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  • 1
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    Amsterdam: Elsevier | ZBW – Leibniz Information Centre for Economics Kiel, Hamburg
    Publication Date: 2019-10-29
    Description: We document an asymmetry in the rigidity of 9-ending prices relative to non-9-ending prices. Consumers have difficulty noticing higher prices if they are 9-ending, or noticing price-increases if the new prices are 9-ending, because 9-endings are used as a signal for low prices. Price setters respond strategically to the consumer-heuristic by setting 9-ending prices more often after price-increases than after price-decreases. 9-ending prices, therefore, remain 9-ending more often after price-increases than after price-decreases, leading to asymmetric rigidity: 9-ending prices are more rigid upward than downward. These findings hold for both transaction-prices and regular-prices, and for both inflation and no-inflation periods.
    Keywords: L16 ; C91 ; E31 ; C93 ; D80 ; M31 ; ddc:330 ; Asymmetric Price Adjustment ; Sticky/Rigid Prices ; 9-Ending Prices ; Psychological Prices ; Price Points ; Regular/Sale Prices
    Repository Name: EconStor: OA server of the German National Library of Economics - Leibniz Information Centre for Economics
    Language: English
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  • 2
    Publication Date: 2019-03-07
    Description: This study contributes to the understanding of long- and short-term determinants of cooperation among water users. We experimentally investigate the potential of water users’ self-governance in enhancing their contributions to a common pool as opposed to external regulation. Our focus is on the irrigated areas of Kazakhstan and Uzbekistan. Due to their Soviet past, these countries have a reputation for low bottom-up cooperation potential. Based on the different pre-Soviet irrigation traditions of the two study sites, we assess the effectiveness of short-term incentives compared to long term cultural factors of cooperation. History might matter, but we find it does not predetermine the success of current water decentralization in ancient as compared to relatively recently established irrigation sites. Our study reveals that external regulation, in fact, decreases farmers’ cooperation, whereas face-to-face communication increases it. This finding calls into question the top-down approach prevalent in current water policies of the region. Moreover, it suggests the viability of endogenous cooperation and hence encourages the implementation of truly self-governed water management policies in Central Asia. However, the substantial heterogeneity in individual contributions apparent at the village level also signals a warning that one-size-fits-all approaches to local cooperation are unlikely to succeed.
    Keywords: ddc:330 ; Water-management ; Self-governance ; Field experiment ; Cultural determinants ; Central Asia
    Repository Name: EconStor: OA server of the German National Library of Economics - Leibniz Information Centre for Economics
    Language: English
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  • 3
    Publication Date: 2019-07-04
    Description: Two transition pathways towards a 100% renewable energy (RE) power sector by 2050 are simulated for Europe using the LUT Energy System Transition model. The first is a Regions scenario, whereby regions are modelled independently, and the second is an Area scenario, which has transmission interconnections between regions. Modelling is performed in hourly resolution for 5-year time intervals, from 2015 to 2050, and considers current capacities and ages of power plants, as well as projected increases in future electricity demands. Results of the optimisation suggest that the levelised cost of electricity could fall from the current 69 €/MWh to 56 €/MWh in the Regions scenario and 51 €/MWh in the Area scenario through the adoption of low cost, flexible RE generation and energy storage. Further savings can result from increasing transmission interconnections by a factor of approximately four. This suggests that there is merit in further development of a European Energy Union, one that provides clear governance at a European level, but allows for development that is appropriate for regional contexts. This is the essence of a SuperSmart approach. A 100% RE energy system for Europe is economically competitive, technologically feasible, and consistent with targets of the Paris Agreement.
    Keywords: ddc:330 ; Energy transition ; Storage technologies ; Europe ; 100% Renewable energy ; Energy policy
    Repository Name: EconStor: OA server of the German National Library of Economics - Leibniz Information Centre for Economics
    Language: English
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  • 4
    Publication Date: 2019-07-06
    Description: We investigate how often replication studies are published in empirical economics and what types of journal articles are replicated. We find that between 1974 and 2014 0.1% of publications in the top 50 economics journals were replication studies. We consider the results of published formal replication studies (whether they are negating or reinforcing) and their extent: Narrow replication studies are typically devoted to mere replication of prior work, while scientific replication studies provide a broader analysis. We find evidence that higher-impact articles and articles by authors from leading institutions are more likely to be replicated, whereas the replication probability is lower for articles that appeared in top 5 economics journals. Our analysis also suggests that mandatory data disclosure policies may have a positive effect on the incidence of replication.
    Keywords: A1 ; B4 ; C12 ; C13 ; ddc:330 ; Replication ; Economics of science ; Science policy ; Economic methodology
    Repository Name: EconStor: OA server of the German National Library of Economics - Leibniz Information Centre for Economics
    Language: English
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  • 5
    Publication Date: 2019-07-13
    Description: The European Union has set out to reduce the carbon intensity of its electricity generation substantially, as defined in the European Roadmap 2050. This paper analyses the impact of foresight towards decarbonization targets on the investment decisions in the European electricity sector using a specific model developed by the authors called dynELMOD. Incorporating the climate targets makes the investment into any additional fossil capacity uneconomic from 2025 onwards, resulting in a coal and natural gas phase-out in the 2040s. Limited foresight thus results in stranded investments of fossil capacities in the 2020s. Using a CO2 budgetary approach, on the other hand, leads to an even sharper emission reduction in the early periods before 2030, reducing overall costs. We also find that renewables carry the major burden of decarbonization; nuclear power (3rd or 4th generation) is unable to compete with other fuels and will, therefore, be phased out over time.
    Keywords: ddc:330 ; Decarbonization ; European electricity market ; Nuclear phase-out ; Limited foresight ; Dynamic investment models ; Electricity sector models
    Repository Name: EconStor: OA server of the German National Library of Economics - Leibniz Information Centre for Economics
    Language: English
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  • 6
    Publication Date: 2019-07-13
    Description: During the last two decades, it has been well established that a short-term exposure to ozone (O3) elicits an oxidative stress response in human and mouse skin, which leads to aberrant transcriptional expression of genes consistent with increased skin aging. Whether a long-term exposure to ambient O3 is associated with any skin aging traits, has remained unclear. We addressed this question in two elderly German cohorts: the SALIA study (806 women aged 66–79 years), and the BASE-II study (1207 men and women aged 60–84 years). Five-year mean residential exposure to O3 was modeled as the number of days with maximum daily 8-h mean O3 concentrations ≥120 μg/m3 per year in the wider neighborhood (5-digit postcode) of a participant's residence. Extrinsic (environmentally induced) skin aging traits – coarse wrinkles and pigment spots (lentigines) on the face – were assessed by means of SCINEXA™, a validated visual score previously shown to be well suited to measure extrinsic facial skin aging in cohort studies. We observed positive associations of O3 exceedances with coarse wrinkles in the face, but not with pigment spots. These associations were present in each cohort as well as in the combined sample of both cohorts. They were independent of chronic ultraviolet radiation exposure as the most obvious confounder, and also of co-pollutants such as particulate matter and nitrogen dioxide. Thus, long-term exposure to elevated concentrations of tropospheric O3 appears to contribute to skin aging.
    Keywords: ddc:330 ; Tropospheric ozone ; Air pollution ; Skin aging ; Skin wrinkling
    Repository Name: EconStor: OA server of the German National Library of Economics - Leibniz Information Centre for Economics
    Language: English
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  • 7
    Publication Date: 2019-08-10
    Description: Although electricity supply is still dominated by fossil fuels, it is expected that renewable sources will have a much larger contribution in the future due to the need to mitigate climate change. Therefore, this paper presents a new framework for developing Future Electricity Scenarios (FuturES) with high penetration of renewables. A multi-period linear programming model has been created for power-system expansion planning. This has been coupled with an economic dispatch model, PowerGAMA, to evaluate the technical and economic feasibility of the developed scenarios while matching supply and demand. Application of FuturES is demonstrated through the case of Chile which has ambitious plans to supply electricity using only renewable sources. Four cost-optimal scenarios have been developed for the year 2050 using FuturES: two Business as usual (BAU) and two Renewable electricity (RE) scenarios. The BAU scenarios are unconstrained in terms of the technology type and can include all 11 options considered. The RE scenarios aim to have only renewables in the mix, including storage. The results show that both BAU scenarios have a levelised cost of electricity (LCOE) lower than, or equal to, today’s costs ($72.7–77.3 vs $77.6/MWh) and include 81–90% of renewables. The RE scenarios are slightly more expensive than today’s costs ($81–87/MWh). The cumulative investment for the BAU scenarios is $123-$145 bn, compared to $147-$157 bn for the RE. The annual investment across the scenarios is estimated at $4.0 ± 0.4 bn. Both RE scenarios show sufficient flexibility in matching supply and demand, despite solar photovoltaics and wind power contributing around half of the total supply. Therefore, the FuturES framework is a powerful tool for aiding the design of cost-efficient power systems with high penetration of renewables.
    Keywords: ddc:330 ; Climate change ; Energy planning ; Energy storage ; Levelised cost ; Renewable energy ; System optimisation
    Repository Name: EconStor: OA server of the German National Library of Economics - Leibniz Information Centre for Economics
    Language: English
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  • 8
    Publication Date: 2019-08-21
    Description: This paper proposes a process-oriented life course perspective on intergenerational mobility by comparing the early socioeconomic trajectories of siblings to those of unrelated persons. Based on rich Finnish register data (N = 21,744), the findings show that social origin affects not only final outcomes at given points in the life course but also longitudinal socioeconomic trajectories from ages 17–35 in early adulthood. We contribute to previous literature in three ways. First, we show that there is a pronounced similarity in the early socioeconomic trajectories of siblings. This similarity is stronger for same-sex siblings and stronger for brothers than for sisters. Second, we show that sibling similarity in full trajectories cannot be reduced to similarity in outcomes, i.e., siblings are not only more similar in the final outcomes that they obtain but also in the pathways that lead them to these outcomes. Third, our findings support that sibling similarity follows a U-shaped pattern by social class, i.e., similarity is especially strong in disadvantaged trajectories, weak among middle-class young adults, and increases again within the most advantaged trajectories. We conclude that measures of social mobility that concentrate on final outcomes are at risk of underestimating the association between social origin and destination because social inequalities are formed across the life course, not just at the end of specific life phases.
    Keywords: ddc:330 ; social mobility ; sequence analysis ; intergenerational inequality ; socioeconomic status
    Repository Name: EconStor: OA server of the German National Library of Economics - Leibniz Information Centre for Economics
    Language: English
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  • 9
    Publication Date: 2019-08-28
    Description: We use PIAAC data on the literacy and numeracy skills of 49,366 25-to-54-year-olds in 27 countries to shed new light on cross-national variation in the labor market disadvantage of less-educated adults (i.e., those who have not completed upper secondary education). Our empirical analysis focuses on the occupational status gap between less-educated adults and those with a degree at the upper secondary level and yields three main findings. First, individual-level differences in literacy and numeracy skills are an important source of cross-national variation in labor market inequalities by educational attainment, but substantial gaps in occupational status remain even after accounting for individuals' actual skills and further socio-demographics. Second, this remaining occupational status gap rises with a country's level of “skills transparency” (i.e., the extent to which formal qualifications are more informative about actual skills): labor market gaps increase as the skills gap between the two educational groups increases and as the within-group distribution of skills becomes more homogeneous. Third, country differences in skills transparency seem to be the primary mediating channel for the inequality-enhancing effect of tracking in secondary education found in previous research.
    Keywords: ddc:330 ; education ; inequality ; social stratification ; international comparison ; skills ; PIAAC
    Repository Name: EconStor: OA server of the German National Library of Economics - Leibniz Information Centre for Economics
    Language: English
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  • 10
    Publication Date: 2019-09-06
    Description: This study presents a set of novel and multidisciplinary scenarios (‘narratives’) that provide insight into four distinct and diverging yet plausible worlds. They combine qualitative and quantitative elements in order to reflect the interlinked and complex nature of energy and climate. We use the STEMPLE+ framework to include social, technological, economic, military (security), political, environmental, and cultural (+) dimensions in our narratives. We present the construction of the narratives, which started with the generation of qualitative scenario storylines using foresight analysis techniques, including a facilitated expert workshop. We then calibrated the numerical energy and resource market model Multimod to reflect the different storylines. Finally, we combined and refined the storylines and numerical model results into holistic narratives. The study generates insights into the key assumptions and drivers of different pathways of (more or less successful) climate change mitigation. Moreover, a set of transparent and discriminatory indicators serves to identify which paths the world might take. They include quantitative results, e.g. emissions, energy consumption and electricity mix, as well as developments in the political or social sphere. Lessons learnt include the dangers of increased isolationism and the importance of integrating economic and energy-related objectives, as well as the significant role of civil society. However, we also show that the development of renewables and electrification are inappropriate indicators for a successful energy transition, as these trends are also consistent with emission-intensive scenarios.
    Keywords: ddc:330 ; Energy and climate ; Scenarios ; Foresight ; Equilibrium model ; Geopolitics
    Repository Name: EconStor: OA server of the German National Library of Economics - Leibniz Information Centre for Economics
    Language: English
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  • 11
    Publication Date: 2019-11-03
    Description: This research focuses on the discussion regarding antecedent variable of transformational leadership with its effect to work performance of the middle-level leaders at the organization of Pelabuhan Indonesia III Inc. The samples used in this study are 30 respondents as 75% of the population. The technique used to collect the data from the respondents is questionnaires to minimize any interpretation differences between respondents and the researcher. Further, analysis model used is structural equation model (SEM) with the basis of theory and concept, from the package of Partial Least Square (PLS) program so that the results are accurate. This study found that transformational leadership has direct significant effect on job satisfaction and organizational commitment. However transformational leadership cannot give significant impact to work performance when it is intervened by the organizational commitment as well as it cannot give direct impact on work performance.
    Keywords: ddc:650 ; Transformational leadership ; Employee relation ; Organizational commitment ; Work performance
    Repository Name: EconStor: OA server of the German National Library of Economics - Leibniz Information Centre for Economics
    Language: English
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  • 12
    Publication Date: 2019-11-03
    Description: Mobile applications (MA) and social media (SM) platforms are changing Internet user behavior. This study aims to unveil within current academic literature, the fields where usability research has been focusing their efforts in the dimensions institutional websites (IW), SM and MA usability, and to suggest possible paths for future studies. Search was performed in peer-review journals, providing 302 published articles between 1994 and 2018. To examine the manuscripts, text mining (TM) was adopted to discover pertinent terms, and to reveal trends, gaps and opportunities for future research. Results show a gap on marketing and nutrition research fields and an increasing interest in the usability principles of SM technology in general. Moreover, many articles are associated with the health and medical area, suggesting a more mature development of these fields.
    Keywords: ddc:650 ; Institutional website ; Mobile application ; Social media ; Usability
    Repository Name: EconStor: OA server of the German National Library of Economics - Leibniz Information Centre for Economics
    Language: English
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  • 13
    Publication Date: 2019-11-03
    Description: Agency problem between shareholders and creditors can be reduced by two mechanisms namely reputation-building and debt covenant. Prior studies document supporting evidence for both hypotheses with a positive relationship between creditor rights and dividend policy. However, they fail to test reputation-building mechanism and debt covenant mechanism separately. This paper finds that credit information and legal rules supporting moveable assets are promising variables to fill this gap since the two mechanisms provide opposite effects of credit information and legal rules on dividend policy. With a sample of 37,673 observations collected across 39 countries over the period from 2013 to 2015 we find supporting evidence for debt covenant hypothesis and creditor information has a complementary effect on legal rules in determining corporate dividend policy.
    Keywords: ddc:650 ; Creditors ; Dividend policy ; Reputation building ; Debt covenant
    Repository Name: EconStor: OA server of the German National Library of Economics - Leibniz Information Centre for Economics
    Language: English
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  • 14
    Publication Date: 2019-11-03
    Description: This study analyses the relationship between identification and loyalty and also compares the perceptions of two groups of key stakeholders (professors and graduates) of a public institution of higher education, as mechanisms to gain competitiveness against private institutions. To carry out this research, an on-line survey was conducted and the results were analyzed through a system of structural equations using the partial least squares technique (PLS-SEM). The results reveal that identification influences loyalty, and that there are also significant differences in the perception between professors and graduates, being the relationship between identification and loyalty more intense in the former group than the latter. Several significant implications can be derived from our research for the management of higher education institutions.
    Keywords: ddc:650 ; Identification ; Loyalty ; Higher education
    Repository Name: EconStor: OA server of the German National Library of Economics - Leibniz Information Centre for Economics
    Language: English
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  • 15
    Publication Date: 2019-11-03
    Description: Cyborg technologies have left science fiction to become an emerging market. Cyborgs are defined as people who integrate technical elements in their bodies to improve their capacities over innate ones. Taking into consideration the human revolution that this technology can provoke, a cultural approach should be considered in any cyborg market strategy. Our research analyses how ethical awareness, innovativeness perceptions and perceived risk influence the decision to become a cyborg, analysing whether cultures as different as those of Japan and Spain show different results. We focus our study on young higher-education students, collecting a sample of 300 surveys in Japan and 286 in Spain. The findings are surprising. Ethics is the most influential variable on the intention to use this technology. The different cultural aspects concerned with body modification in Japan and Spain constitute a key concern when implanting cyborg technology. Nevertheless, we did not find statistically significant differences in the acceptance of cyborg technology between these two countries.
    Keywords: ddc:650 ; Cyborg ; Ethics ; Innovation ; Technological acceptance
    Repository Name: EconStor: OA server of the German National Library of Economics - Leibniz Information Centre for Economics
    Language: English
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  • 16
    Publication Date: 2019-11-03
    Description: This study aims to review the field of Entrepreneurship Education (EE). The review examines 325 scientific articles published in refereed scientific journals from 1987 to 2017. The SciMat software was used to conduct an analysis of performance indicators and science mapping visualizations. The performance analysis results identified some of the field's most active and influential articles, journals, and authors. The science mapping visualization of co-word analysis results revealed EE research evolution. In general, we found that EE research has evolved from EE as part of an economic development strategy to the EE academic perspective. Furthermore, research themes showed that students, rather than teachers, have become the main agents of the educational process. The results of this bibliometric analysis enhance understanding of the evolution of EE research with a global overview of the relevant literature and its authors.
    Keywords: ddc:650 ; Entrepreneurship education ; Entrepreneurial intention ; Entrepreneurial learning ; Bibliometrics ; SciMat
    Repository Name: EconStor: OA server of the German National Library of Economics - Leibniz Information Centre for Economics
    Language: English
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  • 17
    Publication Date: 2019-11-03
    Description: The macroeconomic context is an extremely important factor for the growth and development of companies, and for the hotel sector, being expected that the performance of hotel companies should be strongly dependent on the conditions and the macroeconomic environment where they are inserted. Using a panel data methodology, this research analyzed the growth of hotel companies, the size of hotel companies, total number of guests in the sector, total revenues, and total income of the sector, with the corporate indebtedness variable, given by total liabilities/total assets ratio. It is concluded that 91.5% of the average variation in the corporate indebtedness is determined by the remaining variables of the study, with the remaining 8.5% variation explained by other factors not specified. It is also concluded that there is no statistically significant difference between the values of the corporate size variable throughout the study, existing a negative relation between this variable and the variables corporate size, number of guests, and tourism revenue, and a positive relation with the variables corporate growth rate and total income of the hospitality industry. This research provides a great contribution and enrichment of existing literature because with a detailed knowledge concerning these topics, managers’ can base their decision making on these cause and effect relationships, looking for the best decisions that will provide the highest profitability.
    Keywords: ddc:650 ; Tourism ; Financial sustainability ; Hospitality industry
    Repository Name: EconStor: OA server of the German National Library of Economics - Leibniz Information Centre for Economics
    Language: English
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  • 18
    Publication Date: 2019-11-03
    Description: One of the most effective solutions to sustain an organization in competitive environments is the strategy of continuous improvement. Consequently, the proposed strategy needs a continuous performance evaluation measurements. A solution to evaluate service quality measurements is to rank the service providers. The ranking procedure in similar complex problems or selection problems can be efficiently implemented with the support of multiple attribute decision making (MADM) methods. This study aims at developing a comprehensive decision support system (DSS) based on multiple MADM methods along with an extended quality of service evaluation model to assess the service quality of certain cultural centers. The suggested service quality measurement model in this study is recognized as a valid and reliable tool based on statistical modeling and validation methods. Moreover, the suggested DSS model has been developed based on integration of target-based F-MULTIMOORA and Fuzzy Axiomatic Design (FAD) methods combined with the best-worst method (BWM). Accordingly, a case study was investigated regarding the assessment of seven art galleries in Tehran, Iran. Ultimately, an extensive managerial investigation of the DSS model has been presented based on the real-world examples to show the practicality of the propositions of the current study.
    Keywords: ddc:650 ; Service quality ; Art galleries ; Decision support system (DSS) ; Fuzzy Axiomatic Design (FAD) ; F-MULTIMOORA ; Best-worst method (BWM) ; Target-based attributes
    Repository Name: EconStor: OA server of the German National Library of Economics - Leibniz Information Centre for Economics
    Language: English
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  • 19
    Publication Date: 2019-11-02
    Description: This study aims to assess the role of a natural environment and its effects on the following components of attitudes: cognitive image, affective response, and behavioral intentions. Using a survey conducted among 292 mall visitors, this study also examines how the perception of the atmosphere in a mall can indirectly affect behavioral intentions. The findings confirm that the components of cognitive image, namely, appealingly design features, may positively influence affective responses at malls. Affective response also positively impacts the behavioral intention of a mall visitor. Affective response features were found to be more powerful than the cognitive image and natural atmosphere attributes to affect the behavioral intentions of visitors through a multiple measurement analysis. In addition, different theoretical and practical implications are discussed.
    Keywords: M3 ; M20 ; ddc:650 ; Natural atmosphere ; Cognitive image ; Affective response ; Behavioural intentions ; Shopping malls ; Multiple measurement analysis
    Repository Name: EconStor: OA server of the German National Library of Economics - Leibniz Information Centre for Economics
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  • 20
    Publication Date: 2019-11-02
    Description: The current study investigates the effects of employee empowerment (EE) and work environment on Employee-Perceived Service Quality (EPSQ) and investigate the role of supportive leadership behavior (SLB) as a moderator. Particularly, the study addressed the mediating effect of job satisfaction (JS) on the relationship between (EE), work environment with (EPSQ). A survey distributed on a sample of 208 frontline employees working in the five-star hotels in Jordan. A statistical analysis was conducted using structural equation modelling with Smart-Partial Least Squares (PLS). The results reveal that (EE), work environment, and (JS) significantly impact on Employee-Perceived Service Quality. Also, results reveal that (JS) has a mediator role in this relationship. Quite surprisingly, we found no significant direct relationships between supportive leadership and (EPSQ) as a moderator. The practical and research implications of these findings are discussed as well as the justification of the rejected hypothesis.
    Keywords: M1 ; C12 ; O15 ; ddc:650 ; Empowerment ; Job satisfaction ; Leadership support behavior ; Employee-Perceived Service Quality
    Repository Name: EconStor: OA server of the German National Library of Economics - Leibniz Information Centre for Economics
    Language: English
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  • 21
    Publication Date: 2019-11-02
    Description: Since the economic crisis of 2008 were growth in health spending has reached unsustainable levels many countries have reduced public spending on health but it is now rising again in Italy (OECD, 2017). This study proposes a new way to use the official indicators for healthcare monitoring in order to assesses the impact by the reform of the Italian National Health Service on the equity access to health care service. A preliminary analysis was performed in order to evaluate geographical hospital resource allocation taking into account both the amount of resources and the intensity of care needed. A second analysis, performed using a two-stage least squares (2SLS) regression model, was addressed to explain geographic lifespan differences between Italian regions. In conclusion, this study attempts to provide an alternative reading to “sector studies”, to highlight more clearly the extent of the “healthcare mobility” phenomenon and the role of the supply structure as a driver of this phenomenon.
    Keywords: M11 ; ddc:650 ; Health resource
    Repository Name: EconStor: OA server of the German National Library of Economics - Leibniz Information Centre for Economics
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  • 22
    Publication Date: 2019-11-02
    Description: In the 21st century, the growth of each country's economy is now mostly influenced by the assets based on physical or non-physical grounds. These invisible assets are, as explained by various studies, supporting that they are one of the most important driving forces in the country's economy to accelerate growth. However, there is still a need for a more detailed research regarding the emergence and the impetus of this subject. This study aims to measure the effect of the intentional invisible asset on the growth of a country's economy. The correlation between the growth rates of 38 countries between 2008 and 2017 and the Top 500 brand values was analyzed for short and long-term by using the ARDL co-integration analysis. The effect of investing in national brands and increasing brand values of the country was observed to be negative in the short-term, but positive on the long-term with regards to the country's economic growth.
    Keywords: ddc:650 ; Economic growth ; Intangible assets ; Brand value ; International business
    Repository Name: EconStor: OA server of the German National Library of Economics - Leibniz Information Centre for Economics
    Language: English
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  • 23
    Publication Date: 2019-11-02
    Description: The density and typology of existing social services in a given country are dependent on a set of factors including the social model, cultural, social and legal traditions, the general regulatory framework and those specific to the labour market, protection and social assistance, demo-economic structures of the population, the general level of income and the proportions of the incomes of various economic and social categories, the strategic priorities and the financial resources available to the central and local authorities, the propensity of private operators and non-governmental organizations for involvement in the sphere of social services, the levers that society uses to increase this propensity, etc. An important element in the decision to start a business in a certain area taken by the categories of entrepreneurs in situations of vulnerability or with family members in such situations, the social services experience an uneven territorial distribution in Romania. The analyses performed in Romania, based on 2016 data, reveal the existence of important differences in the typology and density of the social services both by residential area (urban, rural) and the region of development, in correlation with the level of development of the county/region and the wealth of the population.
    Keywords: H55 ; I30 ; L26 ; ddc:650 ; Local entrepreneurship ; Social services ; Vulnerable groups
    Repository Name: EconStor: OA server of the German National Library of Economics - Leibniz Information Centre for Economics
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  • 24
    Publication Date: 2019-11-02
    Description: This study uses the Markov chain and agency theory to demonstrate a link between a salesperson's perceived attributes with customer retention and both optimal effort and commission, using a relational perspective. The purpose is to show sales managers that, with a customer survey, they can use perceived sales force attributes to monitor and motivate employees during relationship marketing. This paper also demonstrates that optimal sales force compensation drives salespeople to enhance perceived attributes.
    Keywords: M12 ; M31 ; M52 ; ddc:650 ; Agency theory ; Customer retention ; Firm's financial value ; Markov chain ; Sales force
    Repository Name: EconStor: OA server of the German National Library of Economics - Leibniz Information Centre for Economics
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  • 25
    Publication Date: 2019-11-02
    Description: This research aims to understand how the interactions across several social networks influence the visibility of a luxury brand's most relevant social network which acts as a showcase (Instagram). A data mining approach is proposed for modeling the number of likes on Instagram using 365 posts published in the luxury brand's different social networks between 2015 and 2016. Fifteen features related with the brand's social networks, product characteristics and visibility in external media were prepared and used to feed a support vector machine model which achieved an adequate performance (mean absolute percentage error of 27%). A sensitivity analysis was applied to reveal how each of the fifteen features influenced the Instagram likes. The findings unveiled interactions on the remaining networks hold an influence on Instagram likes, particularly Facebook, with the number of video views, the positive emoticons, and the number of comments and shares explaining around 40% of the model.
    Keywords: M31 ; M37 ; ddc:650 ; Social media ; Social networks ; Luxury marketing ; Brand image ; Data mining
    Repository Name: EconStor: OA server of the German National Library of Economics - Leibniz Information Centre for Economics
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  • 26
    Publication Date: 2019-11-02
    Description: This paper seeks to develop a theoretical model to explain the role of knowledge integration and knowledge options in the case of external knowledge acquisition via employee training. It considers types of knowledge acquired through specific or general training and heterogeneous or homogeneous production processes at companies. It also considers the possibility of opportunistic behaviour by trained employees. We propose key conditions that companies should consider when they acquire external knowledge by means of training. Insights are given into the process of and success conditions for dynamic value creation due to the adoption and the internal sharing of knowledge. Even at this early stage our theoretical model provides guidelines for decision-makers as to how to improve investments in training issues. The model leads to several propositions and provides a starting point for developing hypotheses that can be contrasted empirically in further research.
    Keywords: M53 ; ddc:650 ; Employee training ; Knowledge integration ; Knowledge options
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  • 27
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    Amsterdam: Elsevier
    Publication Date: 2019-11-02
    Description: Humans communicate their activities and performance in several ways (word of mouth, signs, written language, webpage, social networks, etc.). Currently, businesses use different mechanisms to communicate their Corporate Social Responsibility (CSR) activities to foster their reputation, consumer loyalty and social recognition. Meanwhile, sceptic firms use CSR communication as a mere whitewashing strategy. Using a triangulation methodology for Spanish quoted firms (IBEX-35), this paper aims to identify the main CSR communication channels. Our study concludes that CSR communication will undergo constant change due to the evolution of communication mechanisms.
    Keywords: D83 ; M14 ; ddc:650 ; Communication ; Corporate Social Responsibility (CSR) ; Spanish quoted firms ; Triangulation methodology
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  • 28
    Publication Date: 2019-11-02
    Description: Previous research has shown that consumers in developed countries display a high level of consumer ethnocentrism by prioritizing local products over foreign manufactured ones. Paradoxically, it is generally believed that consumers from developing countries, and least developed countries, are more inclined to buy imported goods instead of domestic ones. This study examines the relationship between consumer ethnocentrism (C.E) and their willingness to purchase domestic products (W.B.D) in one developing country: Tunisia. To this end, this paper investigates the moderating effect of product country of origin (C.O.O) and conspicuous consumption (C.C) of a number of foreigners in knowingly developed and developing countries such as France, Italy, People's Republic of China and Turkey upon this relationship. Based on a positivist epistemological approach, a questionnaire was developed and successfully administered based on a general sample of 152 individuals living mainly in the second biggest city of Tunisia, Sfax. Data was analyzed and tested by Structural Equation Modeling (SEM) following the tow-step approach of Gerbing and Anderson (1988). The results of the analysis show that C.O.O and C.C moderate the intensity of the relationship between consumer ethnocentrism and the inclination to buying domestic products. Finally, this study both supports and adds to the existing literature that seeks to understand consumption behaviors in developing countries. It also shows that in developing countries, the relationship between C.E and the consumer's W.B.D is less evident than in developed countries.
    Keywords: M31 ; ddc:650 ; Conspicuous consumption ; Consumer ethnocentrism ; Country of origin ; Developing country
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  • 29
    Publication Date: 2019-11-02
    Description: This paper synthesizes, analyses and organizes the factors that can be decisive in a battle for a dominant design. The result is the construction of a rational decision-making model, where the relevant factors are grouped into three blocks – market, technology, and complementary assets. First, the firm must decide on the strategic manoeuvres that it is going to deploy to be able to capture the market that it has created or invaded. Second, technologically, it must decide whether to compete with its design made public or private, open or closed. Finally, it must plan its access to complementary assets without which it would be impossible to exploit the new design in a mainstream market. The proposed model is integrative in character and practical in approach, and it helps in forming a strategy and decision-making in the usual design wars today. It is aimed to contribute to a literature in which the analysis of factors is usually done in a fragmented form, without the systematic approach that would facilitate rational and dynamic decision making.
    Keywords: ddc:650 ; Battle for the standard ; Dominant design ; Mainstream market ; New design
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  • 30
    Publication Date: 2019-11-02
    Description: Baumol's theory of entrepreneurial allocation has been widely utilized and cited by management and entrepreneurship scholars over the last three decades. Despite the increasing popularity, there is no systematic review of prior studies to integrate the literature, highlight the missing links, and provide avenues for future research. In this vein, we reviewed and contently analyzed 76 articles published from 2001 to 2018. In our systematic review, we (1) classified the articles in five main categories, (2) discussed studies within each category, (3) proposed a revised version of entrepreneurial allocation theory, and (4) outlined the research gaps and future research opportunities. Our review shows that beyond Baumol's focus on the institutional factors, individual factors such as intention, talent, and perception together with entrepreneurial actions for dealing with institutional arrangements can also explain the allocation of entrepreneurial efforts, under-examined in prior studies. This opens novel avenues for future studies to further extend this promising research stream.
    Keywords: K00 ; M13 ; O17 ; ddc:650 ; Entrepreneurial allocation ; Institution ; Systematic review
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  • 31
    Publication Date: 2019-11-02
    Description: This study tests the impact of usage of Twitter as a microblogging service provider on shareholders’ returns and abnormal returns. In accordance with this purpose, two portfolios were created based on measurement of whether firms had a Twitter account and, if so, their number of followers and tweets and the increase in the number of followers. The returns from these portfolios indicate that better Twitter performance according to these metrics does not provide any significant increases in the abnormal returns of shareholders. Nevertheless, the market betas of greater than 1 observed in the related portfolios have revealed that these portfolios are more risky than alternative portfolios.
    Keywords: M31 ; M37 ; G11 ; ddc:650 ; CAPM ; Microblogging ; Portfolio analysis ; Shareholder return ; Social media marketing ; Twitter
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  • 32
    Publication Date: 2019-11-02
    Description: The correct management of reputation and image can be crucial to guarantee organizationś survival and success. However, the lack of clarity regarding the relationship and differences between image and reputation still exist since scholars have considered them related constructs with differences and used them interchangeably. Spanish Public Universities operate in a highly competitive sector where factors such as globalization as well as the decrease in government funding have strengthen this situation. Therefore, the aim of this paper is to measure the relationship between image and reputation in the context of Spanish Public Universities considering different university's stakeholder perceptions (students, alumni, professors, support personnel and managers). To pursue this objective, a review of literature on image and reputation was developed, followed by the distribution of 870 surveys to a Spanish Public University's stakeholders. Finally, PLS-SEM was used to analyse the data and confirm the existing relationship between image and reputation.
    Keywords: M10 ; M31 ; L38 ; I23 ; ddc:650 ; Higher education ; Image ; Reputation ; Spain ; University
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  • 33
    Publication Date: 2018-12-05
    Description: Water-lifting technologies for irrigation have significant potential to increase agricultural yields and stimulate economic growth in rural areas of the developing world. Human-powered water pumps have been used with great success in this rapidly developing market. KickStart's MoneyMaker Hip Pump is a human-powered water pump with additional design features that make it lightweight and portable for use in remote fields in several countries throughout Africa. This work first applied numerical optimization techniques to the design of the MoneyMaker Hip Pump and offers further improvements to its design. Deterministic multi-objective optimization methods were employed to maximize the flow rate of the pump, maximize the pumping height of water, and minimize cost. Following optimization, the robustness of the optimized pump design was analyzed under several modified scenarios, including fouling of the hoses and a decrease in operator power due to fatigue or aging. The set of cost-optimized pump designs was then compared to a second set of optimal designs that was found using material volume as a simplified proxy for the cost objective function. Findings indicate that several technical improvements can be made to the current MoneyMaker Hip Pump design to reduce cost by up to 37% without affecting water flow rate, or increase water flow rate by up to 88% without increasing cost. The numerical model was validated through physical experimentation of the MoneyMaker Hip Pump, and design alterations to reduce cost were experimentally shown to maintain pump performance.
    Keywords: ddc:330 ; Design ; Human-powered pump ; Irrigation ; Multi-objective optimization ; Robustness
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  • 34
    Publication Date: 2018-12-05
    Description: Photovoltaic cells in series-connected modules may operate in the second quadrant of the current-voltage characteristics via power control circuits. In the second quadrant of the current-voltage characteristics of dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSCs), the forward currents continuously flow and the operating voltage points gradually shift toward more negative voltages. These changes are attributed to the increase in the ratio of iodide to tri-iodide in the DSSC electrolyte rather than to the decomposition and/or coupling reactions of the constituent materials. In addition, these changes are reversible reactions that can be detected based on the changes in electrolyte color or current-voltage measurements.
    Keywords: ddc:330 ; Dye-sensitized ; Electrolyte color ; Modules ; Performance stability
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  • 35
    Publication Date: 2018-12-05
    Description: Many organizations in the developing world (e.g., NGOs), include digital data collection in their workflow. Data collected can include information that may be considered sensitive, such as medical or socioeconomic data, and which could be affected by computer security attacks or unintentional mishandling. The attitudes and practices of organizations collecting data have implications for confidentiality, availability, and integrity of data. This work, a collaboration between computer security and ICTD researchers, explores security and privacy attitudes, practices, and needs within organizations that use Open Data Kit (ODK), a prominent digital data collection platform. We conduct a detailed threat modeling exercise to inform our view on potential security threats, and then conduct and analyze a survey and interviews with technology experts in these organizations to ground this analysis in real deployment experiences. We then reflect upon our results, drawing lessons for both organizations collecting data and for tool developers.
    Keywords: ddc:330 ; Data collection ; ICTD ; Security
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  • 36
    Publication Date: 2018-12-05
    Description: Survey data on income and expenditure is often of low quality and does not capture the volatile and irregular nature of cash flows of poor households. Financial diaries are increasingly used to improve the precision and accuracy of consumption and income estimates. In this paper we analyze whether keeping track of income and expenditures changes financial behavior and outcomes, which could reduce the validity of diaries as a measurement instrument. Members of urban Ugandan microcredit groups were, through random assignment, offered financial diaries to keep a record of their daily cash flows for more than a year. We find no evidence that financial diaries change numeracy skills, loan repayment, reported income, or food consumption. We only found a difference in savings, but this is unlikely to represent any impact of the financial diaries, as it does not exceed the amount provided as an incentive to the respondent for participation.
    Keywords: ddc:330 ; Financial diaries ; Household income and expenditure ; Measurement error
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  • 37
    Publication Date: 2018-12-05
    Description: Successful scale-up of any development project requires a deep understanding of the real-world economics of the intervention, and compelling evidence that such an investment would be worthwhile. This cost-benefit estimate is typically assessed in two ways: (a) by comparing the coefficient of impact along some margin measured in an impact evaluation (؈) to the unit implementation cost of the project, and/or (b) by conducting adoption studies, where autonomous adoption is assumed to indicate that the adopter has deemed the investment worthwhile (i.e., financially sustainable). However, these two techniques can be particularly difficult for development engineering projects that are large at the unit scale (or are group-based) and for projects that may have impacts on many margins or outcomes at once. Here we present the framework for, and analysis from, a field monitoring campaign in the interim evaluation period for community-scale solar-powered irrigation systems (Solar Market Gardens, or SMGs) in northeast Benin, West Africa. We used this interim monitoring to directly construct a CBA, and to document the pathways of impact actually at play for a project hypothesized ex-ante to have potential economic, food security, and gender impacts. We monitored all garden activity a the individual and group level for most of the dry season, including total production, sales, home consumption, input use, marketing, and labor (a key factor often overlooked when considering the cost of agricultural development projects). By combining production and sales data with cost information, we show that the most productive agricultural groups using the system only in the dry season would be profitable in a full cost-recovery model with no economies of scale, but that lower performing groups would not; we also show that many plausible scale-up models and financing mechanisms would be profitable. We then show how this type of monitoring can complement impact evaluation by elucidating different pathways of impact that could be used to understand heterogeneity in outcomes among beneficiaries. We document variance both within and between groups across numerous potential pathways of impact for the SMG; the heterogeneity in intraclass correlation coefficients (ICCs) across these indicators highlights the importance of understanding the causal chain(s), especially for cross-sectoral development engineering projects like the SMG. We conclude by discussing how this monitoring effort fits into the larger evaluation of the SMG, and how such data have been used to both adaptively refine the project, improving the likelihood for successful scale-up.
    Keywords: ddc:330 ; Benin ; Development ; Drip irrigation ; Food security ; Horticulture ; Smallholder farmer ; Solar photovoltaics
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  • 38
    Publication Date: 2018-12-05
    Description: Among all the hybrid solar thermal technologies available up to now, the Integrated Solar Combined Cycle (ISCC) is nowadays the most efficient system for converting solar energy into electricity. This power plant is a combination of a parabolic trough solar field with a conventional combined cycle. In the present article, the performance of an ISCC plant under southern Algerian climate has been investigated. To do so, a thermodynamic model has been developed to evaluate solar radiation intensity as well as the overall performance of the hybrid solar power plant. The analysis has shown that solar to electricity efficiency could reach up to 14.4% during sunny periods. Furthermore, an overall thermal efficiency of about 60% is feasible. It has also been found that the amount of electricity produced increases with several operation parameters such as the time of the day, the mass flow rate of the heat transfer fluid and the angle of incidence on the collector surface.
    Keywords: ddc:330 ; CSP ; Hybrid solar thermal power plant ; ISCC ; Solar radiation ; Solar thermal power plant
    Repository Name: EconStor: OA server of the German National Library of Economics - Leibniz Information Centre for Economics
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  • 39
    Publication Date: 2018-12-05
    Description: The solar systems technology offers a promising method for the large scale use of solar energy in the southern zone of Algeria. The magnitude of solar radiation is the most important parameter for sizing these systems. The chief goal of this investigation is to contribute to the national efforts in establishing solar radiation in Algeria. Using the Algerian solar atlas model and the experimental monthly mean Linke turbidity factor a new model for the prediction of the solar radiation in the Sahara desert area of Adrar region, Algeria is developed. In this study, the Linke turbidity factor was obtained from radiometric and meteorological data recorded in the research unit in renewable energies in the Saharan medium, during October 2012 to May 2015. This investigation finds that the newly developed model performs more accurate estimation, with smaller relative errors between measured and computed values.
    Keywords: ddc:330 ; Adrar ; Algerian solar atlas model ; Linke turbidity factor ; Solar radiation
    Repository Name: EconStor: OA server of the German National Library of Economics - Leibniz Information Centre for Economics
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  • 40
    Publication Date: 2018-12-05
    Description: This study divides the households into five groups according to the electricity consumption and compares the characteristics and the determinants of household electricity consumption for only two groups, the lowest and the highest. The data are drawn from a household energy consumption sample survey by Korea Energy Economics Institute in 2015. The results show the differences in socio-demographic, dwelling, and electricity consumption characteristics between two groups. Next, the factors affecting the household electricity consumption are investigated. Factor affecting the household electricity consumption for two groups is only the number of electrical appliances. There are also the differences in major determinants of the household electricity consumption for two groups. The results of this study would be useful for understanding socio-demographic, dwelling, and electricity consumption characteristics for two groups.
    Keywords: ddc:330 ; Household electricity consumption ; Household energy consumption sample survey ; Multiple regression ; The fifth quintile ; The first quintile
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  • 41
    Publication Date: 2018-12-05
    Description: In recent years, the management and operation of micro-grids are considered by many advanced societies with regard to the development of scattered energy resources. The main goals that are paid attention in micro-grid management are the operation cost and pollution rate, which the aggregation of such contradictory goals in an optimization problem can provide an appropriate response to the management of the micro-grid. In this paper, the MOPSO method has been used for management and optimal distribution of energy resources in proposed micro-grid. On the other hand, the problem was analyzed with the NSGA-II algorithm to demonstrate the efficiency of the proposed method.
    Keywords: ddc:330 ; Energy management ; Micro-grid ; Multi-objective optimization ; Renewable energy
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  • 42
    Publication Date: 2018-12-05
    Description: A very important factor in the assessment of solar potential for the installation of photovoltaic plants is the availability of global irradiation data measurements. Such data must be collected over a period of time longer than 11 years and must be accurate. In some countries, it is difficult to have databases of these measures. To overcome this problem, we propose, the use of numerical models to estimate the monthly, seasonally and annually solar energy irradiation (global diffuse and direct solar radiation), especially on tilted surface. The results obtained from the numerical models are compared to the data collected from three regions on Tunisia: Bizerte (in the north), Nabeul (near to the north east) and Djerba (in the south). The actual measurements taken from the meteorological stations and the measurements generated by the numerical models are very close. After the validation of the numerical models, we tried to calculate the best tilt angle for each period of the year to position a photovoltaic panel, in a given region, to reach maximum energy recovery. The practical validation, of the optimal tilt angle search and the adequate period, was conducted at the Research and Technology Center of Energy of Borj Cedria. The obtained results are satisfactory and prove the reliability of the constructed numerical models.
    Keywords: ddc:330 ; Gained energy ; Inclined surface ; Optimum tilt angle ; Solar radiation estimation
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  • 43
    Publication Date: 2018-12-05
    Description: The gas industry relies on indirect heating to prevent gas from freezing when it is transferred from high-pressure networks to lower pressure distribution systems. The main challenge in preheating natural gas is designing an indirect heating system capable of consistently maintaining a target temperature, despite large load diversity. The most common form of heating technology has traditionally been water bath heaters and boiler houses. In this paper, a novel technology is introduced, and its performance compared to existing installations. The Immersion Tube Thermosyphon Heater was developed specifically to address high load diversity; it combines a high-efficiency immersion burner with a sub-atmospheric two-phase loop thermosyphon. The use of low-temperature steam provides a flexible and precise solution for temperature control easily adapted to variable gas flows. The Immersion Tube Thermosyphon achieved an average thermal efficiency of 90%, considerably higher than the 46% efficient water bath, allowing an estimated annual saving of 7,660 tonnes CO2 for 1-megawatt gross heat capacity operating with a 50% load factor.
    Keywords: ddc:330 ; Gas preheating ; Load diversity ; Temperature control ; Thermal efficiency ; Transient load ; Two-phase loop thermosyphon ; Water bath heaters
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  • 44
    Publication Date: 2018-12-05
    Description: In this study, ZrO2 surface modified ZnO/TiO2 composite film is adapted as photoanode in dye sensitized solar cells (DSSCs) and compared with un-passivated ZnO/TiO2 DSSC performance. The performance is investigated by dark and photocurrent density–voltage ( J–V) characteristics, quantum efficiency and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy. The J–V characteristics shows that DSSCs with ZrO surface passivation produces significantly high open-circuit voltage of 0.87 V, short-circuit current density of 13.6 mA cm−2, fill factor of 0.65 and a power conversion efficiency of 6.97% under simulated AM1.5 solar irradiation. The higher onset potential in the dark, larger open-circuit potential under illumination, and an enhancement in power conversion efficiency strongly suggests an efficient suppression of back electron transfer from the conduction band of the hetero-phase junctions to the oxidized species in the electrolyte as established by dark and illuminated J–V characteristics. Thus, the oxidized dye molecules are readily regenerated by a redox couple dissolved in an electrolyte, allowing more photon excitation by dye molecules. The electrochemical impedance data extracts further provide additional evidence of the enhancement in photocurrent and lower charge carrier resistances observed in ZrO2/ZnO/TiO2/dye photoelectrode. With the ZrO2 surface modification, main loss mechanism in the device is suppressed and backward recombination reaction is minimized.
    Keywords: ddc:330 ; Dark current ; Equivalent circuit model ; Mesoporous films dye-sensitized solar cells ; ZrO passivated ZnO/TiO hetero-phase composite
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  • 45
    Publication Date: 2018-12-05
    Description: Energy is the key factor for the growth of any country. Per capita energy consumption is the significance of the progress of any nation. With the increasing environmental impacts, word community is searching the way to shift towards sustainable energy sources. Recently the penetration of photovoltaic systems has increased to generate the electricity at grid or local level. Although this technology has improved a lot however the performance of these systems is site dependent. The experiment is conducted in laboratory of GLA University, Mathura, UP, India (hot and dry climate zone of India). Two PV modules of same electrical and mechanical specifications are taken for experiment. To analyze actual performance; different months of a year from various seasons are chosen including artificial wind. It has been observed that increased module temperature reduces performance but the cooling mechanism provided, bring down the module temperature due to which a net energy gain is 5.07% in considered time. Performance measure indices i.e. PR is improved by 3.4%. Experimental and Simulated energy is 431.28wh and 434.98wh for cooled module while for not cooled module experimental and simulated energy is 410.44wh and 439.7wh. Simulated values of energy are closer to experimental values for cooled module hence ANN avoids the underestimation of performance and overestimation of size, average simulated PR is also same as that of experimental PR i.e. 98.6%.
    Keywords: ddc:330 ; Back propagation ; Energy ; Performance ratio ; Photovoltaic ; Wind
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  • 46
    Publication Date: 2018-12-05
    Description: Ionic liquids (ILs) have been proposed as a more benign replacement to toxic and volatile organic solvents in enzymatic biodiesel production, used to minimize methanol inhibition effect and enhance the stability of immobilized enzyme. Despite their several advantages, ILs are expensive, which renders the overall process unfeasible. In this work, the use of low-cost deep eutectic solvents (DESs) has been investigated as a new reaction medium for enzymatic biodiesel production from waste oils. A DES composed of chlorine-chloride and glycerol (ChCl:Gly) was tested and its effectiveness was compared to 1-butyl-3-methylimidazolium hexafluorophosphate, [bmim][PF6], which has shown positive results. To decrease the viscosity of ChCl:Gly DES, ternary ChCl:Gly:water DESs with different water contents were prepared and tested. Despite lower cost compared to ILs, without successful repeated reuse of the DES-immobilized lipase system, their advantages remain theoretical. Therefore, the reusability of the DES-Novozym®435 system in consecutive cycles was examined. It was shown that 34% biodiesel production yield could be achieved in ChCl:Gly at 1:2 molar ratio, compared to 23% when [bmim][PF6] was used. The yield increased further, when the ternary DES of ChCl:Gly:water (1:2) with 3 wt% water was used, reaching 44%. By removing the by-product glycerol, the reusability of the DES-immobilized system was improved, with better results achieved using 1-butanol compared to using ethylene glycol.
    Keywords: ddc:330 ; Biodiesel ; Deep eutectic solvent ; Immobilized lipase ; Ionic liquids ; Reusability
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  • 47
    Publication Date: 2018-12-05
    Description: This paper represents the first empirical study to investigate the effects of interest rate spread shocks before and after the implementation of LSAPs (Federal Reserve large-scale asset purchases) on energy consumption for different sectors. The US monthly data (2002-2015) for interest rate spreads, such as term, corporate, and mortgage rate spreads, and paper bills, and the energy used by sector (residential, commercial, industrial, transportation, and electric power) were used in this study. Our analysis provided evidence that a cut in interest rate spreads was seen as a positive signal in the energy market. This paper demonstrated that the mortgage spread (MORS) shock had a significant effect on the energy consumed by the residential sector, after the implementation of unconventional monetary policies. Likewise, paper bill shocks had a significant effect on energy consumption for different sectors before the implementation of unconventional monetary policies. The results indicated that the Federal Fund Effective rate had a weak impact on components of energy consumption before the implementation of quantitative easing policies by the Federal Reserve.
    Keywords: E43 ; E44 ; E52 ; Q43 ; ddc:330 ; Energy consumption components ; Interest rate spread ; US monetary policy spill over
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  • 48
    Publication Date: 2018-12-05
    Description: The main design objective of the solar photovoltaic (PV) systems is to extract the maximum power from the PV systems for a long time. The amount of power extracted from the PV array can be affected by temperature, solar irradiation, dust accumulation, wind speed, PV array configuration and shading pattern. Often, the PV arrays are completely or partially shadowed and has been recognized as a major challenging concern which can reduce the output power of PV arrays due to mismatching power loss between the PV modules and also represents multiple Maximum Power Points (MPPs) in the electrical characteristics (I-V and P-V characteristics). The key objectives of this paper are to model, simulate and study the effects of PSCs on the electrical characteristics of Series (S), Series-Parallel (S-P) and Honey-Comb (H-C) PV array configurations under various shading patterns such as, short and narrow, short and wide, long and narrow, long and wide, and diagonal shading patterns by using a MATLAB/Simulink simulation model. The performance analysis of the PV array configurations is carried out by considering the maximum power generated (PMP), open-circuit voltage (VOC), voltage at maximum power point (VMPP), short-circuit current (ISC), current at maximum power point (IMPP), mismatching power loss (ΔPL) and fill factor (FF). The simulation and performance analysis of PV array configurations is performed with 25 PV modules of KYOCERA-KC200GT modules.
    Keywords: ddc:330 ; Maximum Power Point (MPP) ; Mismatching power loss and Fill Factor (FF) ; Partial Shading Conditions (PSCs) ; Series (S), Series-Parallel (S-P), Honey-Comb (H-C) PV array configurations
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  • 49
    Publication Date: 2018-12-05
    Description: The effects of different anti-reflective structures on the photovoltaic performance of the silicon solar cell were studied using finite-element modelling and numerical simulations for which experiment alone does not provide a full description. The front surface reflectivity may be mitigated significantly by an anti-reflective coating (ARC) of a suitable thickness. Alternatively, nanoscale surface texturing can effectively trap a greater ratio of incident light to increase optical absorption. The optimized layer thicknesses of the ZnO single layer and SiO2/Si3N4 double layer films were calculated for minimum reflectivity, with the former grown by magnetron sputter deposition and characterized using specular X-ray reflectivity measurements. Based on geometric ray-tracing and solutions to the semiconductor equations, the theoretical photovoltaic performance was simulated and compared for a range of incident angles at an optical intensity of 0.1 Wcm-2, revealing a limit to the angular collection efficiency of the ARC at a grazing incidence angle of 30ê. Using ZnO or SiO2/Si3N4 ARCs or surface texturing increases the power conversion efficiency by 20%, 24% and 30% respectively at normal incidence. The insights provided by physical-based modelling on the optimized design parameters of the anti-reflective structures confer a promising pathway for enhancing the external quantum efficiency of photovoltaic devices.
    Keywords: ddc:330 ; Energy conversion ; Photovoltaic cells ; Reflectivity ; Surface engineering ; Thin films
    Repository Name: EconStor: OA server of the German National Library of Economics - Leibniz Information Centre for Economics
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  • 50
    Publication Date: 2018-12-05
    Description: The purpose of this study is to assess the policy-relevant effects of incorporating a more proper representation of electricity transmission in multi-sector national policy models. This goal is achieved by employing the KAPSARC Energy Model (KEM), which is the first publicly available large-scale energy policy model for Saudi Arabia. Past studies using KEM have examined industrial pricing policy, residential energy efficiency, the prospects of power generation technologies, and residential electricity pricing. These studies have shown that under certain fuel pricing scenarios, significant renewable energy capacity is deployed. With large-scale renewable technologies introduced in the power system, representing transmission more appropriately becomes important. By incorporating a direct current optimal flow model, our results show -the optimal investment in utility-scale photovoltaics are 30 percent lower, and the weighted average marginal costs of delivering electricity are 100 percent higher, compared to a model that has a transshipment formulation,-a version of KEM with a single node in each region for transmission and without transmission losses provides valuable insight while keeping the model size tractable,-the market-clearing price of natural gas in a deregulated environment modifies slightly, demonstrating that a transmission component predominantly affects the operations of the power system. Although the scarcity of natural gas increases slightly due to lower PV deployment, its greater use by power generators is minor.
    Keywords: ddc:330 ; Electricity transmission ; Energy policy ; Energy system model ; Optimal power flow ; Saudi arabia
    Repository Name: EconStor: OA server of the German National Library of Economics - Leibniz Information Centre for Economics
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  • 51
    Publication Date: 2018-12-05
    Description: It has been an important objective in China's energy development strategy to accelerate the promotion of natural gas utilization, cultivate main sources of natural gas, and increase the proportion of natural gas consumption. Based on the analysis of the development of natural gas utilization in China over the past 3 decades by means of classified and comparative research, this paper reveals the shift in the development pattern of China's natural gas utilization structure from the domination of industrial gas and chemical gas to a relative balance among industrial fuel, urban gas, and power generation gas. Sustained and steadily growing natural gas is an important basis for the rapid growth of natural gas utilization. Maintaining moderate growth in the natural gas transmission and distribution network is an important guarantee for the rapid growth of natural gas utilization. The slowdown in the world's economic growth has not caused any significant adverse impact on the rapid growth in China's electricity generation gas. The natural gas utilization policy has no effect on the adjustment of industrial fuel gas any longer. Industrial fuels and chemical gas are greatly subject to natural gas prices. Based on China's energy consumption targets for 2020 and 2030, this paper estimates the gas consumption of major gas areas and their development position, namely, more development space for industrial fuels, still rapid growth in urban gas but hardly major breakthroughs in gas proportion, rapid growth in power generation gas and a more prominent role in peak shaving, sustained high growth in transportation gas and challenges from new energy and low oil prices, and a significant decline but still a large scale in chemicalgas.
    Keywords: ddc:330 ; Development positioning ; Development trends ; Influencing factors ; Natural gas utilization ; Structure distribution
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  • 52
    Publication Date: 2018-08-23
    Description: Studies on the impact of political considerations and gimmickry on the fiscal policy process in developing countries have largely been underappreciated and lacking. Therefore, this study set out to investigate how political actions impact fiscal deficits in Nigeria. The study employed descriptive and quantitative techniques using the Herfindahl index-based composition and turnover of the legislative and executive seats per party as well as that controlled by the ruling party. The results showed the prevalence of fiscal illusion among a significant proportion of voters; and that political considerations exert a significant impact on the implementation of fiscal deficits in Nigeria. Budgetary institutions were found to exert an insignificant impact on the fiscal policy process. Revitalization of the country’s budgetary institutions and a reorientation and refocusing of media organizations to ensure objectivity in the reportage of government activities is recommended.
    Keywords: ddc:330 ; Political economy ; Fiscal deficit ; Turnover of legislative houses
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  • 53
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    Amsterdam: Elsevier
    Publication Date: 2018-08-23
    Description: Keynes’s General Theory argues there is no self-regulating mechanism that guarantees full employment. Keynes’s vision has been distorted by mainstream Keynesians to mean that it is the warts on the body of capitalism, not capitalism itself, that are the problem: frictions and imperfections and rigidities may interfere with the mechanism for self-regulation that inheres in the perfectly competitive model. This distortion has two supposed corollaries, first, that the more the economy resembles the textbook model of perfect competition, the less likely are lapses from full employment; second, that since imperfections are limited to the short run, so are lapses from full employment. Keynes was unable to convince the economics profession that the problem is capitalism; that the warts, real though they are, obscure a more fundamental problem. The reason is that Keynes lacked the mathematical tools to substantiate his vision. This paper deploys tools that were unavailable to Keynes, in order to lay the foundations of a Keynesian macroeconomics for the 21st century.
    Keywords: ddc:330 ; Keynes ; Dynamic vs static models ; Flexprice adjustment ; Fixprice adjustment
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  • 54
    Publication Date: 2018-08-23
    Description: Although a direct relationship among partial withdrawals (Ws), GPA and grade inflation (GI) is suggested in prior research, this study demonstrates just the opposite. Evidence from a detailed panel-data comprising 34,426 sections offered in the UPR-Bayamón during 36 consecutive terms demonstrates that (1) traditional GI and the GI attributable to Ws run in opposite directions; (2) unobserved faculty heterogeneity, academic fields, as well as courses and academic environment characteristics exert strong and significant effects on both GPA and the GI attributable to Ws and (3) student evaluations of teaching are inversely and significantly related to Ws and to the GI attributable to them.
    Keywords: ddc:330 ; Partial withdrawals ; Grade inflation ; Student evaluations of teaching ; Puerto Rico ; Random- and fixed-effects models
    Repository Name: EconStor: OA server of the German National Library of Economics - Leibniz Information Centre for Economics
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  • 55
    Publication Date: 2018-08-23
    Description: The introduction of the temporal component into poverty analysis takes us to the study of the poverty dynamic, which focuses on investigating events of entering, remaining in and getting out of deprivation. As an effort to consider the diverse aspects unrelated to income in the study of vulnerability to poverty, the monetary approach is put aside and the multidimensional approach is used to elaborate the well-being index. The Multidimensional Poverty Index (MPI) is constructed with data from Brazil’s 2000 and 2010 Demographic Census. First, this article intends to quantify and describe the results of the MPI in Brazilian territory, using municipalities as unit of analysis. Second, it intends to analyze the factors associated to the poverty dynamics, which can be understood through the transition probability from a non-vulnerable state to a vulnerable state, in a distribution of the MPI in deciles. Finally, it intends to identify the municipalities that went through this transition in a regional level during the intercensal period. Results show that, despite the improvement observed in its whole national territory, Brazil’s North and Northeast remain with deeper deprivations while the Southern and Southeastern regions present the lowest incidence of multidimensional poverty. Dropout Rate of Grades 3–4 of High School, HDI-M Education, HDI-M Longevity, Logarithm of the Population, Gross Value Added per capita of Industry, Service Concentration Index and Entrepreneur Rate contribute positively to the reduction of municipal vulnerability to poverty. Compared to Northern municipalities, Southeastern Brazil has reduced more significantly the likelihood of position loss and has had a greater effect of increasing the probability of its upward movement.
    Keywords: I32 ; R13 ; ddc:330 ; Multidimensional poverty ; Vulnerability ; Brazil
    Repository Name: EconStor: OA server of the German National Library of Economics - Leibniz Information Centre for Economics
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  • 56
    Publication Date: 2018-08-23
    Description: Empirical inferences about particular forms of agents’ inflation expectations are crucial for the conduct of monetary policy. This paper is an attempt to explore the properties of the Reserve Bank of India’s survey data of households’ inflation expectations. The paper shows that survey respondents do not form expectations rationally, regardless of the reference measures of inflation used. Further, results indicate that inflation expectations are formed purely in backward-looking manner, suggesting that the Reserve Bank of India (RBI) has a low degree of credibility within the survey respondents. The study then formulates a model to identify individual elements of the backward-looking expectations in the data. The results suggest that the respondents’ short term expectations for WPI inflation are purely naïve type of expectations, only influenced by respondents earlier period expectations. In the case of CPIIW inflation, the results however suggest that the short-term expectations are not purely naïve type, but also contain adaptive as well as a static forms of expectations. This means that respondents consider their previous forecast errors about CPIIW inflation and draw recent price developments in the CPIIW while forming their overall short-term inflation expectations. This finding provides some formal evidence that the CPI based inflation measure is better suited, than WPI inflation, as a nominal anchor in the RBI’s recent transition to inflation targeting regime.
    Keywords: ddc:330 ; Inflation ; Inflation expectations ; Survey data ; Price index ; Monetary policy ; Forecasting
    Repository Name: EconStor: OA server of the German National Library of Economics - Leibniz Information Centre for Economics
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  • 57
    Publication Date: 2018-08-23
    Description: The text analyzes how the Brazilian states’ fiscal position evolved between 2006 and 2015, with the data revealing a clear deterioration in state-level public finances during that period. The rating methodology developed by the Ministry of Finance is used to show that, when comparing 2006–2008 to 2013–2015, 21 of the 26 states and the Federal District saw their fiscal position deteriorate. The results suggest that after the global financial crisis the states failed to pursue a fiscal rule that would curb the growth of spending in a context of falling revenue and rising debt. The study shows that, despite shrinking revenue, the states maintained the pace of expenditure growth, particularly payroll and pension expenses. Moreover, the text shows that following the crisis, state-level revenue would have declined by even more were it not for a substantial increase in credit inflows. While additional borrowing enabled the states to maintain public investment in the short term, this policy showed to be unsustainable. The paper shows that higher debt and the lack of the adjustment in public spending have a negative impact on state-level investment in the long term.
    Keywords: ddc:330 ; Fiscal rules ; Brazil ; Federalism
    Repository Name: EconStor: OA server of the German National Library of Economics - Leibniz Information Centre for Economics
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  • 58
    Publication Date: 2018-08-23
    Description: The purpose of this work is to analyze the balance-of-payments-constrained growth in Brazil considering Thirwall’s Law (1979). To this end, we estimate export and import demand functions using two econometric models: vector error correction and structural state space model for the period of 1995–2013. Our results suggest that the balance of payments is a constraint to the Brazilian economic growth, given: (i) the ratio between exports and imports income elasticities; (ii) the low sensitivity of exports to changes in the real exchange rate; and (iii) the evidence that exports are more sensitive to alterations in commodities prices than to changes in the real exchange rate.
    Description: O objetivo principal deste trabalho é verificar se o balanço de pagamentos é uma limitação para o crescimento econômico brasileiro, no período que compreende os anos de 1995 até 2013, considerando o arcabouço teórico de Thirlwall (1979). Para o alcance desse objetivo, foram estimadas as funções demanda por importações e exportações através de dois modelos econométricos: vetorial de correção de erros e modelo estrutural em formato de estado de espaço para o período 1995–2013. Os resultados empíricos deste trabalho confirmam que o balanço de pagamentos é uma restrição ao crescimento econômico brasileiro, dado tanto pela razão entre as elasticidades-renda das exportações e importações, como também pela baixa sensibilidade das exportações ao câmbio real. Logo, o ajuste da balança comercial via alterações suaves da taxa de câmbio tem pouca eficácia para o caso brasileiro. Além disso, as exportações são mais sensíveis aos preços das commodities do que à taxa de câmbio real."
    Keywords: ddc:330 ; Balance-of-payments-constrained growth ; Exports ; Emerging economies ; Demand-led growth
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  • 59
    Publication Date: 2018-08-23
    Description: Lionel Robbins’ definition of economics helped to buttress the centrality that individual choice acquired after the Second World War. This, however, was an unintended consequence of his seminal work. Underlying his definition of economics, a novel approach to methodological individualism is advanced, in which the isolated individual plays the role of a temporary device useful for analysing more complex social phenomena. The paper outlines three types of methodological individualism, and argues that Robbins’ approach cannot be classified under any of them; we thus propose a different category, that of ‘first-step individualism’. Robbins’ rationale for focusing on the isolated individual is not that social phenomena can be reduced to individual behaviour, but rather that this is the best starting point for economics, if it is to progress and be able to deal with more complex phenomena in the future.
    Keywords: ddc:330 ; Lionel Robbins ; Methodological individualism ; First-step individualism
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  • 60
    Publication Date: 2018-08-23
    Description: This article seeks to measure the effect of bullying in math scores of students in the 6th grade of public (Nansel et al., 2001). school in the city of Recife, Pernambuco, Brazil with the use of data from a survey by Joaquim Nabuco Foundation in 2013. The methodology applied is Propensity Score Matching (PSM) in order to compare students who reported having suffered bullying with a control group, consisting of students who did not suffer bullying. Specifically, we aim to understand the role of social emotional skills and their potential influence on bullying. The results suggest that bullying has a negative impact on performance in mathematics and that social emotional skills can help students deal with bullying. Several econometric techniques were used to circumvent endogeneity problems. To identify personality traits, we use a factor model that also serves to correct for prediction error bias. The sensitivity analysis indicated potential problems of omitted variables. The results indicate that anti-bullying programs should take into account social emotional skills.
    Keywords: ddc:330 ; Bullying ; Propensity Score Matching ; Impact evaluation ; Personality traits ; Mathematics
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  • 61
    Publication Date: 2019-03-27
    Description: With an increasing acknowledgement of climate variability, the important role of resilience in achieving healthy urban ecosystems has also been discussed by the academics recently. The literature however shows ambiguity about the characteristics of urban resilience, while substantive progress has been made in the practice of resilience building in urban communities. To bridge the gap between theory and practices, this paper dedicate to answer the question: What are the typical characteristics of resilient urban communities? Using the research method of case study, the paper screens and analyzes four exemplary cases of resilient urban communities from around the world, articulating the specific resilient strategies and their core resilient concept of each case. Finally, eight characteristics in four performance dimensions are distilled and explained. The identification of the characteristics provides a scenario of resilient urban community, and it also gives the direction for fostering the urban community resilience.
    Keywords: ddc:710 ; Case study ; Characteristics of resilience ; Resilience ; Resilient urban community
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  • 62
    Publication Date: 2019-03-27
    Keywords: ddc:710
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  • 63
    Publication Date: 2019-03-28
    Keywords: ddc:330 ; Consumer behaviour ; Designation of origin ; Organic wine
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  • 64
    Publication Date: 2019-03-28
    Description: This paper uses a theoretical model to analyze the interaction between general wine sales and enotourism since many wineries sell wine through wine tours as well as wine to non-tourists. We assume that consumers of wine tours, or enotourists, are wine connoisseurs whereas naive wine drinkers drive non-tourism sales. In our model, enotourists use wine tours to judge the quality of the wine, which forms a reputation that is then used by naive wine consumers. We show that wineries may want to decrease (increase) the price of wine via enotourism if their quality is higher (lower) than expected. We analyze this under both exogenous and endogenous quality. We also show that if wineries share a collective reputation, then minimum quality standards can benefit all wineries.
    Keywords: ddc:330 ; Collective reputation ; Enotourism ; Wine
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