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  • 1
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    Oxford, UK : Blackwell Publishing Ltd
    Water and environment journal 19 (2005), S. 0 
    ISSN: 1747-6593
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Energy, Environment Protection, Nuclear Power Engineering
    Notes: Incineration has suffered from a sustained campaign of misinformation. Consequently it has been regarded as the least sustainable option for the treatment of wastes, including sewage sludge. By looking carefully at the issues surrounding the incineration of sewage sludge, as an example, it can be seen that reality does not support the commonly held view. Modern plants are an effective means of recovering the energy value of sludge and at the same time offer a continuous operation, which is independent of weather or land constraints.Of course incineration needs to be regulated and EU Directives and National Regulations set the emission standards. The technology is such that these standards can be met, and more than this, the systems are capable of upgrading as more stringent standards are imposed.Concerns over NOx, dioxins, metals and pathogens are highlighted. In addition the permitting process is discussed. None of these should present a barrier to the implementation of incineration projects. Indeed the paper goes further and demonstrates that there is likely to be an increasing role for incineration as landfill, recycling to agricultural land and other options become more restrictive.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 2
    ISSN: 1747-6593
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Energy, Environment Protection, Nuclear Power Engineering
    Notes: Article 14 of the Water Framework Directive requires member states to demonstrate that they are enabling increased public participation in water governance issues at the river basin level. Yet little research has been conducted to understand in what regard water governance bodies are held by the public. In particular, few studies have concentrated on which water resource management issues concern consumers at the catchment and sub-catchment scale within England and Wales. A household study was conducted in 2003 along the River Nene catchment in the east of England to understand in more detail the range of these consumer perceptions and attitudes at different spatial scales, focusing on water resource management issues such as flooding, sector performance and policy making. The results of the survey demonstrate that formulating policy at the catchment scale does not always capture the diversity of opinion or the range of legitimacy issues which concern consumers at the sub-catchment level. The paper concludes that public participation initiatives may be improved by paying closer attention to the various legitimacy concerns at the catchment and sub-catchment scales.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 3
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    Oxford, UK : Blackwell Publishing Ltd
    Water and environment journal 19 (2005), S. 0 
    ISSN: 1747-6593
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Energy, Environment Protection, Nuclear Power Engineering
    Notes: This paper describes design and construction of two new sea outfalls discharging from Gullane Waste Water Treatment Works (WwTW) to Aberlady Bay, on the south side of the Forth estuary (Firth of Forth), 25km east of Edinburgh, Scotland. The outfalls were installed by float and lower, using the Flow-Lay® technique, believed to be a first for steel pipes. The paper also describes air transport, beach movement and soil liquefaction and their effect on pipe stability, material and profile.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 4
    ISSN: 1747-6593
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Energy, Environment Protection, Nuclear Power Engineering
    Notes: The Environment Agency have proposed that daily flow volume discharged from small wastewater treatment works should be capable of being measured to an accuracy of ±8%, where the daily totalised flow volume is estimated to be greater than 5m3. It is estimated that every water company in the UK has several hundred small wastewater treatment works that will be required to be equipped with the capability of measuring the released daily totalised flow volume for specified periods. This paper investigates the feasibility of modifying existing dosing syphons, which are present within many of these works, to operate as flow measuring devices. Laboratory testing of a full-scale syphon demonstrated that by the addition of two water level detectors and a data logger to monitor the filling part of the syphon cycle, it is possible to accurately calculate the daily totalised flow volume within the Environment Agency’s proposed performance criteria.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 5
    ISSN: 1747-6593
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Energy, Environment Protection, Nuclear Power Engineering
    Notes: Some landfill site operators use wastewater treatment plants for the discharge of complex leachate waste. However, for the water company involved in managing the wastewater plant, leachates can pose a problem to the quality of the effluent, due to the high levels of Chemical Oxygen Demand (COD), ammonia and inorganic metal constituents. Electrochemical oxidation of landfill leachate has been successfully used by researchers(1,2,3,4) with current densities of 5 to 100 mA/cm2. A new laboratory system has been developed which utilises a low current density of 2.42 mA/cm2 and the performance has been evaluated with synthetic and ’real’ landfill leachates from 2 wastewater sites.This system reduces COD of synthetic mixtures by 58%, with complete removal of ammonia. For real leachates, 5 out of 8 samples resulted in ammonia reduction, with 2 samples experiencing approximately. 60% COD reduction. Power costs for treatment have been determined and the potential for a full-scale installation considered.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 6
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    Oxford, UK : Blackwell Publishing Ltd
    Water and environment journal 19 (2005), S. 0 
    ISSN: 1747-6593
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Energy, Environment Protection, Nuclear Power Engineering
    Notes: Llangefni WwTW receives discharge from the rural town of Llangefni and the local industrial estate and to date this is the first and only BNR plant in Wales. The consents from March 2003 included a reduction in ammonia (NH4_N) to 1.5 mg/l, suspended solids to 20 mg/l (SS) and Biological Oxygen Demand (BOD) to 7 mg/l and included a new Phosphate (PO4_P) standard of 2 mg/l. The process selected to meet the new consents was Biological Nutrient Removal (BNR) and was unusual as it was for a small, rural wastewater treatment plant that receives about 26% of its flow from an industrial estate.During commissioning, the plant produced an average phosphate concentration of 1.0 mg/l and an ammonia concentration of 0.7 mg/l. It was confirmed that to achieve consistent phosphate removal a BOD:P ratio greater than 20:1 is required along with a high VFA (Volatile Fatty Acids) concentration of 200–300 mg/l.
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  • 7
    ISSN: 1747-6593
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Energy, Environment Protection, Nuclear Power Engineering
    Notes: The remarkable progress made in the early 20th century in improving the microbiological quality of municipal drinking water supplies is undoubtedly one of the most important factors contributing to the improved health and life expectancy of the developed world during that century. The paper highlights perceived milestones in the 19th and early 20th centuries in the scientific and technological developments in municipal water treatment practice, particularly in relation to the improvements in the chemical and biological quality of drinking water supplies. The paper concludes by summarizing key developments in the methods of measuring water quality and in the improvements in drinking water quality standards during that period.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 8
    ISSN: 1747-6593
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Energy, Environment Protection, Nuclear Power Engineering
    Notes: With the rapid expansion of development in Jordan, more water resources are being consumed and, consequently, incremental quantities of wastewater and sewage sludge are being generated from wastewater treatment plants. These quantities will end up in streams, open ponds or one of the other environmental media, which can cause adverse impacts on human health and the environment. In the mean while, a country like Jordan faces a remarkable shortage of fresh water resources and poor soil. The best way to mitigate the adverse impacts and compensate the water budget and enrich the poor soil is through the proper utilization and management of treated wastewater and sewage sludge in the agricultural sector. One of the main obstacles to this is public rejection of this solution, largely due to lack of information.The purpose of this paper was to examine the acceptability to the Jordanian farmers of the utilization of reclaimed wastewater and treated sewage sludge in their irrigation activities. The scope of this study considered two potential areas at the northern part of the country, where a representative sample of local farmers were interviewed. The results were very encouraging and positive signs of acceptability were shown at all levels. These results were analyzed and documented and the recommendations are developed at the end of this paper.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 9
    ISSN: 1747-6593
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Energy, Environment Protection, Nuclear Power Engineering
    Notes: Evaluation of drinking water quality for Jenln district in Palestine was carried out for the years 1997, 1998, and 1999, respectively. Only 53.1 %, 85.4% and 69.6% of the drinking water samples tested for free chlorine residual, total coliforms and faecal coliforms, respectively are within the limits of the Palestinian and International standards. The seasonal variation of bacteriological and chemical quality of drinking water was investigated. It was found out that the summer season has the best quality and the winter has the worst. There remains some ignorance in testing the drinking water in the villages and towns in Jenin district. Huge efforts are required to improve the drinking water quality in Jenin district, as well as other Palestinian districts, through public awareness, training of governmental Inspectors, in addition to a strict monitoring system for water quality.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 10
    ISSN: 1747-6593
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Energy, Environment Protection, Nuclear Power Engineering
    Notes: A floating reed bed was Installed on a lowland eutrophic reservoir, replacing ferrous chloride dosing as a method of phosphate reduction. Since the study was undertaken on an active water supply reservoir, this technique was further supported by the use of submerged barley straw applications on the downstream reservoir to limit algal growth. The study examined algal, chlorophyll a, phosphate and nitrate levels in both the source water and the treated through-How to measure the effectiveness of phosphate reduction and algal control during the maturation phase of the bed. The results show that although not as effective as chemical dosing, total phosphate levels were reduced across the reservoir body and algal numbers were typically restricted to levels suitable for treatment at the receiving water treatment works. It Is concluded that although the study did not coincide with Ideal climatic conditions for prolific algal growth, the adopted techniques demonstrated significant potential as components of a holistic management approach for eutrophic waters.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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