; Cuentas Ambientales ; Cuentas Regionales ; Matriz Insumo Producto ; Bolivia
    Repository Name: EconStor: OA server of the German National Library of Economics - Leibniz Information Centre for Economics
    Language: Spanish
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  • 8
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    La Paz: Institute for Advanced Development Studies (INESAD)
    Publication Date: 2018-11-19
    Description: Delegating the allocation of public resources to community members is an increasingly popular form of delivering development programs and are associated with a tradeoff between improved information about potential beneficiaries and favoritism towards local elites. Unlike targeting cash transfers to the poor, the optimal targeting of credit is a more complex problem involving issues of productivity, repayment, and market responses: This paper analyzes this problem using a large-scale lending program, the Thai Million Baht Credit Fund, which decentralizes the allocation of loans to an elected group of community members, and provides three main results. First, exploiting a long and detailed panel, I recover pre-program structural estimates of household total factor productivity and find that resources from the program were not allocated to high-productivity, poor households, which is inconsistent with poverty and productive efficiency as targeting criteria. Second, using socioeconomic networks data, I show that actual targeting is strongly driven by connections to village elites and is related to lower program profitability, which suggests favoritism as a reason for mistargeting. Finally, I exploit quasi-experimental variation in the rollout of the program and uncover evidence that, in general equilibrium, informal credit markets compensate for targeting distortions by redirecting credit towards unconnected households, albeit at higher interest rates than those provided by the program. The results highlight the limitations of community-driven approaches to program delivery and the role of markets in attenuating potential targeting errors.
    Keywords: D14 ; G21 ; O12 ; O16 ; O17 ; L14 ; Z13 ; ddc:330 ; credit ; social networks ; misallocation ; targeting
    Repository Name: EconStor: OA server of the German National Library of Economics - Leibniz Information Centre for Economics
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  • 9
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    La Paz: Institute for Advanced Development Studies (INESAD)
    Publication Date: 2018-11-19
    Description: This paper presents an analysis of the decentralization process that has been taking place in Bolivia over the last couple of decades. It starts with a review of the legal framework that determines the distribution of responsibilities and financial resources to the sub-national governments (9 departments and 339 municipalities), and continues with an analysis of the evolution and distribution of financing to these entities between 2001 and 2013. It then proceeds to describe the resulting progress in social indicators between 2001 and 2012 at the municipal level, and identifies the main remaining gaps in basic services by 2012. Finally, the paper offers an analysis of the factors that are most closely associated with progress in the main social indicator used by the Bolivian government - the Unsatisfied Basic Needs index. This provides the basis for a final section on recommendations for public investment in Bolivia.
    Keywords: H70 ; H71 ; I38 ; O54 ; R11 ; R58 ; ddc:330 ; Decentralization ; poverty reduction ; basic needs ; Bolivia
    Repository Name: EconStor: OA server of the German National Library of Economics - Leibniz Information Centre for Economics
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  • 10
    Publication Date: 2018-11-19
    Description: Los países de América Latina y el Caribe estan afectados por eventos climáticos extremos. En República Dominicana, Ecuador y Bolivia existe un incremento en el riesgo a sucesos extremos en general y a inundaciones en particular. El objetivo de este estudio es comparar los Sistemas de Alerta Temprana (SATs) para inundaciones, identificar los problemas, las lecciones aprendidas y a partir de ello hacer recomendaciones. Con este fin , se analizaron los indicadores relacionados a inundaciones y SATs. Desde septiembre de 2014 hasta julio de 2015, se realizaron 32 entrevistas estructuradas a los más destacados actores, de las principales instituciones, a nivel local y nacional. Encontramos que existen sistemas de monitoreo sólidos, y por ello, se ha trabajado en la mayoría de los casos fortaleciendo la parte técnica y de pronósticos para inundaciones. Sin embargo, en los tres países todavía existe una brecha entre el pronóstico técnico y la comunicación/respuesta de la comunidad. La diferencia entre un fenómeno natural y un desastre puede ser un Sistema de Alerta Temprana, que tome como eje central la participación de las comunidades y la coordinación con las autoridades. Es necesario fortalecer los SATs que existen localmente dando a las comunidades herramientas necesarias y coordinando los sistemas locales y nacionales para dar una alerta, reacción y acción oportunas.
    Keywords: Q54 ; Q51 ; Q52 ; ddc:330 ; Sistemas de Alerta Temprana ; inundaciones ; Bolivia ; Ecuador ; República Dominicana
    Repository Name: EconStor: OA server of the German National Library of Economics - Leibniz Information Centre for Economics
    Language: Spanish
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  • 11
    Publication Date: 2018-11-19
    Description: Este documento de investigación estima las emisiones netas de carbono provenientes del cambio en el uso de tierra en Bolivia durante los periodos 1990 - 2000 y 2000 - 2010 utilizando un modelo de contabilidad de carbono que incluye deforestación, degradación de bosques, regeneración de bosques, descomposición y recomposición gradual de carbono, así como la heterogeneidad de los contenidos de carbono sobresuelo y bajo-tierra en una grilla de 10 por 10 km. El enfoque permite elaborar mapas detallados de emisiones netas por región y por tipo de vegetación. Se estima que las emisiones netas de CO2 provenientes del cambio en el uso de tierra en Bolivia incrementaron de 65 millones de toneladas por año durante 1990-2000 a 93 millones de toneladas por año durante la década del 2000-2010, aproximadamente. Se encontró que las emisiones de CO2 per cápita y por unidad de PIB se mantienen estables entre los periodos señalados. Sin embargo, si se considera la evidencia de un incremento de la biomasa en bosques maduros, las emisiones netas de CO2 descienden hasta cerca de cero.
    Keywords: Q23 ; Q24 ; ddc:330 ; Deforestación ; regeneración de bosques ; emisiones de carbono ; modelo de contabilidad de carbono ; Bolivia
    Repository Name: EconStor: OA server of the German National Library of Economics - Leibniz Information Centre for Economics
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  • 12
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    La Paz: Institute for Advanced Development Studies (INESAD)
    Publication Date: 2018-11-19
    Description: This article analyzes the importance of firm characteristics to explain earnings in urban Bolivia. Initially I propose a new simple theoretical model of segmented labor market where, in equilibrium, individual and firm variables jointly determine earnings at the worker level. The key for achieving this equilibrium is that workers have both specific preferences and heterogonous skills provided by years of schooling, which are in turn associated to certain firms. Given the household surveys information, I estimate two alternative earnings functions from this model, one for unsalaried workers, for which there is detailed firm data and one for salaried workers, in which sector, size and formality are used as firm proxies. I find not only that firm characteristics are fundamental determinants of earnings but that regressions that include only individual characteristics present highly overestimated coefficients.
    Keywords: C26 ; J20 ; J24 ; J31 ; ddc:330 ; earnings functions ; labor market segmentation ; firm characteristics ; Bolivia
    Repository Name: EconStor: OA server of the German National Library of Economics - Leibniz Information Centre for Economics
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  • 13
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    La Paz: Institute for Advanced Development Studies (INESAD)
    Publication Date: 2018-11-19
    Description: This paper analyzes the effects of economic growth on labor earnings in Bolivia during 1999-2012. More precisely, we develop a labor market model to capture both cycle and trend effects of prices, and production on earnings, which is estimated econometrically using pseudo-panel data methods. The results show that labor earnings have had a pro-cyclical behavior. In particular, we find that, in the short run, an increase of 1% in prices or production explains an earnings rise of around 0.5%, while, in the long run, a production increase of 1% is associated with an earnings variation of 0.4%. Furthermore, we find that labor earnings growth by sector follows, to some extent, the economic performance of its corresponding sector, which responds to the sector segmentation characteristics in the Bolivian labor market.
    Keywords: E29 ; E32 ; J29 ; J39 ; J42 ; ddc:330 ; Bolivia ; earnings ; wages ; economic growth ; business cycle ; pseudo-panel
    Repository Name: EconStor: OA server of the German National Library of Economics - Leibniz Information Centre for Economics
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  • 14
    Publication Date: 2018-11-19
    Description: This paper describes the construction of a Social Accounting Matrix (SAM) for the Mexican economy for year 2008. It presents the methodology and data sources used, assumptions made, criteria adopted to disaggregate the SAM's accounts and the main results obtained. The Mexico SAM was built as the main data base for the calibration of a Computable General Equilibrium (CGE) Model, used to investigate the quantitative effects of climate change on the Mexican economy, with emphasis on analyzing its distributional impacts. Since the effects of climate change are mainly transmitted to the economy through the agricultural sector and since impacts on agriculture differ across regions, the Mexico SAM presents a significant disaggregation in the accounts referred to the agricultural activities and to income distribution, redistribution and income spending across households and regions. The final disaggregated SAM is quite large and is included in the accompanying spreadsheet file.
    Keywords: E16 ; ddc:330 ; Social Accounting Matrix ; Mexico
    Repository Name: EconStor: OA server of the German National Library of Economics - Leibniz Information Centre for Economics
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  • 15
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    La Paz: Institute for Advanced Development Studies (INESAD)
    Publication Date: 2018-11-19
    Description: ¿Ayuda la existencia de recursos extractivos a la formación de recursos humanos, concretamente a la formación técnica? La evidencia empírica es poco concluyente. Para el caso de Bolivia se muestra que la actividad extractiva sin agregación de valor, no genera demanda por personas calificadas y por tanto no emite señales claras hacia el sistema educativo para formar este tipo de profesionales, aunque existan los recursos para ello. Por otra parte, la conformación del sistema educativo en medio de pugnas de grupos de poder en educación primaria y secundaria, donde el Estado históricamente no pudo asumir el rol de Principal en la formulación y manejo de la política educativa, desembocaron en la situación de descuido de la formación para el trabajo. La desconexión histórica de la política de desarrollo de la política educativa parece ser la principal explicación para la situación actual de la educación técnica en Bolivia.
    Keywords: D71 ; I2 ; Q32 ; ddc:330 ; Formación Técnica ; Capital Humano ; Extractivismo ; Historia Económica ; Desarrollo Económico ; Teoría Principal Agente ; Bolivia
    Repository Name: EconStor: OA server of the German National Library of Economics - Leibniz Information Centre for Economics
    Language: Spanish
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  • 16
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    La Paz: Institute for Advanced Development Studies (INESAD)
    Publication Date: 2018-11-19
    Description: What is the long run impact on development from differences in subsistence strategies during pre-industrial times? Whereas this question has been explored from the point of view of agriculture, remarkably little attention has been paid to the complementary strategy of relying on marine resources. As a step towards closing this gap, we construct an index the Bounty of the Sea index which captures the potential abundance of exploitable marine fish that individual countries have had access to, and proceed to explore its correlation with economic development. Our analysis reveals that a greater Bounty of the Sea stimulated pre-industrial development, and that countries inhabited by people with ancestry in regions with abundant marine resources are richer today. Probing possible underlying reasons, we find that populations with ancestry in regions rich in marine resources differ from societies with a purely agrarian legacy in terms of institutions, cultural values and average personality traits.
    Keywords: O11 ; O13 ; O47 ; O57 ; ddc:330 ; Subsistence strategy ; Fishing ; Economic Development ; Personality ; Culture ; Institutions
    Repository Name: EconStor: OA server of the German National Library of Economics - Leibniz Information Centre for Economics
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  • 17
    Publication Date: 2018-11-19
    Description: We focus on an issue that appears particularly relevant for fragile states and which has received little attention: social institutions related to gender inequality, defined as societal practices and legal norms that frame gender roles and the distribution of power between men and women in the family, market, and social and political life. We show empirically that fragile states perform worse than other non-fragile developing countries when considering these social institutions. We suggest that a special set of indicators reflecting social institutions related to gender inequality in both fragile states and non-fragile states should be considered in the post-MDG agenda.
    Keywords: D63 ; I39 ; J16 ; O1 ; ddc:330 ; Social institutions ; Gender inequality ; Developing countries ; Fragile States ; Millennium Development Goals ; Post 2015 Development Agenda
    Repository Name: EconStor: OA server of the German National Library of Economics - Leibniz Information Centre for Economics
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  • 18
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    La Paz: Institute for Advanced Development Studies (INESAD)
    Publication Date: 2018-11-19
    Description: En la investigación se desarrolla un juego, dentro de la línea de economía experimental, utilizando un esquema de utilidad esperada, que es aplicado a 108 participantes. En particular, se busca evaluar la premisa de que, frente a un escenario de incertidumbre sobre las habilidades de los trabajadores a contratar, los empleadores escogen políticas de flexibilidad laboral a aquellas de protección, y que cuando no existe la opción de contratos flexibles, la creación de empleos se reduce. Los resultados muestran que en el 79,3% de las respuestas válidas la política de flexibilidad es preferible, y que frente a la exclusión de esta opción, algunos de los participantes dejan de ser emprendedores - y generar empleos - para ser trabajadores.
    Keywords: C91 ; D81 ; J08 ; J89 ; ddc:330 ; economía experimental ; aversión al riesgo ; utilidad esperada ; empleo ; protección laboral ; flexibilización laboral
    Repository Name: EconStor: OA server of the German National Library of Economics - Leibniz Information Centre for Economics
    Language: Spanish
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  • 19
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    La Paz: Institute for Advanced Development Studies (INESAD)
    Publication Date: 2018-11-19
    Description: En la agenda pública de la sociedad cochabambina en 2015 se encuentran instalados un conjunto diverso de temáticas y problemáticas, que por transcurrir un periodo electoral son presentadas y/o expuestas a manera de propaganda por representantes políticos - oficialistas y opositores- para mostrar las cosas que se hicieron o las que no se pudieron hacerse durante los últimos años y de qué eventualmente deberían solucionarse. En este contexto, no obstante, existen eterminadas preocupaciones que son -de alguna manera compartidas con la sociedad civil cochabambina, donde destaca la referida a la marcada tendencia de enfriamiento de la economía departamental de Cochabamba respecto a otras economías departamentales, durante la última década; principalmente respecto a economías departamentales que incorporan ámbitos metropolitanos, tal cual ocurre con la economía del departamento de Cochabamba, respecto a las economías de los departamentos de La Paz y Santa Cruz de la Sierra. Sin embargo, debido a que el análisis de la producción en una economía genera sinergias si se lo analiza en forma combinada con la situación laboral -por actuar como indicador natural de la eficacia y eficiencia de las políticas económicas y sociales- es importante iniciar el presente análisis a partir de la constatación de que en el departamento de Cochabamba -y principalmente, en sus ámbitos urbanos- es recurrente durante los últimos años, la presencia de altas tasas de desempleo, pero sobre todo, la persistencia histórica de altos niveles de precariedad laboral, que verifican la existencia de evidentes problemas en el componente laboral de la producción, pero sobre todo la necesidad real de un abordaje conjunto de estas dos categorías analíticas, para efectos de integrarlas en una misma problemática y una eventual solución compartida.
    Keywords: E01 ; J21 ; R10 ; ddc:330 ; Producción ; Empleo ; Cochabamba
    Repository Name: EconStor: OA server of the German National Library of Economics - Leibniz Information Centre for Economics
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  • 20
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    La Paz: Institute for Advanced Development Studies (INESAD)
    Publication Date: 2018-11-19
    Description: El presente trabajo de investigación busca contextualizar la pobreza monetaria en Bolivia y, a partir de aquí, establecer la importancia de la situación laboral de los trabajadores del hogar. Las estimaciones muestran que la pobreza ha disminuido de manera importante entre 1999 y 2012; siendo más significativo -en términos agregados- el efecto crecimiento que el de redistribución. Estos cambios pueden asociarse al mejor desempeño de los ingresos laborales; una vez que éstos representan cerca del 90% de los ingresos totales del hogar. Por último, destaca también un mayor porcentaje de miembros de la familia trabajando en los hogares no-pobres comparativamente con los pobres, y una concentración relativa de los trabajadores pobres en la producción agropecuaria y los no-pobres en los servicios sociales (educación, salud, servicios comunales y otros).
    Keywords: I32 ; J21 ; J31 ; ddc:330 ; Pobreza ; Ingreso laboral ; Ocupación
    Repository Name: EconStor: OA server of the German National Library of Economics - Leibniz Information Centre for Economics
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  • 21
    Publication Date: 2018-11-19
    Description: Las MYPES son una parte importante de la economía nacional, los microempresarios identifican a la falta de capacitación como un factor determinante para mejorar su productividad; sin embargo, cuando se les pregunta qué tipo de capacitación necesitan, no existe consenso sobre sus necesidades. El presente estudio de caso busca mostrar la situación actual de las MYPES con respecto a sus necesidades de capacitación a través de un trabajo con la FEDEMYPE Santa Cruz. Entre las principales razones del porqué no existe consenso entre las necesidades de capacitación está la gran diversidad de las MYPES y el distanciamiento entre la oferta de capacitación brindada por instituciones gubernamentales y no gubernamentales con la demanda de capacitación de las micro y pequeñas empresas. Por otro lado, también se realizó una recapitulación de los tipos de capacitación que se socializó con la FEDEMYPE con el fin de complementar estudio.
    Keywords: J24 ; J49 ; L29 ; ddc:330 ; MYPE ; microempresa ; capacitación ; pequeña empresa ; informalidad ; habilidades ; microempresarios ; emprendedores ; habilidades productivas ; habilidades administrativas ; habilidades gerenciales
    Repository Name: EconStor: OA server of the German National Library of Economics - Leibniz Information Centre for Economics
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  • 22
    Publication Date: 2018-11-19
    Description: This paper describes the construction of the most detailed, openly accessible Social Accounting Matrix (SAM) for Bolivia to date. In addition to allowing for 'standard' socio-economic analysis common for SAMs - like assessing the linkages between production, factor income distribution and households' incomes and expenditures - the SAM presented in this paper makes detailed economic assessments at the subnational level, by gender and at detailed agricultural subsector levels, possible. Sections 1-4 present the methodology and data sources used, explain assumptions and criteria adopted for SAM disaggregation, and discuss key findings with a focus on distributional features. Section 5 presents results from a simple SAM multiplier model and section 6 concludes. It is the authors' hope that this SAM database can make a contribution to evidence-based policy making that helps to further reduce poverty and food insecurity in Bolivia.
    Keywords: E16 ; ddc:330 ; Social Accounting Matrix ; Bolivia
    Repository Name: EconStor: OA server of the German National Library of Economics - Leibniz Information Centre for Economics
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  • 23
    Publication Date: 2018-11-19
    Description: El propósito de este documento es coadyuvar a hacer un uso sostenible del agua en las ciudades de La Paz y el Alto, identificando los puntos donde la economía de estas ciudades ejerce mayor presión sobre este recurso y las necesidades de intervención. Con este fin, hicimos una radiografía actual (2011) de los flujos físicos y monetarios relacionados al agua en estas ciudades y una revisión de fuentes de suministro de la última década. Empleamos la metodología del sistema de cuentas ambientales y económicas para el agua (SCAE-Agua) elaborado por las Naciones Unidas (2012) que permite la contabilización y relación de flujos de agua en términos físicos y monetarios. Los resultados muestran que se pierde en promedio más del 45% de agua en procesos de abducción, tratamiento y distribución. Por otro lado, los residentes de la ciudad de La Paz pagan 40% más por litro de agua desde el año 2007 que los de El Alto, donde se observa una mayor subvención de este recurso y un menor consumo industrial facturado. A pesar de que la principal fuente de agua para estas ciudades es la lluvia, no existen programas coordinados de cosecha de aguas, ni una estrategia de protección de reservorios naturales de este recurso.
    Keywords: Q25 ; Q51 ; ddc:330 ; SCAE ; SCAE-Agua ; Bolivia ; Pérdidas de Agua
    Repository Name: EconStor: OA server of the German National Library of Economics - Leibniz Information Centre for Economics
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  • 24
    Publication Date: 2018-11-19
    Keywords: I14 ; I24 ; I32 ; I38 ; J13 ; J16 ; J71 ; G20 ; G21 ; ddc:330
    Repository Name: EconStor: OA server of the German National Library of Economics - Leibniz Information Centre for Economics
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  • 25
    Publication Date: 2018-11-19
    Description: This paper analyzes gender and ethnic differences in vulnerability and resilience to external shocks and stresses in Mexico. Vulnerability and resilience are measured by a combination of the level of household incomes per capita and the degree of diversification of these incomes. Thus, households which have poorly diversified incomes falling below the national poverty line are classified as highly vulnerable, whereas households which have highly diversified incomes above the poverty line are classified as highly resilient. The analysis shows that both gender and ethnicity are almost irrelevant as explanatory factors of vulnerability whereas education levels, dependency ratios and the age of the head of household are very important. Determining the true factors that affect vulnerability is important in order to devise effective policies to reduce vulnerability.
    Keywords: D13 ; I32 ; O54 ; ddc:330 ; livelihood diversification ; resilience ; vulnerability ; external shocks ; gender ; ethnicity ; Mexico
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  • 26
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    La Paz: Institute for Advanced Development Studies (INESAD)
    Publication Date: 2018-11-19
    Description: We build a theoretical model that incorporates unionization in the labor market into a Heckscher-Ohlin-Samuelson (HOS) framework to investigate the impact of unionization on the Stolper-Samuelson Theorem. To capture the American economy case, we assume that unskilled labor in the manufactured goods sector is unionized, and that sector is intensive in skilled labor, and that trade liberalization increases the relative price of manufactured goods. In the HOS model, trade liberalization induces a reallocation of production towards the sector that uses intensively the country's most abundant factor. The resulting change in relative labor demand impacts wage bargaining in the unionized sector, which, in turn, has a dampening effect on the Stolper-Samuelson effect. Moreover, wages of unionized workers are even less responsive to trade liberalization. Through traditional mandated-wages regressions, we show that skilled-wage differentials changes were less pronounced among more unionized sectors in the U.S. economy for the 1979-1990 period.
    Keywords: F16 ; J31 ; J51 ; ddc:330 ; Stolper-Samuelson Theorem ; wage bargaining ; unionization
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  • 27
    Publication Date: 2018-11-19
    Description: This paper investigates the potential of information technologies to improve public service delivery and empower citizens in the context of two unusual randomized natural experiments occurring within one particular bureaucratic process: the renewal of a national identification card by the Bolivian Police. The first experiment arises from the random assignment of both police officers and applicants to a manual or digital renewal process, which is identical in all aspects except that the digital renewal process makes use of information technologies as part of the renewal process. The second experiment arises by the existence of technical failures within the digital renewal process, which allows police officers to change from the digital to the manual renewal process randomly across renewal day. The efficiency of public service delivery is measured in terms of both renewal success rates (which average to a strikingly low rate of 72 percent in our sample) and time-it-takes to renew an identification card. The causal effect of information technologies on public service delivery is estimated using two different identification strategies. In the first one, applicant-police officer pairs randomly assigned to each one of these two renewal processes are compared after controlling for renewal day fixed effects. In the second one, applicant-police officer pairs randomly assigned to the digital process are compared to those randomly assigned to this same process but who experienced a technical failure within the process, which allows to directly control for unobserved heterogeneity at the police officer level. We find that information technologies significantly improve the quality of public service delivery. Applicants randomly assigned to the digital renewal process are on average 12 percentage points more likely to complete the renewal process as compared to those randomly assigned to the manual one. Further, successful applicants randomly assigned to the digital process take on average 31 percent less time to complete the process as compared to those randomly assigned to the manual one. Lastly, we find that information technologies significantly lower barriers in access to national identification cards by promoting a more equitable provision across the population. We discuss several channels through which technologies might be improving efficiency and promoting equity within this particular bureaucratic process. Overall, our findings suggest that information technologies might be achieving these goals by introducing efficiencies (such as reducing administrative shortcomings and transaction costs), and limiting the exercise of discretion by police officers within the renewal process.
    Keywords: C93 ; O38 ; J24 ; ddc:330
    Repository Name: EconStor: OA server of the German National Library of Economics - Leibniz Information Centre for Economics
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  • 28
    Publication Date: 2018-11-19
    Keywords: A12 ; Q32 ; Z10 ; ddc:330
    Repository Name: EconStor: OA server of the German National Library of Economics - Leibniz Information Centre for Economics
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  • 29
    Publication Date: 2018-11-19
    Description: This paper analyzes gender differences in vulnerability and resilience to shocks, including climate change and climate variability, for Peru, Brazil and Mexico, which together account for more than half the population in Latin America. Vulnerability and resilience indicators are measured by a combination of the level of household incomes per capita and the degree of diversification of these incomes. Thus, households which simultaneously have incomes which are below the national poverty line and which are poorly diversified (Diversification Index below 0.5) are classified as highly vulnerable, whereas households which have highly diversified incomes above the poverty line are classified as highly resilient. The analysis shows that female headed households in all three countries tend to be less vulnerable and more resilient than male headed households, despite the fact that the former usually have lower education levels.
    Keywords: D13 ; I32 ; O54 ; ddc:330 ; livelihood diversification ; resilience ; vulnerability ; external shocks ; Mexico ; Brazil and Peru
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  • 30
    Publication Date: 2018-11-19
    Keywords: D13 ; I32 ; O54 ; ddc:330
    Repository Name: EconStor: OA server of the German National Library of Economics - Leibniz Information Centre for Economics
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  • 31
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    La Paz: Institute for Advanced Development Studies (INESAD)
    Publication Date: 2018-11-19
    Description: A previous analysis of the impact of formal institutions on the knowledge economy of 22 Middle-Eastern and Sub-Sahara African countries during the 1996-2010 time period concluded that formal institutions were necessary, but inadequate, determinants of the knowledge economy. To extend that study, this paper claims that globalization induces peace and stability, which affects governance and through governance the knowledge economy. The claim addresses one weakness of previous research that did not consider the effects on the knowledge economy of globalization. We model the proposition as a three-stage process in four hypotheses, and estimate each hypothesis using robust estimators that are capable of dealing with the usual statistical problems without sacrificing economic relevance and significance. The results indicate that globalization has varying effects on peace and stability, and peace and stability affect governance differently depending on what kind of globalization induces it. For instance, the effects on governance induced by globalization defined as trade are stronger than those resulting from globalization taken to be foreign direct investment. Hence, we conclude that foreign direct investment is not a powerful mechanism for stimulating and sustaining the knowledge economy in our sample of countries. However, since globalization-induced peace and stability have both positive and negative effects on governance simultaneously, we also conclude that while the prospect for knowledge economy in African countries is dim, it is still realistic and attainable as long as these countries continue to engage in the kind of globalization that does indeed induce peace and stability. We further conclude that there is a need for a sharper focus on economic and institutional governance than on general governance as one possible extension of this paper.
    Keywords: I20 ; I28 ; K42 ; O10 ; O55 ; ddc:330 ; Globalisation ; Peace and Stability ; Governance ; Knowledge Economy
    Repository Name: EconStor: OA server of the German National Library of Economics - Leibniz Information Centre for Economics
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  • 32
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    La Paz: Institute for Advanced Development Studies (INESAD)
    Publication Date: 2018-11-19
    Description: Este estudio analiza los desafíos que confronta el sistema educativo boliviano, que son necesarios abordar para que el país pueda reducir las brechas existentes en relación a los demás países de la región, que han alcanzado un mayor desarrollo y bienestar. Bolivia presenta brechas significativas en cuanto al nivel educativo alcanzado por la población, a la cobertura y calidad del sistema educativo, a los recursos que asigna en Estado a la educación, en términos de recursos humanos, físicos y gasto público. También se presentan brechas internas en el acceso a la educación a nivel regional y de género. La bonanza económica que ha disfrutado el país en los últimos años ha aumentado los recursos que se asignan al sector y mejorar algunos indicadores. Sin embargo, el sistema educativo Boliviano todavía presenta retos significativos que debe enfrentarlos en el futuro para que el sistema educativo permita en forma efectiva, mejorar el nivel de vida de la población.
    Keywords: I21 ; I28 ; ddc:330 ; Educación Bolivia ; Bildungswesen ; Bildungsstatistik ; Bildungspolitik ; Entwicklungspolitik ; Armutsbekämpfung ; Bolivien
    Repository Name: EconStor: OA server of the German National Library of Economics - Leibniz Information Centre for Economics
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  • 33
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    La Paz: Institute for Advanced Development Studies (INESAD)
    Publication Date: 2018-11-19
    Description: This paper proposes a simple way to measure livelihood diversification, and uses this measure together with income levels to classify Bolivian households by level of vulnerability. Regression analysis is then carried out to determine the factors and strategies associated with high resilience or high vulnerability. The results show that the single most important strategy for resilience is to have a working and income earning spouse in the household. This is still much too uncommon in Bolivia. A second important factor is the age of the head of household. Young families are considerably more vulnerable than more mature families, as they have not had time to build up assets that can provide alternative sources of livelihood. One of the most surprising results of the study is that urban households are considerably more vulnerable to adverse shocks than rural households, whereas gender and ethnicity are irrelevant. The paper finishes with a comprehensive list of policy recommendations.
    Keywords: D13 ; I32 ; O54 ; ddc:330 ; Livelihood diversification ; resilience ; vulnerability ; external shocks ; Bolivia
    Repository Name: EconStor: OA server of the German National Library of Economics - Leibniz Information Centre for Economics
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  • 34
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    La Paz: Institute for Advanced Development Studies (INESAD)
    Publication Date: 2018-11-19
    Description: This paper employs a recent methodological innovation on intellectual property rights (IPRs) harmonization to project global timelines for common policies against business software piracy. The findings on 99 countries are premised on 15 fundamental characteristics of software piracy based on income-levels (high-income, lower-middle-income, uppermiddle- income and low-income), legal-origins (English common-law, French civil-law, German civil-law and, Scandinavian civil-law) and, regional proximity (South Asia, Europe & Central Asia, East Asia & the Pacific, Middle East & North Africa, Latin America & the Caribbean and, Sub-Saharan Africa). The results broadly show that a feasible horizon for the harmonization of blanket policies ranges from 4 to 10 years.
    Keywords: F42 ; K42 ; O34 ; O38 ; O57 ; ddc:330 ; software piracy ; intellectual property rights ; panel data ; convergence
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  • 35
    Publication Date: 2018-11-19
    Description: The carbon sequestration potential of an unmanaged and previously unstudied Guadua angustifolia bamboo forest in the Carrasco National Park of Bolivia has been studied, by estimating the total aboveground biomass contained in the forest. It was found that the aboveground biomass consisting of stems, branches, and foliage, contains a total of 200 tons per hectare, leading to an estimated 100 tons of carbon being stored per hectare aboveground, which is comparable to some species of tree such as the Chinese Fir; this bamboo species therefore has the potential to play a significant role in the mitigation of climate change. The relation between the biomass, M, of each component (stems, branches, and foliage) and the diameter, d, of the plant was also studied, by fitting allometric equations of the form M = αdβ. It was found that all components fit this power law relation very well (R2 〉 0.7), particularly the stems (R2 〉 0.8) and branches (R2 〉 0.9) for which the relation is found to be almost linear.
    Keywords: Q23 ; Q54 ; ddc:330 ; Climate change ; mitigation ; carbon sequestration ; bamboo ; Bolivia
    Repository Name: EconStor: OA server of the German National Library of Economics - Leibniz Information Centre for Economics
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  • 36
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    La Paz: Institute for Advanced Development Studies (INESAD)
    Publication Date: 2018-11-19
    Description: The following study starts by understanding poverty as a multi-dimensional phenomenom, from which a comparison of poverty measurement between unidimensional and multi-dimensional methods is made. The best way of operating a multiplicity of dimensions is addressed; besides we also take into account the methodological differentiation of spaces by means of a second round of identification of surrounding poverty. The dimensions analyzed are: education, health, life quality, inequality, discrimination and social participation. The results show changes on the bolivian poverty profile against those calculated by only the per capita income, thus, showing a face of poverty that has never been seen or considered before.
    Keywords: I32 ; I39 ; I31 ; D63 ; ddc:330
    Repository Name: EconStor: OA server of the German National Library of Economics - Leibniz Information Centre for Economics
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  • 37
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    La Paz: Institute for Advanced Development Studies (INESAD)
    Publication Date: 2018-11-19
    Keywords: H75 ; ddc:330
    Repository Name: EconStor: OA server of the German National Library of Economics - Leibniz Information Centre for Economics
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  • 38
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    La Paz: Institute for Advanced Development Studies (INESAD)
    Publication Date: 2018-11-19
    Description: This document states the hypothesis that there are some cultural factors that are negatively related to health care utilization. Evidence of maternal health care is used to assess the hypothesis. Two different dependent variables are used, antenatal care and delivery assistance with a health professional. The set of covariates include predisposing factors (individual, household and cultural factors), characteristics of morbidity and characteristics of health system. Using the 2008 Demographic Health Survey (DHS) this document presents estimations of a logit model and average marginal effects. Results show that cultural factors are negatively related to health care utilization, through the estimation of its variables, self identification as native, first language and state. Yet, some individual characteristics as education and mainly wealth present higher significances. Therefore, short run policies should focus on improving wealth for selected groups of excluded women rather than other policies as improving education.
    Keywords: I15 ; I18 ; C25 ; ddc:330 ; maternal health ; antenatal care ; delivery assistance ; models for binary data ; Bolivia
    Repository Name: EconStor: OA server of the German National Library of Economics - Leibniz Information Centre for Economics
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  • 39
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    La Paz: Institute for Advanced Development Studies (INESAD)
    Publication Date: 2018-11-19
    Description: This paper is an attempt to understand the factors behind low contract renewal rates frequently observed in insurance programs in poor countries. This is done on the basis of the experience of a microinsurance health program in India. We show that deficient information about the insurance product and the functioning of the scheme, and poor understanding of the insurance concept are the major causes of the low contract renewal rate among households which had previously enrolled into the program. A central finding is that, when a household has received a large negative payout during the preceding year, it is more inclined to opt out of the program unless it has a good understanding of what insurance means. In other words, the adverse impact of negative insurance payouts on contract renewal is conditional upon the presence of a cognitive bias which violates the expected utility theory. Moreover, trust in the insurance company has a significant positive effect, yet that effect cannot be disentangled from that of understanding ability. The policy implication of our findings is considerable since they provide a strong justification for mandatory universal health insurance.
    Keywords: G21 ; I13 ; O12 ; ddc:330 ; Microfinance ; microinsurance ; insurance literacy
    Repository Name: EconStor: OA server of the German National Library of Economics - Leibniz Information Centre for Economics
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  • 40
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    La Paz: Institute for Advanced Development Studies (INESAD)
    Publication Date: 2018-11-19
    Description: Strong rural-urban linkages are increasingly seen as key to achieving sustainable livelihoods and food security in developing countries. However, not all linkages are positive and, although this is recognised in literature, few explore their potential unfavourable characteristics. Based on twelve weeks fieldwork in Guatemala this paper aims to contribute in four ways. Firstly, it details the extent of rural-urban linkages in the lives of ordinary Guatemalans, the reasons for their existence and the contribution they make to food security. Secondly, it highlights the existence of rural-urban criminal networks that negatively impact livelihoods and food security. Thirdly, it illustrates how poor quality linkages in government administration and service provision render them ineffective in alleviating food insecurity and malnutrition. Finally, by focusing on the case of Coca-Cola, it illustrates how extensive rural-urban networks of processed food and drink companies bring with them economic benefits, but adversely affect food security and nutrition through a number of mechanisms. The paper concludes that in order to better design policies aimed at improving livelihoods, food security and nutrition, the growth of rural-urban linkages in different spheres of private and public life should be analysed for its negative as well as positive contributions.
    Keywords: R23 ; Y40 ; Y91 ; Q15 ; Q18 ; ddc:330 ; Rural-urban linkages ; food security ; malnutrition ; livelihood diversification ; Guatemala ; service provision ; land
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  • 41
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    La Paz: Institute for Advanced Development Studies (INESAD)
    Publication Date: 2018-11-19
    Description: Using Kauffman, Kraay, and Mastruzzi governance indicators, this article analyzes the impact of formal institutions on the knowledge economy- by assessing how the enforcement of Intellectual Property Rights (IPRs) through good governance mechanisms affects the knowledge economy. The article also employs the World Bank's four components of the knowledge economy index characteristic of its knowledge for development (K4D) framework. We estimate panel data models for 22 Middle East & North African and Sub-Sahara African countries over the period 1996-2010. The results show that for this group of countries the enforcement of IPR laws (treaties), although necessary, is not a sufficient condition for a knowledge economy. The results also suggest that other factors are more likely to determine the knowledge economies of these nations. Overall these findings have important implications for both policy and further research.
    Keywords: O10 ; O34 ; O38 ; P00 ; P48 ; ddc:330 ; Formal institutions ; Knowledge economy ; Panel data ; Principal component analysis (PCA)
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  • 42
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    La Paz: Institute for Advanced Development Studies (INESAD)
    Publication Date: 2018-11-19
    Description: This paper uses inter-country panel data obtained during the period 1990-2010 to examine how the occurrence of natural disasters has affected corruption within the public sector. There are a number of new findings from this study. (1) Disaster with the large amount of damage increase corruption not only for developing countries but also for developed countries. (2) The effect of disasters is greater in developed countries than in developing countries. (3) In the developed countries, frequency of occurrence of disaster plays important role on increasing corruption. This suggests that foreseeable disasters increase corruption. In developed countries, people have an incentive to live within disaster-prone areas to seek compensation.
    Keywords: D73 ; D81 ; Q54 ; ddc:330 ; Corruption ; Institution ; Disasters ; Risk
    Repository Name: EconStor: OA server of the German National Library of Economics - Leibniz Information Centre for Economics
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  • 43
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    La Paz: Institute for Advanced Development Studies (INESAD)
    Publication Date: 2018-11-19
    Description: We calibrate a simple neoclassical model of structural transformation to a set of Latin American countries and show that slow growth in agricultural productivity can substantially delay the development process and result in signi cant di erences in per capita incomes. Some of our results indicate that low agricultural productivity delayed the beginning of the industrialization process in Paraguay and Bolivia by about 100 years compared to the leader of the group, Chile. The development pro- cess can be accelerated, however, by increasing productivity in the non-agricultural sector. In fact, in the long run, it is non-agricultural productivity what determines the speed of convergence. Improvements in non-agricultural productivity between 20% to over 100% would be required for the other Latin American countries in our set to signi cantly close the income gap with Chile by the end of the century.
    Keywords: O47 ; O57 ; E13 ; ddc:330 ; Economic Development ; Latin America ; Agriculture Productivity ; Manufacturing Productivity ; Entwicklung ; Produktivität ; Strukturwandel ; Neoklassik ; Lateinamerika
    Repository Name: EconStor: OA server of the German National Library of Economics - Leibniz Information Centre for Economics
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  • 44
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    La Paz: Institute for Advanced Development Studies (INESAD)
    Publication Date: 2018-11-19
    Description: This paper analyzes employment in Bolivian registered manufacturing firms during 1988 to 2007, establishing its relationship with labor regulation. Estimating job flows, we find that firms with high temporary worker rates (less labor regulation costs) are those with both higher job reallocation rates and higher net employment growth, and only they contributed to employment growth during the country economic downturn, 1998-1999. In addition, estimating demand functions, we find the following effects of recent changes in labor norms: i) the compulsory basic salary rise in 2006-2009 entailed costs in terms of job losses, 5.6 percent for production workers and 4.8 percent for non-production workers; iii) the major labor costs derived from the new pension law, enacted in 2010, decreased employment demand around 1 percent; and, iv) labor protection policies decreased production workers demand.
    Keywords: D24 ; J01 ; J23 ; K31 ; ddc:330 ; job flows ; labor demand ; labor regulation ; translog function ; unbalanced panel ; Industrielle Beschäftigung ; Arbeitsmarktpolitik ; Bolivien
    Repository Name: EconStor: OA server of the German National Library of Economics - Leibniz Information Centre for Economics
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  • 45
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    La Paz: Institute for Advanced Development Studies (INESAD)
    Publication Date: 2018-11-19
    Description: Using data on Uruguayan adolescents, we estimate peer effects in risk attitudes. Relative risk aversion is elicited in an experimental setting. Identification is based on parents not being able to choose the class within the school of their choice. After controlling for school-grade fixed effect and addressing endogeneity due to simultaneity, we find a significant and quantitative large impact of peers on individuals risk aversion. An increase in one standard deviation of the group risk aversion produces an increase in 44-64% on an individual risk aversion. These findings enhance the importance of multiplicative effects related to risk behavior.
    Keywords: I12 ; D1 ; ddc:330 ; risk aversion ; peer effects ; instrumental variables
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  • 46
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    La Paz: Institute for Advanced Development Studies (INESAD)
    Publication Date: 2018-11-19
    Description: This study explores the economic consequences of earthquakes. In particular, it is investigated how exposure to earthquakes affects economic growth both across and within countries. The key result of the empirical analysis is that while there are no observable effects at the country level, earthquake exposure significantly decreases 5-year economic growth at the local level. Areas at lower stages of economic development suffer harder in terms of economic growth than richer areas. In addition, the analysis proposes an explanation to the paradox that there is a pronounced negative effect at the regional level while no effect appears at the country level. To this end, the effects of earthquake exposure is investigated not only for the impact zones, but also for areas with an average distance to the epicenter of around 100 km. The results indicate that the decrease in production in one part of a country is (partially) off-set by an increase in production in the surrounding regions.
    Keywords: O11 ; O49 ; R11 ; R12 ; ddc:330 ; Economic growth ; natural disasters ; spatial distribution ; Erdbeben ; Wirtschaftswachstum ; Räumliche Verteilung
    Repository Name: EconStor: OA server of the German National Library of Economics - Leibniz Information Centre for Economics
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  • 47
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    La Paz: Institute for Advanced Development Studies (INESAD)
    Publication Date: 2018-11-19
    Description: This article integrates previously missing components of government quality into the governance-piracy nexus in exploring governance mechanisms by which global obligations for the treatment of IPRs are effectively transmitted from international to the national level in the battle against piracy. It assesses the best governance tools in the fight against piracy and upholding of Intellectual Property Rights (IPRs). The instrumentality of IPR laws (treaties) in tackling piracy through good governance mechanisms is also examined. Findings demonstrate that: (1) while all governance tools under consideration significantly decrease the incidence of piracy, corruption-control is the most effective weapon; (2) but for voice and accountability, political stability and democracy, IPR laws (treaties) are instrumental in tackling piracy through government quality dynamics of rule of law, regulation quality, government effectiveness, corruption-control, and press freedom. Hence, the need for a policy approach most conducive to expanding development is to implement an integrated system of both IPRs and corollary good governance policies. Moreover, our findings support the relevance of good governance measures in developing countries wishing to complement their emerging IPR regimes.
    Keywords: K42 ; O34 ; O38 ; O47 ; O57 ; ddc:330 ; software piracy ; governance tools ; intellectual property rights ; instrumental variables
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  • 48
    Publication Date: 2018-11-19
    Description: Using individual-level data for China,South Korea, and Japan for2006, this research examines how life satisfaction for married males and femalesin East Asian countries isinfluenced bythe age of theirchildren. Our results show that the life satisfaction of males is barely affected by a child of the relationship, whereas the life satisfaction of females with a young child is lower than that of females who do not have a child. This result holds for countries at different development stages. There is also a gender differential regarding the effect of young children on life satisfaction. Furthermore, the more developed the country, the greater this difference becomes.
    Keywords: D19 ; J13 ; J16 ; ddc:330 ; Life satisfaction ; child ; East Asian countries ; Ordered probit
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  • 49
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    La Paz: Institute for Advanced Development Studies (INESAD)
    Publication Date: 2018-11-19
    Description: La investigación analiza el desempeño de las exportaciones en Bolivia a la luz de los empleos que genera, directos e indirectos, con los siguientes resultados destacables: i) la creación de fuentes laborales se ha concentrado en los bienes no tradicionales ya que son intensivos en este factor de producción; ii) el buen desempeño del volumen de ventas al exterior en 1999-2010 posibilitó el incremento de la mano de obra derivada, empero con tasas modestas; iii) Los socios de la Comunidad Andina de Naciones (CAN) ?Colombia, Ecuador y Perú? han sido los más importantes en términos de creación de empleos; mientras que el MERCOSUR, principalmente Brasil, se destaca con la mayor participación en las exportaciones; y iv) la caída de los empleos derivados de las menores exportaciones a Estados Unidos en los últimos años ha sido significativa, aunque parte de esta disminución habría sido compensada con las mayores ventas a Venezuela en el marco de los compromisos con Bolivia.
    Description: This paper analyzes Bolivian exports focusing on their jobs results. We find that: i) employment created by exports is mainly explained by untraditional goods exports, given that they are labor intensive; ii) the high rate of exports growth during 1999-2010 generated more jobs, however, with modest rates of growth; iii) the Andean Community of Nations (CAN) members - Colombia, Ecuador and Peru - have been the most important countries for generating jobs, while MERCOSUR, mainly Brazil, stands out by its corresponding export values; and iv) during the last years, the lower exports to U.S. has had a negative and significant impact on employment, although part of this has been offset by selling more to Venezuela, as part of special commitments.
    Keywords: F01 ; F16 ; J29 ; ddc:330 ; Exportaciones ; Empleo ; Bolivia ; Exports ; Employment ; Bolivia ; Export ; Beschäftigung ; Bolivien
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  • 50
    Publication Date: 2018-11-19
    Description: Bolivia tiene un gran potencial para mitigar el cambio climático a través de la reducción de la deforestación. Mientras que las posibles complicaciones han sido intensamente debatidas, se ha realizado poco análisis cuantitativo al respecto. Introducimos el modelo OSIRIS-Bolivia con el fin de crear una base cuantitativa para la toma de decisiones. OSIRIS-Bolivia es una herramienta en Excel capaz de analizar los efectos de los incentivos REDD en Bolivia. Esta herramienta está basada en un modelo econométrico-espacial de la deforestación en el periodo 2001-2005, y usa información sobre cobertura forestal, tasas de deforestación, condiciones geográficas, y causantes de la deforestación, como los costos de oportunidad agrícolas, para más de 120.000 píxeles en todo el país. Se trata de un modelo de equilibrio parcial, en el sentido que toma en cuenta el hecho de que reducciones en la deforestación en un lugar causarán una reducción en la oferta de productos agrícolas, que a su vez hará subir los precios agrícolas y aumentará la presión para deforestar en otro lugar (fugas de carbono). El modelo nos puede ayudar a resolver preguntas como: ¿Dónde es más probable que funcione REDD? ¿Cuánto dinero necesitamos para reducir la deforestación en cierto porcentaje? ¿Cuáles son los potenciales problemas de REDD?
    Keywords: Q21 ; Q56 ; ddc:330 ; Deforestación ; REDD ; Bolivia ; simulación ; impactos ; Entwaldung ; Umweltbelastung ; Bolivien
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  • 51
    Publication Date: 2018-11-19
    Description: Bolivia has significant potential to abate climate change by reducing deforestation. This opportunity presents economic and environmental tradeoffs. While these tradeoffs have been hotly debated, they have as yet been the subject of little quantitative analysis. We introduce the OSIRIS-Bolivia model to provide a quantitative basis for decision-making. OSIRIS-Bolivia is an Excel-based tool for analyzing the potential effects of incentive payments to reduce emissions from deforestation (REDD) in Bolivia. It is based on a spatial econometric model of deforestation in Bolivia during the period 2001-2005, and uses information on forest cover, deforestation rates, geographical conditions, and drivers of deforestation, including agricultural opportunity costs, for more than 120,000 pixels covering the whole country. OSIRIS-Bolivia is based on a partial equilibrium model in which reductions in deforestation in one region reduce the supply of agricultural products to the domestic market, which in turn causes an increase in the price of agricultural products, making conversion of land to agriculture more attractive and thus stimulating an increase in deforestation in other regions (leakage). The model can help answer questions such as: Where in Bolivia are carbon incentive payments most likely to result in reduced deforestation? Who are most likely to benefit from REDD? How much money will it take to reduce deforestation by a given amount? To what extent might transaction costs or preferences for agricultural income undermine the goals of the REDD program?
    Keywords: Q21 ; Q56 ; ddc:330 ; Deforestation, REDD ; environmental impacts ; socio-economic impacts ; Entwaldung ; Umweltbelastung ; Bolivien
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  • 52
    Publication Date: 2018-11-19
    Description: This paper examines bureaucratic delay within the allocation of small infrastructure projects by sub-municipal governments in Bolivia, and it presents a randomized eld experiment designed to improve public service delivery by promoting voice, transparency, and accountability among grass- roots organizations. The experiment consists of randomly providing sub-municipal governments with a mailing tracking system, which provides public o cials and grassroots organizations real- time information about the processing of small infrastructure projects requests by sub-municipal governments. The objective of this intervention is twofold. First, is to facilitate the involvement of grassroots organizations in the process of reviewing, tracking, and monitoring small infrastructure project allocations. Second, is to explicitly alter the probability of detecting ine cient adminis- trative practices within district councils and, therefore, to implicitly increase the expected cost of engaging in such practices among public o cials. The ndings of this paper suggest that moni- toring tools that promote access to information by citizens might play a critical role in improving public service delivery outcomes. Yet, in settings where mechanisms of local accountability are subject to be captured by local elites or are weak, monitoring tools might have limited capacity to improve outcomes. In such settings, major transparency related reforms might be needed to improve public service delivery outcomes.
    Keywords: D73 ; C93 ; H76 ; ddc:330 ; Bolivia ; transparency ; accountability ; local-level monitoring ; bureaucratic delay ; Kommunale Infrastruktur ; Infrastrukturpolitik ; Bürokratie ; Bürgerbeteiligung ; Bolivien
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  • 53
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    La Paz: Institute for Advanced Development Studies (INESAD)
    Publication Date: 2018-11-19
    Description: We explore empirically models of aggregate fluctuations with two basic ingredients: agents form anticipations about the future based on noisy sources of information and these anticipations affect spending and output in the short run. Our objective is to separate fluctuations due to actual changes in fundamentals (news) from those due to temporary errors in agents' estimates of these fundamentals (noise). We use a simple forward-looking model of consumption to address some methodological issues: structural VARs cannot be used to identify news and noise shocks in the data, but identification is possible via a method of moments or maximum likelihood. Next, we use U.S. data to estimate both our simple model and a richer DSGE model with the same information structure. Our estimates suggest that noise shocks play an important role in short-run consumption fluctuations.
    Keywords: E32 ; C32 ; D83 ; ddc:330 ; Aggregate shocks ; business cycles ; vector autoregression ; invertibility ; Gesamtwirtschaftlicher Konsum ; Gesamtwirtschaftliche Produktion ; Konjunktur ; Unvollkommene Information ; Schock ; VAR-Modell ; Prinzipal-Agent-Theorie ; USA
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  • 54
    Publication Date: 2018-11-19
    Description: El estudio analiza el empleo en las empresas manufactureras registradas bolivianas durante 1988-2007, estableciendo su relación con la regulación laboral a partir de indicadores de flujos y funciones de demanda. Los flujos de empleo muestran que las empresas con altas tasas de trabajadores temporales, comparativamente con aquellos permanentes asalariados, asociadas a menos costos derivados de la regulación, tienen las mayores tasas de reasignación y de crecimiento neto del empleo. Estas firmas fueron las únicas que contribuyeron con la creación de fuentes laborales en la crisis económica (1998- 1999). Las estimaciones de las funciones de demanda muestran que el incremento compulsorio del salario básico durante 2006-2009 y los mayores costos derivados de la nueva ley de pensiones habrían conducido a costos sociales en términos de pérdidas de empleos, siendo mayores para los obreros que para los restantes trabajadores. Además, las políticas de protección laboral también habrían afectado negativamente la demanda por obreros.
    Keywords: D24 ; J01 ; J23 ; K31 ; ddc:330 ; Flujos de Empleo ; Demanda Laboral ; Regulación Laboral ; Bolivia ; Industrielle Beschäftigung ; Arbeitsmarktpolitik ; Bolivien
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  • 55
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    La Paz: Institute for Advanced Development Studies (INESAD)
    Publication Date: 2018-11-19
    Description: Productivity differences can explain differences in economic growth across countries. It has been demonstrated that the presence of a foreign-owned multinational enterprise (MNE) in a developing country is one of the most important methods through which technology transfer occurs. This presence could be in the form of foreign direct investment (FDI), licensing, or imports from the developing country. However, it is still unclear by what means and how effectively each type of foreign presence affects domestic productivity. In this paper, I study licensing as one of the channels through which foreign technology is transferred to domestic plants. This technology transfer can occur in one industry and also in related industries, which results in technology spillovers that can affect both intra- and inter-industry productivity. Moreover, the institutional framework of the country can affect the type of foreign presence adopted by MNEs in the host country. Therefore, it is important to analyze the effect of a change in the institutional framework on technology spillovers. This can be achieved by analyzing a set of new and stronger intellectual property rights (IPR). Using Chilean firm level data for the 2001-2007 period I find that there are positive inter-industry spillover effects when licensing occurs in downstream sectors which result in higher productivity for domestic plants in upstream sectors (backward spillovers). When evaluating the effect of the IPR measure, I find that stronger IPR measures decrease the backward spillover effect. I also find that the change in policy has a stronger effect on firms that are, on average, smaller and have low productivity. Moreover, there is a crowding-out effect between licensing and FDI since, with better IPR, MNEs prefer doing licensing than incurring higher costs of FDI. This is consistent with the literature arguing that licensing becomes the preferred mode of technology transfer, replacing FDI, once a certain threshold of IPR is reached.
    Keywords: F14 ; O54 ; O3 ; ddc:330 ; spillovers ; technology transfer ; intellectual property rights ; Chile
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  • 56
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    La Paz: Institute for Advanced Development Studies (INESAD)
    Publication Date: 2018-11-19
    Description: In this article a process-tracing approach is used to explore how different factors have contributed to the development of healthcare policy in Bolivia, in light of the current proposal to introduce a unified public healthcare system. The main findings are that although international relations and state bureaucrats have been crucial to the process of formulating policies, the introduction of comprehensive reform will depend on the ability of groups who currently lack access to the healthcare system to form progressive coalitions promoting universalism, as well as the ability of those who benefit from the current arrangements to maintain the status quo. The ability to introduce comprehensive reforms is thus connected to the ongoing processes of decentralisation and democratisation of political decision-making in Bolivia. Although state-corporative welfare state institutions have been shown to be difficult to transform, low coverage levels in such systems combined with a process of increasing political inclusion of previously marginalised groups poses serious challenges to the status quo as the social aspect of citizenship is brought up on the agenda. In order to achieve universal coverage of the healthcare system, however, basic social rights of all citizens must be institutionalised at the same time as the scope and quality of services must be secured in order to avoid segmentation and to encourage the financial participation of the formal and middle income sectors.
    Keywords: ddc:330 ; Bolivia ; health care ; social policy ; institutional change ; power resources ; policy diffusion ; Gesundheitsreform ; Bolivien
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  • 57
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    La Paz: Institute for Advanced Development Studies (INESAD)
    Publication Date: 2018-11-19
    Description: This research examines the production of quinoa as an option for improving rural incomes in the Altiplano of Bolivia; due to, on one hand, the grain is aligned perfectly to the customs and traditions of work and family of the habitants of this region, on the other hand, international demand for the product has increased substantially generating good economic opportunities and better prices. Through microsimulation is observed that in the the Southern Highlands households would benefit from the production and marketing of quinoa, and may even significantly increase these revenues (decreasing poverty levels) increasing the productivity of the land or substituting other crops by it. However, in other highland areas the grain production has a modest impact in terms of income and poverty. These differences explain why just the Southern Highlands produces a variety high demand, la quinua real while in other areas the other agricultural activities are relatively more profitable alternatives.
    Keywords: J39 ; Q19 ; I39 ; ddc:330 ; Quinua ; Rural income ; Altiplano ; Bolivia ; Ländliches Einkommen ; Bolivien
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  • 58
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    La Paz: Institute for Advanced Development Studies (INESAD)
    Publication Date: 2018-11-19
    Description: This paper contributes with evidence about the ex – post impact to the program of conditional cash transfer program Bono Juancito Pinto in public schools in Bolivia. In order to correctly identify the potential beneficiaries and avoid problems of endogeneity and selection bias, we evaluate the effect of the announcement of the bonus on enrollment and child labor through a quasi experiment using data from household surveys. By estimating bivariate probit models is that the announcement of this bond, in general, has had no effect in terms of enrollment, with only disaggregated effects for young children. At the same time, there were no significant effects on child labor, both results do not change when replicating the analysis by income quintiles, although there are differences in the case of rural areas. These results close a gap in the literature regarding the evaluation of the Bono and make possible discussions in pursuit of better targeting.
    Keywords: I21 ; I38 ; J13 ; J22 ; ddc:330 ; Conditional transfers ; Child Labour ; Economics of Education
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  • 59
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    La Paz: Institute for Advanced Development Studies (INESAD)
    Publication Date: 2018-11-19
    Description: Literature on convergence among Latin American countries is still scarce compared to other regions. Almost none of the research connects convergence to the economic history of Latin America and the usual finding is one speed of convergence assuming one globally stable steady-state. In this paper I analyze 32 countries and 108 years, more observations than any other study, which allows me to use chronological events to explain, analyze and validate the historical convergence clubs in Latin America, assuming multiple steady-states. The chronological time-line is divided into three important known phases, from which I find two to three convergence clubs. Following Thorp (1998), the first phase, called the exporting phase goes from 1900 to 1930, the second, the industrialization phase from 1931 to 1974, and the last one, the globalization phase from 1975 to 2007. During the last two phases, I find strong evidence of convergence among those clubs that succeeded in industrializing and / or building good institutions. The reason may be that technology diffusion and capital accumulation is easier when these two phenomena occur. Furthermore, I find no evidence that geographical aspects nor integration processes helped countries to converge.